Canadian Patents Database / Patent 1221539 Summary

Third-party information liability

Some of the information on this Web page has been provided by external sources. The Government of Canada is not responsible for the accuracy, reliability or currency of the information supplied by external sources. Users wishing to rely upon this information should consult directly with the source of the information. Content provided by external sources is not subject to official languages, privacy and accessibility requirements.

Claims and Abstract availability

Any discrepancies in the text and image of the Claims and Abstract are due to differing posting times. Text of the Claims and Abstract are posted:

  • At the time the application is open to public inspection;
  • At the time of issue of the patent (grant).
(12) Patent: (11) CA 1221539
(21) Application Number: 440943
(54) English Title: FUEL COMPOSITIONS
(54) French Title: CARBURANT LIQUIDE COMPOSITE
(52) Canadian Patent Classification (CPC):
  • 44/12
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • C10L 1/02 (2006.01)
  • C10L 1/00 (2006.01)
  • C10L 1/06 (2006.01)
  • C10L 1/18 (2006.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • DERDERIAN, EDMOND J. (United States of America)
(73) Owners :
  • UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION (United States of America)
(71) Applicants :
(74) Agent: HOPLEY, WILLIAM G.
(45) Issued: 1987-05-12
(22) Filed Date: 1983-11-10
(30) Availability of licence: N/A
(30) Language of filing: English

(30) Application Priority Data:
Application No. Country/Territory Date
448,280 United States of America 1982-12-09

English Abstract



-24-
ABSTRACT


A phase-stable aqueous gasoline/ethanol
fuel composition containing an additional alcohol
selected from the group consisting or n-butanol,
2-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol,
3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pentanol, and mixtures
thereor, as well as a method for producing said fuel
composition.


Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


-20-

THE CLAIMS ARE

1. A phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol
fuel composition consisting essentially of gasoline, water,
ethanol and iso-butanol, wherein the amount of water and
ethanol present in said composition is equivalent to said
composition containing a hydrous ethanol having a proof of
from about 188 to about 199 in an amount ranging from about
1 to about 12 weight percent and wherein the amount of iso-
butanol present in said composition ranges from about 2 to
about 4 weight percent, the remainder of said composition
consisting essentially of said gasoline, said composition
further having a cloud point of about -8°C. or below and a
(R+M)/2 octane rating above both that of the gasoline
employed as well as above that of a non-aqueous mixture
of said gasoline and an amount of ethanol equal to the
amount of ethanol present in said composition.

2. A composition as defined in claim 1, wherein
the gasoline has a (R+M)/2 octane rating of from about 75
to about 89 and an aromatic content of from about 10 to about
50 percent by volume.

3. A composition as defined in claim 2, wherein
the gasoline has an aromatic content of from about 20 to
about 40 percent by volume and the amount of ethanol and



-21-
water present in said composition is equivalent to hydrous
ethanol having a proof ranging from about 188 to about 193
in an amount ranging from about 8 to about 11 weight percent.

4. A composition as defined in claim 3, wherein
the amount of ethanol and water present is equivalent to
hydrous ethanol having a proof of about 190 and wherein the
amount of iso-butanol is about 3 weight percent.

5. A method for preparing a phase-stable aqueous
gasoline-ethanol fuel composition for use in internal com-
bustion engines, said composition having a cloud point of
about -8°C. or below, a (R+M)/2 octane rating above both
that of the gasoline employed as well as above that of a
non-aqueous mixture of said gasoline and an amount of ethanol
equal to the amount of ethanol present in said composition,
which comprises mixing gasoline, water and ethanol, with
iso-butanol, wherein the amount of water and ethanol present
in said composition is equivalent to said composition con-
taining a hydrous ethanol having a proof of from about 188
to about 199 in an amount ranging from about 1 to about 12
weight percent and wherein the amount of iso-butanol present
in said composition ranges from about 2 to about 4 weight
percent, the remainder of said composition consisting
essentially of said gasoline.



-22-

6. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein
the gasoline has a (R+M)/2 octane rating of from about
75 to about 89 and an aromatic content of from about 10
to about 50 percent by volume.

7. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein
the gasoline has an aromatic content of from about 20
to about 40 percent by volume and the amount of ethanol
and water present in said composition is equivalent to
hydrous ethanol having a proof ranging from about 188
to about 193 in an amount ranging from about 8 to 11
weight percent.

8. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein
the amount of ethanol and water present in said composi-
tion is equivalent to hydrous ethanol having a proof of
about 190 and wherein the amount of iso-butanol is about
3 weight percent.

9. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein the
ethanol and water are employed in the form of hydrous
ethanol.

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.

122~ ~39


FUEL COMPOSITIONS

8rief Summary of the Invention

Technical Field
This invention pertains to highly phase-
stable gasoline-alcohol fuel compositions ~or use in
internal combustion engines and to a ~ethod for
~reparing said compositions.
~ack~rouna of_the Invention
There is always a need to improve the
qu~lity and perfor~ance of motor gasoline.
Particular beneficial improvement~ desired include,
e.g. lower cost, increased fuel economy, higher
octane rating ~anti-knock quality), and decreased
exhaust emissions.
For instance, the use of absolute ethanol
(Z00 proof et~anol) ~5 a fuel component and octane
improver in blends with gasoline is well known in
the art, as seen e.g. by commercial ~gasohol~ which
consists essentially o~ a 90/10 volume percent blend
of gasoline and absolute ethanol. ~owever, ~uel
composition blends of ga~oline and e~hanol are very
sensitive to water contamination and in general have
heretofore exhibited a very limited phase stability
tolerance for water, psrticularly at low
temperatures of ~bout 0C and below. ~oreover, it
~8 well known that ~uch phase separation into a
ga~oline-rich phase and an ethanol-water phase can
re~ult ~nd lead to severe ~nternal combustion en~ine
operation problems, e.g. stalling, ~uel line
~reez~ng, and the like. Such phase separation
probability i~ believed to be the primary reason


13528

~21~ii39


that the only commercially available
gasoline-ethanol uel compositions are those
prepared using absolute ethanol instea~ of hydrous
ethanol. horeover while a gasol~ne-ethanol fuel
composition producer may take precautions to avoid
phase separation by excluding water during the
production, storage and distribution o~ such fuel
composi~ions, there is little, i~ anything, that can
be done by the producer to avoid water contamination
during the retail marketing and/or individual use or
such fuel compositions.
Consequently, the discovery of
gasoline-ethanol fuel compositions having improved
phase stability tolerances to water over a wi~e
temperature range such as those that woula have
cloud points o~ 0C or below, while at the same time
having octane ratings above that of the gasoline
employed, would obviously be or no small importance
to the çtate or the ~rt. Such superior phase-stable
fuel compositions would permit the use oS hydrous
ethanol instead of absolute eth~nol in the
~roduction o~ said fuel compositions and such an
accomplishment in itself~would lead to a wide
variety of obvious benef~ts, not the least of which
is the fact that the production o~ hydrous ethanol
is less energy-intensiYe than the production of
absolute ethanol and thus is rar easier and much
less expensive to produce.
Indeed, the search for phase-sta~le
gasoline-hydrous e~hanol fuel composition~ ~uitable
for u~e in internal combustion engines ha~ been a
long and constant one in the art as seen e.g. by the
following prior nrt.


13528

,

~22~39


U.S. Patents 4,207,076 and 4,207,077 are
directed tO fuel compositions consisting of a major
~mount of gasoline, a minor amount of 190 proof
ethanol and an alkyl-t-butyl ether as a cosolvent.
U.S. Patent 3,B22,119 is directed to an
Anti~pollution, anti-~nock ~uel composition
comprising a mixture of gasoline~ wate~ and an
alcohol containing from 4 to 8 carbon atoms~ Sald
patent further discloses that additionally simple
alcohols such as methanol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl
or isopropyl can be employed as a solubilizing 3~ent.
A technical paper entitled ~Use of 95~
Ethanol in Mixtures With Gasoline~ by A. Schmidt, in
Comm. Eur. Communities tRep.] EUR June l9Bl, EUR
7091, Energy Biomass, Conf., 1st pp. 928-933 (Eng.)
is directed to gasoline-95~ ethanol mixtures and
their phase stability at low temperatures as well as
to the use or propanols or butanols as co-solvent~.
Hydrocarbon Processing, May, 197g, pp. 127
to 138, contains an article ~Alcohols as ~otor
Fuels?~ by J. Xeller which discusses gasoline blends
of methanol and ethanol along with higher alcohol~
as a cosolvent to improv~ water tolerance (page 133).
U.S. Patent 2,1~4,021 is directed tO fuel
compositions for internal combustion engines
comprising a non-benzenoid hydrocarbon composition,
water, ethanol, ~nd as ~tabilizing agents therefore,
a saturated aliphatic ether and a higher alcohol, in
a quantity sufficient to maintaih a homogeneous
mixture or blend at sub-zero temperaturefi.
~ owever, none of the above prior art
re~erences is ~een to d~sclose an example of a
~ingle specific gasoline-ethanol fuel com~osition as
encompassed by the inv~ntion of this application,

13528

,

1221539


nor are said references seen to render obvious the
unique combination of phase stability and high
octane properties possessed by the fuel compositions
of this invention.
Disclosure of this Invention
Thus, it is an object of this invention to
provide novel phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethan~l
fuel compositions for use in internal combustion
engines, said compositions not only having a cloud
point of below 0~, but also having an octane rating
above both that of the gasoline employed as well as
above that of a comparable non-aqueous mixture of
said gasoline and ethanol. It is a further object
of this invention to provide a novel method
(process) for preparing said phase-stable agueous
gasoline-ethanol fuel compositions. Other objects
and advantages of this invention will become readily
apparent from the following description and appended
claims.
More specifically, this invention is
directed to a phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol
fuel composition consisting essentially of gasoline,
water, ethanol and an ad~itional alcohol selected
from the group consisting of n-butanol, 2-butanol,
iso-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol,
n-pentanol, and mixtures thereof, wherein the amount
of water and ethanol present in said composition is
equivalent to said composltion containing a hydrous
ethanol having a proof of from about 188 to about
199 in an amount ranging from about 1 to about 12
weight percent and wherein the amount of said
additional alcohol present in said composition
ranges from about 2 to about 4 weight percent, the
remainder of ~aid composition consisting essentially
of said gasoline, said composition further having a
13528

122~539

--5--
cloud point of about -8C or below an~ a (~ ~ M)/2
octane rating above both that o~ the gasoline
employed as well as above that or a non-aqueous
mixture of sald gasollne and an amount of ethznol
equal to the amount of ethanol present in saia
composition.
Alternatively, this invention may be
described as a method for preparing a phase-stable
aqueous gasoline-ethanol fuel composition for use in
internal combustion engines, said composition having
a cloud poinl o~ about -8C or below, a (R + M)/2
octane rating above both that of the gasoline
employed as well as above that of a nonaqueous
mixture or said gasoline and an amount o~ ethanol
e~ual to the amount of ethanol present in said
composition, which comprises mixing gasoline, water
and e~hanol, With an additional alcohol selected
~rom the group consisting o~ n-butanol, 2-butanol,
iso-butanol, 2-methyl-l~butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol,
n-pentanol, and mixtures thereof, wherein the amount
oP water and ethanol present in said composition is
equivalent to said composition containing a hydrous
ethanol having a proor or ~rom about 188 to about
199 in an amount ranging~from about 1 tO about 12
weight percent and wherein the amount or said
addition alcohol present in said composition ran~es
from about 2 to about 4 weight percent, the
remainder of said composition consisting essentially
of said gasoline.

Detailed Description
As noted herein above, the phase-stable
aqueous gasoline-ethanol fuel compositions of this
invention consist essentially of gasoline, water,
ethanol and an additional alcohol selected

13528

1~21539


from the gro~p consisting of n-butanol, 2-butanol,
iso-butanol 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol,
n-pentanol, and mixtures thereof.
It has been surprisingly discovered that by
mixing said composition components that a
phase-stable aqueous gasoline-ethanol ~uel
composition can ~e ~repared which has a cloud point
of about -8C or below and in addition a (R+M)/2
octane rating above both that of the gasoline
employea as well as above that of a non-aqueous
~gasohol~ type mixture of said gasoline and an
amount of ethanol equal to the amount o~ ethanol
present in said composition.
The gasoline com~onent emplo~able in the
fuel compositions of this invention may be any
conventionally known gasoline base stock, including
hydrocarbon fuel mixtures having a gasoline boiling
range of about 30C to aboue 215C. Methods ~or
obtaining such gasoline base stocks and hydrocarbon
mixtures are well known in the art and obviously
need not be enumerated herein. More speci~ically
the gasoline components employable in tbis invention
are those having an aromatic content o ~rom about
10 to about 50 percent b~ volume, pre~erably about
20 to about 40~ by volume. In addition, the more
prererred gasoline components have a (R + ~)/2
octane rating ranging ~rom about 75 to about 89,
although gasoline components haviny higher or lower
octane ratings may be employed, i~ desired.
Likewise, while leaded gasoline components may be
employed in this in~ention, it is more preferred to
e~ploy an unleaded gasoline component for obvious
anti-pollution reasons.


13528

.

~2;~539


~ hus in accordance with the present
invention gasoline, water and e~hanol are mixed with
an additional alcohol ~elected fro~ the group
consisting o~ n-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol,
2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-pentanol,
and mixtures thereof, the most pre~erred ad~itional
alcohol being iso-butanol.
The components o~ the fuel com~ositions o~
this inventio~ may be employed singularly or ~s
mixtures and mixed in any order using any mixing or
blending apparatus and technique desired.
The amount of water:and ethanol present in
the fuel composition o~ this invention i8 equal to
that amoun~ which would be equiva~ent to said
composition containing a hydrous ethanol having a
proo~ o~ ~rom about 188 to ~bout 199 in an amount
ranging from about 1 to about 12 weight percent.
Thus it is to be understood that while it would be
preferred to employ said ~ater and ethanol in the
form of such a hydrous ethanol in such amounts, the
fuel compositions of this invention can
alternatively be produced, if desired, using
anhydrous S200 proofJ et~anol, sufficient water
being provided ~y an alternative mean~ tO arrive at
~ fuel composition that would be equivalent to a
composition containing hydrous ethanol in the proo~
and amount desired by this invention. In general it
is pre~erred that the amount o~ water ~nd ethanol
present ln the fuel composition of this invention be
egu~valent to said com~osition oontaining a hydrous
ethanol having a proof of from ~bout 188 to ~bout
193 in ~n amount ranging from about B to about 11
weight percent and more pre~erably a hydrDus ethanol
having a proor of about 190 in an amount of about 10
weight percent.

13528

1~2~539


The amount of aaditional alcohol selected
from the group consisting of n-butanol, 2-butanol,
i~o-bu~anol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol,
n-pen~anol, ana mixtures thereof that may be present
in the ~uel composition or this invention may ranye
from about 2 to about 4 percent by weight. while
amounts 9f additional alcohol having above 4 percent
by weight can also lead ~o fuel compositions having
a cloud point of ~bout -8C or below, such higher
amounts are no~ necessary to achieve the desired
results of the subject invention and thus are
considered to be economically waste~ul.
horeover, it is to be understood that while
selection of the various fuel composition component
amounts required to achieve the results desired will
be dependent upon one's experience in the
utilization or the ~ubject invention, only fi ~inimum
measure o~ experimentation ~hould be necessary in
order to ascertain those component amounts which
will be su~icient to procuce the desired results
~or any given situation.
~ oreo~er, while the remainde~ of the fuel
composition in addition ~o said above-discussed
water, ethanol and addi~onal ~lcohol component~
consists essentially of 8aid gasoline component, it
is of course to be understood that the fuel
composition m~y, if desired, contain 0 to about 0.1
weight percent of any ~uitable conventional
eorrosion inhibitor, metal deactivator or
antioxidant.
As employed herein and as well known in the
art, ~(R + M)/2X represents the Suel composition's
octane number or r~tin~ which is calculated by
~veraging the sum of ~id fuel composition's

13528

1221539


research sctane number (RON), measured according to
ASTM Method D2699 ~nd its motor octane number (~ON),
measured according to ASTM Method D2700. As further
employed herein the term ~cloud pointn represents
that temperature in degrees Centigrade at which the
~uel composition changes from a clear and
transparent fluid to one which i~ cloudy.
The subject invention is indeed unique and
beneficial in that it allows for highly phase-seable
gasoline-et~anol fuel compositions ~uitable ~or use
in conventional non-dual injection spark-ignition
internal combustion engines ~o be pre~ared utilizing
hydrous ethanol. The ~uel compositions of this
invention possess thermodynamic stability over a
wide r2nge o~ temperatures as low as about -BC or
below. Moreover the ability eo employ hydrous
ethanol, the production of which is le~s
energy-intensive than anhydrous ethanol, eliminates
the economic~l need o~ costly distillation
requirements attendant to the production of
anhydrous ethanol from renewable, non-petroleum
sources, thus providing a highly economical ~nd
easily preparable fuel b~end. At the same time the
subject invention allows~for the use of anhydrous
(200 proo~) ethanol in the refinery as an octane
additive to the gasoline, since detrimental phase
separation problems which can be caused by
contamination w$th even ~mall amounts of water may
be overcome by the make-up of the fuel composition
30 Of thiB invention.
In addition to such excellent thermodyna~ic
~tability~ fuel compositions of thi~ invention have
been found to posses~ ~ (R ~ ~)/2 octane rating
above not only that of the gasoline employed, but

13528

~22~53~

--10--
also ~bove that of a non-aqueous ~gasohol~ type
mixture of said gasoline and an amount or et~anol
equal to the amount of ethanol present in said fuel
composition. Thus the ~ubject invention offers a
means for improving the octane rating ~anti-knock
quality) of not only gasoliné, but gasohol as well.
Further evidence has been found to indicate that the
fuel compositions of this invention may provide
excellent fuel economy which ~uggest~ decreased
exhaust emissions as well.
The following examples are illustrative of
the present invention and are not to be regarded as
limitative. It i~ to be understood that ~11 of the
parts, percentages and proportions referred to
herein and in the appended claims are by weight
unless otherwise noted.
EXAMPLES i-3
Three series o~ ~uel compositions were
prepared in which the amount of gasoline, the amount
of water and the amount of ethanol were maintained
constant while a constant amount of dif~ercnt
additional alcohols was mixed with the base
composition. Tne gasoli~e employed in each instance
was an unleaded gasoline wh$ch had a tR I M)~2
octane rating of about 87 and contained about 30~ by
volume of aromatic3, while the Amount o~ water and
ethanol employed in each instance was equivalent to
employing about 191 proof ethanol. The additional
~lcohols employed in each instance were n-butanol,
iso-butanol, t-butanol, n-pentanol, and a mixture of
pri~ary amyl alcohols (~nalysis: about 98.7 wt. ~
tot~l ~myl alcohol; about 66.14 wt. ~ n-pentanol and
aboue 32.56 wt. ~ 2-methyl-1-butanol ~nd


13528

1221539


3-methyl-1-butanol~. In one series (Example 2J
about 86.0 grams of gasoline, about 10.0 grams of
anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol and about 0.6 grams of
water were mixeo with about 2.0 grams of the
additional alcohol. In like manner the two
additional series or fuel compositions were
prepared, Example 1 using about 43.0 grams of
gasoline, about 5.0 grams of anhydrous (200 proo~)
ethanol, about 0.3 grams o~ water and about 0.5
~0 grams o~ the aaditional alcohol and Example 3 using
about 43.0 grams of gasoline, about 5.0 grams of
anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol, about 0.3 grams of
water and about 1.5 grams of the adaitional
alcohol. ~ithout tne additional alcohol the
- 15 equivalent gasoline/anhxdrous (200 proof)
- ethanol/water mixture had a cloud point o~ 14C.
The cloud points o~ the resultiny compositions were
then measured and are recorded below.
ExamDle 1 Examole 2 Example 3
Cloud point (C) Cloud point lC) Cloud point (C)
of 88.12 wt.~ o~ 87.22wt.~ o~ 86.35 wt. ~
gasoline, 10.25 gasoline, 10.14 gasoline, 10.04
wt.~ 200 etha- wt.~ 200 etha- wt.~ 200 etha-
nol, 0.61wt.% nol, 0.61wt.~ nol, 0.60 wt.
water, 1.02wt.~ water, 2.03wt.~ water, 3.01 wt.
A¢ditional additional ~ additional additional
Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol
n-butanol -7 -20 -41
iso-butanol -3 -19 -35
30 t-butanol 8 5 -3
n-pentanol -6 -25 -43
mixture of primary
amyl alcohols -5 -22 -40
Note that the t-butanol failed to provide a cloud point or
-BC. even at the 3.0 weight percent level.
EXA11PLE 4
A systematic study was performed on the
temperature stability of four ~uel compositions

13528

122~539

-12
consisting of an unleaded gasoline having a (R ~
M)/2 octane rating of about 87 and containing about
30~ by volume of aromatics, ~aid composition also
con~aining ethanol, water and an additional alcohol
~elected rrom the group consisting of n-butanol,
iso-butanol, n-pentanol and a mixture or primary
amyl ~lcohols (analys$s: about 98.7 wt ~ total ~myl
alcohol; about 66.14 wt. 8 n-pentanol and about
32.56 wt. X 2-methyl-1-butanol and
3-methyl-l-butanol). The procedure was as follows.
First to 42.76 gr~ms o the base gasoline was added
5.24 grams of 200 proor denatured ethanol. The
ethanol used was denatured with 4.54 weight percent
or the same gasoline used, thus in er~ect one
started out with 43 grams o~ gasoline and 5 gr~ms of
ethanol. To the gasoline/ethanol mixture was added
1 gram of the additional alcohol and enough water so
that the contained ethanol/water would correspond to
191 proof ethanol ~nd the cloud point of the
compositions determined. ~hen more water was added
~o that the ethanol/water contained would correspond
to 190 proof ethanol And the cloud points determined
again. Then keeping the~contained ethanol/water at
190 proof, another 0.5 grams os the additional
2S alcohol was added and the cloud points measure~
again~ Then more water was added so that the
contained ethanol/water corresponded to 189 proof
ethanol and the cloud points measured again. ~elow
are the reported results of said measured cloud
points and eheir relation~hip to the amount and type
of ~dditional alcohol employed and to the
corresponding ethanol proof of the ethanol/water
contained in each composition.


13528

~22~L~;39

-13-
~t ~
Additional Additional Ethanol Cloud
AlcoholAlcohol Proo~ Point, C.
n-butanol 2.0 191 -20C
n-butanol 2.0 190 - 9C
n^butanol 3.0 190 -25C
n-butanol 3.0 189 -13C
iso-bu~anol2.0 191 -19C
iso-butanol2.0 lgO -~C
iso-butanol3.0 190 -23C
iso-butanol3.0 189 -11C
n-pentanol 2.0 191 -25C
n-pentanol 2.0 190 -13C
n-pentanol 3.0 190 -32C
n-pentanol. 3.0 ~89 -17C
mixture of primary
amyl alcohol~ 2.0 . 191 -22C
mixture of primary
amyl alcohols 2.0 190 -10C
mixture of primary
amyl alcohols 3.0 190 -26C
~ixture of ~rimary
amyl alcohol~ 3.0 1~9 -15C
The ~bove data shows that at constant
amount o~ water and constant amount o~ contained
25 ethanol~water (i.e. ethanol proo~), the cloud point
decreased with the amount of additional alcohol
added. Also at constant amount or additional
alcohol, the cloud point increased with increasing
amounts of water.

EXA~PLE S
Three fuel compositions designated G~,
G6 and G7, each containing about R6.3 weight
percent gasoline, about 10.7 weight percent o~ 190
proof ethanol ~nd about 3.0 weight percent of an
35 additional alcohol were prepared and evaluated
ver~us unleaded ga~ol~ne and ~gasohol~ (90/10~ by
volume mixture of gasoline and anhydrous t200 proof)
ethanol) in ter~ of their research octane number


13528

i.

21539


-14-
(RON) and motor octane number (MON). Designated
fuel composition G5 employed a mixture of primary
amyl alcohols (analysis: about 98.7 wt. ~ total
amyl alcohol; about 66.14 wt. ~ n-pentanol and about
32.56 wt. ~ 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-
butanol) an~ had a cloud point o~ -26C, designated
fuel composition G6 employed n-butanol and had a
cloud point of -25C, while designate~ fuel
composition G7 employed iso-butanol and ha~ a
cloud point of -23C. A fuel composition designated
G8 and containing about 84.53 wt. ~ or gasoline,
about 10.71 wt. ~ of 188 proof ethanol and about
4.76 wt. ~ of a mixture of primary amyl alcohols
~analysis: about 98.7 wt. ~ of total amyl alcohol;
about 66.14 wt. ~ n-pentanol and about 32.56 wt. ~
2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol) was also
prepared, said designated fuel composition having a
cloud point o~ -26C. All four said designated
compositions and the gasohol were prepared using the
same unleaded gasoline base fuel which contained
about 30 percent aromatics by volume. Then all ~our
designated fuel compositions were evaluated versus
the unleaded gasoline em~loyed and ~gasohol~ (90/10
by volume mixture of sai~ gasoline and anhydrous
(200 proof) ethanol~ in terms of their research
octane number (RON) and motor octane number ~ON).
The octane me~surements were performed on standard
test equipment using ASTM ~ethod D 2699 to measu~e
RON and AS~M Method D 2700 to measure MON. The (R
M)/2 octane rating for each fuel was calculated by
~eraging the values of RON and MON. The octane
numbers measured were as follows:



13528

,


-15- ~221539
F _ RON MON (R ~ M)/2_
Unleaded Gasoline 89.4 84.2 86.8
Gasonol 95.4 86.2 90.8
G5 - 96.9 86.6 91.B
5 G6 95.7 86.3 91.0
G7 96.7 86.8 91.8
G8 95.7 86.0 90.8
Said data snows that the (R + M)/2 octane
values of ruels G5, G6 and G7 or this
invention are much nigner than the corresponding
value for the base unleaded gasoline ana are also
higher than the correspondin~ value ~or the
~gasonol" tested, while ruel G8, not of this
invention, did not have a (R+~)/2 value above that
of the "gasonol~. Moreover an evaluation of the
physical properties of fuel composition G7 showed
that it meets all of the standard specifications ror
automotive gasoline (ASTM D439) with tne exc~ption
of the 50 percent distillation point whicn should
not be ~elow 170F.

EXA~PLE 6
The same unleaded gasoline, ~gasohol~ and
G5, G6, G7 and G8 fuel com~ositions employed
in Example 5 above were also evaluaeed ~or ruel
economy. The fuel economy measurements were
oDtained on a dynanome~er-mountea 2.3 liter
4-cylinder Ford Pinto engine using a test procedure
optimized tO detect small dlfSerences in fuel
consumption. The fuel economy was measured at five
30 engine opera~in~ conditions described in terms oS
RP~ (revolutions per minute) and hHP (brake
horsepower). Engine parameters, SUCh as
spark-timing, were set in sucn a way as to obtain
optimum performance with the base unleaded gasoline
35 fuel.

13528

1~2153~

-16-
Tne percent change (gain or loss) in fuel
economy based on an average or twenty runs for each
RPM/ HP operating mode conducted for the same period
of time for each fuel in terms of the ~uel
consum~tion o~ the gasohol, G5, G6, G7 and
G8 fuels versus that of tne base unleaded gasoline
is reported below.
% Change in Fuel
Econom~ Over Base
Unleaded Gasoline
Operating ~ode ------------Fuels------------
RPM/BHP Gasohol Gs G6 G7 G8
_
1000/0.25 0.7** 0.6** 1.0* 1.7***0.7**
1750/4.8 0.6** 3.2**~* 0.7* 1.0***0.6***
15 ~750/9.6 0.6*~* 2.2**~* 0.2* 0.2** 2.8****
2500/17.5 -0.4** 0.9~* 0.2* 1.6**** 1.2****
2500/21.2 -0.4** 0.0* -0.1* 0.3** -1.8*~**
* Statistical signi~icance at less than 90 percent
probability level.
~0 ** Sratistical signiricance at the 90 percent
probabillty level.
*** Statistical significance at the 95 ~ercent
probability level.
**~* Statistical significance at ~he 99 percent
probability level.
Said data indicates that the G5, G6 and
G7 fuel compositions of this invention provlde~
better fuel economy than tne base unleaaed gasoline
while that or the G5 and G7 fuel com~osition was
even clearly better than that of the gasohol. ~hile
said laboratory test ~rocedure can be used only to
determine relative fuel consumption or various
fuels, ~ucn procedures are satisfactory for base
comparisons and screening purposes. Moreove~, the
higher octane numbers or the G5, G6 and G7

13528

.

12~:1539

-17-
fuel compositions shown in Example 5 cuggest that
optimizing t~e spark-timing ot the engine to take
~dvantage of the higher (R ~ M)/2 octane ratings
could result in further lowering the ~uel
5 consumption of said compositions relative to the
base unleaded gasoline by a signi~icant amount
thereby evidencing an even greater gain in ~uel
economy.
~X~PLE 7
The ~ollPwing series or fuel compositions
were prepared employing an unleaded gasoline that
haa a (X + M)/2 octane rating of about 87 and
contained a~out 30 percent aromatics by volu~e and
their cloud points determined.
Composition A
85.44 wt. * gasoline
10.60 wt. ~ 190 proo~ ethanol
3.96 wt. ~ iso-butanol
Cloud Point -35C.
Composition B
86.3 wt. ~ gasoline
10.7 wt. ~ 190 proof ethanol
3.0 ~t. ~ 2-but~nol
Cloud~Point - 10C.
An early cloud point determination o~ the
same Composition a gave a reading of -3C, however,
said ex~eriment is considered to have been
inaccurate due to additional water contained in t~e
2-butanol ~ample.
Composition C
86.1 wt. ~ gasoline
11.0 wt. ~ 190 proof eth~nol
2.9 wt. ~ mixture of 15~ iso-butan
85~ n-butanol
Cloud Point - 20C.

13528


1221539
-18-
Com~osition D
85.25 wt. ~ gasoline
10.90 wt. ~ 190 proof ethanol
3.85 wt. ~ ~ixture of 15~ iso-butanol
and 35~ n-bueanol
5 - Cloud Point - 27C.
~ he water content in said Composition D was
increased first to effect a composition h~ving 189
proof ethanol and then to e~fect a composition
having 188 proo~ ethanol. The cloud points ot these
new compositions were now -24C. and -14C.
respectively.
Composition E
85.25 wt. ~ gasoline
10.90 wt. ~ 190 proof ethanol
3. B5 wt. ~ n-butanol
Cloud Point - 35C.
Composition F
85.25 wt. ~ gasoline
10.90 wt. ~ lgO proof ethanol
29 3.85 wt. ~ n-pentanol
Cloud Point ~ C.
Composition G
85.25 wt. ~ ~asoline
10.90 wt. ~ 190 ~roof ethanol
3.B~wt. ~ mixture of primary
amyl alcohol~ (analysis: about
99.6 wt. ~ total amyl alcobol;
61.2 wt. ~ n-pentanol and 4bout
38.4 wt. ~ 2-methyl-1-butanol
and 3-methyl-1-butanol)
Cloud Point ^ 35C.
Another cloud ~oint determination of the
~ame composition using a crude mixture of primary
~myl alcohols gave ~ cloud point of -27C.
ComDosition H
86.08 wt. ~ gasoline
11.01 w~. ~ 190 proof ethanol


13528


1221539
-19-

2.91 wt. ~ mixture of primarya~yl alcohols (same ~nalysis as
in composition G.)
Cloud Point - lBC.
comPosition I
85.12 wt. ~ gasoline
11.04 wt. 4 18~ proof ethanol
3.84 wt. S mixture o~ ~rimary
amyl alcohols (same analysis
as in Example 4
Cloud Point -11C.

EXAMPLE 8
A ~eries o fuel compositions were prepared
using a gasoline ha~ing A ~R.+ ~)/2 octane rating o~
about 87 ~nd containing ~bout 30 percent aromatics
by volume, anhydrous (200 proot~ ~thanol and
i~o-butanol wherein the amount or water wa~ varied
to effect different proof~ o~ ethanol. The results
of said experi~ents are given below.
200 Rroof Iso- Effected
Gasoline ~thanol Wate~ butanol Proof o~ Cloud
Wt. ~ Wt. t Wt. ~ Wt. ~ ~thanol Pt., C.
90.62 5.19 0.35 3.85 189.9 -33
9~.58 5.19 0.38 3.85 189.1 -23
90.53 5.19 0.4~ 3.84 187.5 -14
90.49 5.18 0.48 3.84 186.4 20
Various modifications and variations o~
this inven~ion will be obviou~ to a worker ~killed
in the ~rt and it is to be understood that such
modifications and variation3 are to be included
within the purview o~ this application ~nd the
s~irit and scope of the appended claims.




1352~
.

Sorry, the representative drawing for patent document number 1221539 was not found.

For a clearer understanding of the status of the application/patent presented on this page, the site Disclaimer , as well as the definitions for Patent , Administrative Status , Maintenance Fee  and Payment History  should be consulted.

Admin Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date 1987-05-12
(22) Filed 1983-11-10
(45) Issued 1987-05-12
Expired 2004-05-12

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Filing $0.00 1983-11-10
Current owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Current Owners on Record
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION
Past owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Past Owners on Record
None
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.

To view selected files, please enter reCAPTCHA code :




Filter Download Selected in PDF format (Zip Archive)
Document
Description
Date
(yyyy-mm-dd)
Number of pages Size of Image (KB)
Drawings 1993-07-20 1 8
Claims 1993-07-20 3 89
Abstract 1993-07-20 1 10
Cover Page 1993-07-20 1 16
Description 1993-07-20 19 711