Symbol of the Government of Canada


Patent Document Number: 2394068

(54) English Title: METHOD FOR REMEDIATION OF AQUIFERS

(54) French Title: PROCEDE DE BIORESTAURATION D'AQUIFERES


Claims:

Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.



We claim:


1. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done, and if
so, pretreating the aquifer,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment,
and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the growth of
microorganisms,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if so,
post- treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contaminants in the
aquifer are selected from the group consisting of halogenated organic
compounds,
inorganic compounds that may be degraded through anaerobic processes, and
soluble
compounds that may be immobilized to form insoluble compounds.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises a
food-grade, slowly soluble, emulsified oil substrate.

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the pretreatment comprises
pretreatment of
certain portions of the aquifer with a chemical agent selected from the group
consisting
of agents that reduce sorption of the oil microemulsion by the aquifer
material, and agents
that reduce entrapment of the oil microemulsion by the aquifer material.

5. The method according to claim 4, wherein the chemical agent is an
emulsifier.
6. The method according to claim 4, wherein the chemical agent is a salt
selected
from the group consisting of calcium, sodium and phosphate salts.

7. The method according to claim 4, wherein the pretreatment further
comprises injecting an oil microemulsion, and then water, after pretreatment
with the



23


chemical agent.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the selected amount of the
oil microemulsion is determined using groundwater velocity, concentration of
contaminants
and competing electron acceptors, known ratios of oil to other compounds
required
for biodegradation, a preferred concentration of the oil microemulsion, and a
length of
time for the treatment to last.

9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an emulsifier.

10. The method according to claim 9, wherein the emulsifier is non-toxic, is
capable of forming stable oil-in-water microemulsions under the environmental
conditions
present at the aquifer site, and is characterized in that its sorption and
attachment to the
sediment in the aquifer can be controlled to move through the aquifer at a
desired rate.
11. The method according to claim 9, wherein the ratio of emulsifier to oil in
the oil
microemulsion is 1:3 to 1.10.

12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the oil microemulsion is mixed
with
water.

13. The method according to claim 12, wherein the ratio of oil microemulsion
to water
is 1:3 to 1:10.

14. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size
to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done, and if so,
pretreating the aquifer.,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment,
wherein the aquifer is treated using a permeable reactive barrier
perpendicular to flow and transport of dissolved groundwater contamination
in the aquifer,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if so,
post-treating the aquifer, and

24


e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

15. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done, and if so,
pretreating the aquifer,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein
the
aquifer is treated using a permeable reactive barrier perpendicular to flow
and
transport of dissolved groundwater contamination in the aquifer,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if so, post-
treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been accomplished,
wherein the monitoring comprises collecting data indicating that: (1) the
contaminants are degraded to required levels; (2) there is little bypassing of
contaminants around the barrier, (3) the permeability changes in the aquifer
surrounding the injection wells are within acceptable ranges; and (4) there
are
acceptable rates of substrate depletion in the barrier.

16. The method according to claim 1, wherein the contaminant is from a source
area
and is in a plume having an areal extent, and the aquifer is treated by
distributing
the oil microemulsion across the areal extent of the plume or source area to
effect an
immediate remediation throughout the aquifer.

17. The method according to claim 1, wherein the aquifer is treated by
injecting the oil
microemulsion through an end of a direct push point as the push point is
withdrawn,
forming a borehole, using injection flow rates adjusted to ensure that there
is at
least 10 psi of pressure buildup in the borehole.

18. The method according to claim 1, wherein the aquifer is treated by
injecting the oil
microemulsion using a temporary well installed in a borehole.

19. The method according to claim 1, wherein the aquifer is treated with the
oil


microemulsion in injection wells using injection flow rates adjusted to ensure
that there
is at least 10 psi of pressure buildup in each injection well.

20. The method according to claim 1, wherein post-treatment of the aquifer
comprises a post-treatment pulse of emulsifier.

21. The method according to claim 20, further comprising addition of water to
the
aquifer.

22. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising treating the aquifer
with a
selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size less
than the
mean pore size of the sediment, and in which the oil microemulsion acts to
stimulate the growth of microorganisms.

23. The method according to claim 22, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises
an edible oil.

24. The method according to claim 22, wherein the microemulsion is an emulsion

having an average droplet size of approximately 1 micron in diameter.

25. The method according to claim 22, wherein the microemulsion is an emulsion

having an average droplet size that does not exceed approximately 1 micron in
diameter.

26. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size
to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising treating the aquifer with a
selected
amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size less than the
mean pore
size of the sediment, wherein the oil has been modified by hydrogenation to
reduce
aqueous solubility and increase melting point.

27. The method according to claim 22, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an
emulsifier.

28. The method according to claim 27, wherein the emulsifier is non-toxic, is
capable
of forming oil-in-water emulsions under the environmental conditions present
at the
aquifer site, and is characterized in that its sorption and attachment to the
sediment in
the aquifer can be controlled to move through the aquifer at a desired rate.

29. The method according to claim 27, wherein the ratio of emulsifier to oil
in the
26


oil microemulsion is 1:3 to 1:10.

30. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) creating an emulsified mixture comprised of oil, water, and one or more
emulsifiers, wherein said mixture has a mean droplet size less than the mean
pore size of the sediment, and in which the emulsified mixture acts to
stimulate the growth of microorganisms, and

b) injecting said mixture into the aquifer.

31. The method according to claim 30, wherein the oil is an edible oil.

32. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, and
in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the growth of
microorganisms, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

33. The method according to claim 32, wherein the oil microemulsion
comprises an edible oil.

34. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein
the oil has been modified by hydrogenation to reduce aqueous solubility
and increase melting point, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

27


35. The method according to claim 32, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an emulsifier.

36. The method according to claim 35, wherein the emulsifier is non-toxic, is
capable of forming oil-in-water microemulsions under the environmental
conditions
present at the aquifer site, and is characterized in that its sorption and
attachment to the
sediment in the aquifer can be controlled to move through the aquifer at a
desired rate.
37. The method according to claim 35, wherein the ratio of emulsifier to oil
in
the oil microemulsion is 1:3 to 1:10.

38. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, and
in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the growth of
microorganisms.

39. The method according to claim 38, wherein the oil microemulsion
comprises an edible oil.

40. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein
the oil has been modified by hydrogenation to reduce aqueous solubility and
increase melting point.

41. The method according to claim 38, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an emulsifier.

42. The method according to claim 41, wherein the emulsifier is non-toxic, is
capable
of forming stable oil-in-water microemulsions under the environmental
conditions present
at the aquifer site, and is characterized in that its sorption and attachment
to the
sediment in the aquifer can be controlled to move through the aquifer at a
desired rate.
28


43. The method according to claim 41, wherein the ratio of emulsifier to oil
in the oil
microemulsion is 1:3 to 1:10.

44. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size
to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of treating the
aquifer
with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size
less than
the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil has been modified by
hydrogenation
to reduce aqueous solubility and increase melting point.

45. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment,
and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the growth of
microorganisms, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

46. The method according to claim 45, wherein the oil microemulsion
comprises an edible oil.

47. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein
the oil has been modified by hydrogenation to reduce aqueous solubility and
increase melting point, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

48. The method according to claim 45, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an
emulsifier.

49. The method according to claim 48, wherein the emulsifier is non-toxic, is
capable
29


of forming stable oil-in-water microemulsions under the environmental
conditions present
at the aquifer site, and is characterized in that its sorption and attachment
to the sediment
in the aquifer can be controlled to move through the aquifer at a desired
rate.

50. The method according to claim 48, wherein the ratio of emulsifier to oil
in the oil
microemulsion is 1:3 to 1:10.

51. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size
to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, and
in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the growth of
microorganisms

52. The method according to claim 51, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises
an
edible oil.

53. The method according to claim 51, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises
an oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil, corn oil, canola
oil, olive oil,
peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, rape oil, fish oil, butter and animal
tallow.

54. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein
the oil has been modified by hydrogenation to reduce aqueous solubility
and increase melting point.

55. The method according to claim 51, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an emulsifier.

56. The method according to claim 55, wherein the emulsifier is non-toxic, is
capable of forming stable oil-in-water microemulsions under the environmental
conditions
present at the aquifer site, and is characterized in that its sorption and
attachment to the
sediment in the aquifer can be controlled to move through the aquifer at a
desired rate.


57. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having
an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein
the oil microemulsion is formed using an emulsifier, and wherein the
emulsifier is selected from the group consisting of lecithin, milk solids,
carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean gum, karaya gum, zanthan gum, pectin,
polysorbate, and phosphates.

58. The method according to claim 55, wherein the ratio of emulsifier to oil
in the oil
microemulsion is 1:3 to 1:10.

59. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising treating the
aquifer with a
selected amount of an edible oil microemulsion having an average droplet size
less
than the mean pore size of the sediment, and in which the oil microemulsion
acts to
stimulate the growth of microorganisms.

60. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size
to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an edible oil
microemulsion having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size
of the sediment, and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the
growth of microorganisms, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

61. The method according to claim 1, wherein said oil microemulsion acts as a
carbon
substrate and an electron donor.

62. The method according to claim 1, wherein said oil microemulsion acts as a
carbon
substrate.

63. The method according to claim 1, wherein said oil microemulsion acts as an
31


electron donor.

64. The method according to claim 22, wherein said oil microemulsion acts as
a carbon substrate and electron donor.

65. The method according to claim 22, wherein said oil microemulsion acts as
a carbon substrate.

66. The method according to claim 22 wherein said oil microemulsion acts as an
electron donor.

67. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be
done, and if so, pretreating the aquifer,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil
microemulsion having an average droplet size less than the mean
pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion
comprises an oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil,
corn oil, canola oil, olive oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil,
rape oil, fish oil, butter, and animal tallow, and wherein the oil has
been modified by hydrogenation to reduce aqueous solubility and
increase melting point,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and
if so, post- treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

68. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be
done, and if so, pretreating the aquifer,
32


c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil
microemulsion having an average droplet size less than the mean
pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is selected from the
group consisting of lecithin, milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum,
locust bean gum, karaya gum, zanthan gum, pectin, polysorbate,
and phosphates,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done,
and if so, post- treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

69. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done,
and if so, pretreating the aquifer,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier, and, wherein the emulsifier is lecithin,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if
so, post- treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

70. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising treating the
aquifer
with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size
less
than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion
comprises an
oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil,
olive oil,
peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, rape oil, fish oil, butter and animal
tallow, and in
33


which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the growth of microorganisms.

71. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising treating the
aquifer with
a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size less
than
the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil is an edible liquid
soybean oil.
72. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising treating the
aquifer with a
selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size less
than the
mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using
an
emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group consisting
of lecithin,
milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean gum, karaya gum, zanthan gum,
pectin, polysorbate, and phosphates.

73. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising treating the
aquifer with
a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size less
than
the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed
using an
emulsifier and wherein the emulsifier is lecithin.

74. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises an oil selected
from the group consisting of soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, olive
oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, rape oil, fish oil, butter and
animal tallow, and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate
the growth of microorganisms, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

75. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

34


a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil is an edible liquid soybean oil, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

76. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group
consisting of lecithin, milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean
gum, karaya gum, zanthan gum, pectin, polysorbate, and phosphates,
and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

77. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier and wherein the emulsifier is lecithin, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

78. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and



b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises an oil selected
from the group consisting of soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, olive oil,
peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, rape oil, fish oil, butter and animal
tallow, and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate the growth
of microorganisms.

79. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil is an edible liquid soybean oil.

80. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an emulsifier,
wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group consisting of lecithin,
milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean gum, karaya gum,
zanthan gum, pectin, polysorbate, and phosphates.

81. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier, wherein the emulsifier is lecithin.

82. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore



36



size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of treating
the aquifer
with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size
less than
the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil is an edible liquid
soybean oil.

83. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of treating
the aquifer
with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size
less
than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is
formed
using an emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group
consisting
of lecithin, milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean gum, karaya gum,
zanthan
gum, pectin, polysorbate, and phosphates.

84. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of treating
the aquifer
with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion having an average droplet size
less
than the mean pore size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is
formed
using an emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is lecithin.

85. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises an oil selected
from the group consisting of soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, olive
oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, rape oil, fish oil, butter and
animal tallow, and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate
the growth of microorganisms, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

86. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
37



b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil is an edible liquid soybean oil, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

87. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group
consisting of lecithin, milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean
gum, karaya gum, zanthan gum, pectin, polysorbate, and phosphates,
and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

88. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier, wherein the emulsifier is lecithin, and

c) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

89. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
and

38


b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises an oil selected
from the group consisting of soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, olive
oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, rape oil, fish oil, butter and
animal tallow, and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate
the growth of microorganisms.

90. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil is an edible liquid soybean oil.

91. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group
consisting of lecithin, milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean
gum, karaya gum, zanthan gum, pectin, polysorbate, and phosphates.

92. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, consisting essentially of:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location, and
b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil
microemulsion having an average droplet size less than the mean pore
size of the sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion is formed using an
emulsifier, and wherein the emulsifier is lecithin.

93. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
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size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done,
and if so, pretreating the aquifer,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises an oil selected
from the group consisting of soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, olive
oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, palm oil, rape oil, fish oil, butter, and
animal tallow, and in which the oil microemulsion acts to stimulate
the growth of microorganisms,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if
so, post- treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

94. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done, and
if so, pretreating the aquifer, wherein the pretreatment comprises
pretreatment of certain portions of the aquifer with a chemical
agent which is an emulsifier selected from the group consisting of
lecithin, milk solids, carrageenan, guar gum, locust bean gum,
karaya gum, zanthan gum, pectin, polysorbate, and phosphates,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if
so, post-treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been


accomplished.
95. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises a food-grade liquid
soybean oil,

c) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if
so, post-treating the aquifer, and

d) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

96. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,

b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done, and if so,
pretreating the aquifer, wherein the pretreatment comprises
pretreatment of certain portions of the aquifer with the emulsifier
lecithin,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if
so, post-treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

97. A method for remediating a selected aquifer in a sediment having a mean
pore
size to reduce contaminants in the aquifer, comprising:

a) evaluating the aquifer for contaminant identity and location,
41


b) determining whether aquifer pretreatment should be done, and if so,
pretreating the aquifer,

c) treating the aquifer with a selected amount of an oil microemulsion
having an average droplet size less than the mean pore size of the
sediment, wherein the oil microemulsion comprises a food-grade liquid
soybean oil,

d) determining whether aquifer post-treatment should be done, and if
so, post-treating the aquifer, and

e) monitoring the aquifer to determine if remediation has been
accomplished.

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