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Patent 1088339 Summary

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Claims and Abstract availability

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(12) Patent: (11) CA 1088339
(21) Application Number: 300450
(54) English Title: BUILDING STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME
(54) French Title: MODE DE CONSTRUCTION
Status: Expired
Bibliographic Data
(52) Canadian Patent Classification (CPC):
  • 72/63
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • E04B 1/16 (2006.01)
  • E04G 11/04 (2006.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • SOUTH, DAVID B. (United States of America)
  • SOUTH, BARRY (United States of America)
(73) Owners :
  • SOUTH, DAVID B. (Not Available)
  • SOUTH, BARRY (Not Available)
(71) Applicants :
(74) Agent: MACRAE & CO.
(74) Associate agent:
(45) Issued: 1980-10-28
(22) Filed Date: 1978-04-04
Availability of licence: N/A
(25) Language of filing: English

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT): No

(30) Application Priority Data: None

Abstracts

English Abstract






ABSTRACT


A building structure and method of making the same are
disclosed wherein an inflatable form is inflated and an insulation
layer of urethane foam is applied to the undersurface of the form.
Hanger members are secured to the foam layer by adhesively affixing
planar base portions of the hangers to the foam layer whereafter
additional foam is applied to embed the hanger bases. Reinforcing
mesh is secured to and supported by the hangers followed by the
application of one or more layers of a cementitious material which
is allowed to cure. Air pressure beneath the form is progressively
increased to maintain a substantially constant uplift force on
the foam. The inflatable form may be removed after curing and a
protective coating applied to the outer exposed surface of urethane
foam to protect it from ultraviolet degradation.


Claims

Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.



The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive
property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. A method of constructing a building structure
comprising the steps of securing an inflatable form at its
peripheral edge to a base, inflating said form by introducing
a gas under pressure beneath said form so as to define an interior
chamber, applying a first layer of insulation foam material of a
substantially predetermined depth to the inner surface of said
inflated form, securing a plurality of hanger members to the
inner surface of said first foam layer, each of said hanger
members including a base portion disposed against said first
foam layer and having a hanger rod of predetermined length
projecting from said base portion toward said interior chamber,
said base portions each having greater exposed surface area
than the transverse cross-sectional area of the corresponding
hanger rod, applying a second layer of insulation foam material
of a substantially predetermined depth to the inner exposed
surface of said first foam layer so as to embed said base portions
of said hanger members within said foam material, the depth of
said second foam layer being established by observing the build
up of foam material along the predetermined lengths of said hanger
rods, said hanger rods being of sufficient length to have
exposed end portions after applying said second layer of foam
material, securing reinforcing mesh to said exposed end portions
of said hanger rods in supported relation therewith, applying
one or more layers of a cementitious material to the inner
exposed surface of said second foam layer so that said reinforcing
mesh is embedded within said cementitious layer, and allowing
curing of said applied layers.
2. The method as defined in Claim 1 including the
preliminary step of forming said base to which the peripheral
free edge of said inflatable form is secured, said form having




means disposed adjacent its said peripheral edge facilitating
attachment of said free edge to said base.
3. The method as defined in Claim 2 wherein said
base has a circumferentially disposed keyway, and wherein said
free edge of said form includes a pull cable facilitating
attachment of said free edge of said form to said base.
4. The method as defined in Claim 1 wherein said
inflatable form is adapted to be inflated by air at a pressure
of approximately one-half inch water static pressure.
5. The method of Claim 1 wherein said first layer of
insulation foam material comprises polyurethane foam applied at
a thickness of approximately one-half inch.
6. The method of Claim 1 wherein said layers of
insulation and cementitious material are applied by spraying.
7. The method as defined in Claim 1 wherein said
base portions of said hanger members have adhesive surfaces
thereon, and wherein said step of securing said hanger members
to said first foam layer comprises adhesively affixing said
base portions to said first foam layer.
8. The method as defined in Claim 1 including the
additional steps of removing said inflatable form after said
cementitious layers have cured, and coating the outer exposed
surface of said first foam layer so as to protect it from
moisture and ultraviolet degradation.
9. The method as defined in Claim 5 wherein second
layer of foam is applied to establish a composite built-up layer
of foam of approximately 4 inches.
10. The method of Claim 9 wherein said cementitious
layers are applied to establish a final cementitious composite
layer thickness of approximately 2 inches.
11. The method of Claim 1 including the steps of
gradually increasing the air pressure beneath said foam


16

sufficiently to maintain a substantially constant uplift
force on said form as said cementitious layers are applied.
12. The method of Claim 1 wherein a first relatively
thin layer of cementitious material is applied to said second
foam layer prior to securing said reinforcing mesh to said
exposed hanger rods.
13. The method as defined in Claim 11 wherein
said cementitious layer is applied by spraying a plurality of
cementitious coatings onto said foam layer to progressively
build up a cementitious layer of predetermined thickness.
14. The method of Claim 13 wherein said step of
attaching said reinforcing mesh to said hanger rods is effected
prior to applying said cementitious layer.
15. The method of Claim 13 wherein each successive
cementitious coating is applied before the previous coating of
cementitious material is completely cured.
16. The method as defined in Claim 1 wherein said
base portions of said hanger members are generally planar.
17. A building structure comprising a foundation
defining a predetermined foundation configuration for the
building, an inflatable form secured at its lower periphery
to said foundation and extending upwardly from said foundation
to define an internal chamber, a first layer of insulating foam
material secured to the inner surface of said form so as to
substantially cover said inner surface; a plurality of hanger
members secured to the inner surface of said foam layer, each
of said hanger members including a generally planar base
portion secured to the inner surface of said foam layer and
having a hanger rod of predetermined length affixed to said
base portion so as to extend toward the interior of said
chamber and define a depth gauge, said base portions each
having greater surface area than the cross-sectional area of
the corresponding hanger rod, a second layer of insulation


17

foam material of a substantially predetermined depth applied
against said first foam layer so as to embed said base portions.
of said hangers within said foam material, said hanger rods
being of sufficient length to extend from said second foam
layer and define exposed end portions, a reinforcing mesh
secured to and supported by said hanger members in proximate but
spaced relation to said foam layer, and at least one layer of
cured cementitious material secured to the inner surface of
said foam layer so as to have said reinforcing mesh embedded
therein.
18. A building structure as defined in Claim 17
wherein said insulating foam material comprises polyurethane
foam, and wherein said cementitious material comprises concrete.
19. A building structure as defined in Claim 17
wherein said hanger members are metallic and said base portions
thereof are adapted to be adhesively affixed to said foam layer.
20. A building structure as defined in Claim 13
wherein said hanger rods have outer end portions looped about
said reinforcing mesh in supporting relation therewith.




18

Description

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


- lU88339

The present invention relates generally to building
structures, and more particularly to what is generally termed a
monolithic building structure and method for making the same
which employs an inflatable form to which is applied, when in-

flated, interior layers of insulation foam and cementitiousmaterial, and which utilizes novel hanger elements facilitating
improved attachment to the foam layer and providing substantially
improved support strength for the cementitious layers and associ-
ated reinforcing mesh as well as providing accurate depth gauging
of the cementitious layers.
Building structures made by inflating an inflatable
form and applying one or more layers of an insulating foam
material interiorly of the inflatable form followed by an interior
coating of a cementitious material applied to the foam layer are
generally known. In certain applications, such structures pro-
vide significant economic advantages over conventional building
constructions employing lumber, bricks, concrete blocks and the
like and taking conventional rectangular or other square corner
structural configurations. The economic advantages of buildings
constructed with inflatable forms having insulation foam and
concrete layers applied to their inner surfaces derive in part
from the relatively short period required ~o construct such
buildings as compared with conventional building techniques. In
general, such building structures are made by inflating an in-

flatable form the peripheral base of which is secured to a footingor foundation, applying a plastic foam layer against the interior
surface of $he inflated form as by spraying, attaching a metallic
reinforcing grid or mesh to the interior surface of the foam
layer, and thereafter applying a cementitious layer, again as
by spraying, which adheres to the foam layer and is assisted in
its support by the reinforcing mesh. See, for example, United

States Patent 3,277,219, dated October 4, 1966.


10~38339


:' ''.
In carrying out the known methods of making building
structures employing inflatable forms and layers of plastic foam
and concrete, the operator applying the foam layer, which is
generally applied by spraying, attempts to maintain the foam
layer at a generally uniform depth over the entire interior sur-
face of the inflated form. Such uniformity in foam depth is
desired to insure a minimum desired foam depth and to achieve
a generally uniform interior surface without substantial waste.
In the method for making building structures disclosed in the
aforenoted U.S. Patent No. 3,277,219, small gauge blocks of plas-
tic foam are secured against the inflated form so that as the
operator sprays the foam layer against the interior surface of
the form he can visually observe the depth of foam relative to
the gauge blocks. However, in spraying the foam against the in- -
flated form, foam from the spray gun is deposited on the exposed
outer ends of the gauge blocks which builds up and adversely
affects their use as accurate depth gauges. Additionally, voids
are generally formed adjacent the bases of such gauge blocks due
to the angle of incidence of the foam from the spray gun, with
the result that a uniformly dense foam layer is not achieved.
In another practice employed to establish the depth of
the foam layer during spraying of foam against the interior sur-
face of an inflatable form, the operator uses a spoon-like scoop
and, after an initial foam application, scoops out a portion of
the foam layer to the surface of the inflatable form and visually
observes the depth of the foam layer thus far formed. This
method has obvious drawbacks due to the time requirement and
general inaccuracy of determining layer depth.
Another drawback in the known methods for making mono-

lithic building structures employing inflatable forms withinterior layers of insulation foam and cementitous material lies

in the manner of supporting reinforcing bars or mesh interiorly




. . :: ' , : '' . ,

~ 1~3~

of the inflatable form. For example, one technique employs wire
clips having barbed forward ends which are forced into the foam
layer as by pressure hammering whereafter the reinforcing mesh
is secured to the clips through open loops defined at the outer
ends of the clips. It has been found that such clips can only
support relatively light loads, such as loads of approximately
20 lbs., without being pulled from the foam layers with obvious
adverse results.
One of the primary objects of the present invention is
to provide an improved building structure and method of making
the same wherein an inflatable form is erected and layers of
insulation foam and cementitious material are applied interiorly
of the form, and wherein novel means are provided for establish-
ing uniform and accurate foam and cementitious layer depth over
the interior surface of the inflatable form.
One aspect of the present invention is defined as
a method of constructing a building structure comprising
the steps of securing an inflatable form at its peripheral
edge to a base, inflating the form by introducing a gas under
pressure benea~h the form so as to define an interior chamber,
applying a first layer of insulation foam material of a
substantially predetermined depth to the inner surface of
the inflated form, securing a plurality of hanger members
to the inner surface of the foam layer, each of the hanger
members including a base portion disposed against the first
foam layer and having a hanger rod of predetermined length
projecting from the base portion towards the interior chamber,
the base portions each having greater exposed surface area
than the transverse cross-sectional area of the corresponding
hanger rod, applying a second layer of insulation foam material
of a substantially predetermined depth to the inner exposed

surface of the foam layer so as to embed the base portions



- 4 -
... .

.. . . ~
... . . .

J 0~8339

of the hanger members within the foam material, the depth of
the second foam layer being established by observing the buildup
of foam material along the predetermined lengths of the hanger
rods, the hanger rods being of sufficient length to have
exposed end portions after applying the second layer of foam
material, securing the reinforcing mesh to the exposed end
portions of the hanger rods in supported relation therewith,
applying one or more layers of a cementitious material to the
inner exposed surface of the second foam layer so that the
reinforcing mesh is embedded within the cementitious material,
and allowing curing of the applied layers. ~ .
Another aspect of the present invention is defined -
as a building structure comprising a foundation defining
a predetermined base configuration for the building, a liquid : .
and gas impermeable form secured at its lower periphery
to the foundation and extending upwardly from the foundation
to define an internal chamber, a layer of insulating foam
material secured to the inner surface of said foam so as to
substantially cover said inner surface, a plurality of hanger
members secured to the foam layer, each of the hanger members
including a generally planar base portion embedded in the foam
layer and having a hanger rod of predetermined length affixed
to the base portion so as to extend outwardly from the foam
layer in a direction interiorally of the chamber, the base
portions each having greater surface area than the cross-
sectional area of the corresponding hanger rods, a reinforcing
mesh secured to and supported by the hanger members in proximate
but spaced relation to the foam layer, and a layer of cured
cementitious material secured to the inner surface of the
foam layer and having reinforcing mesh embedded therein.




. - 4a -


. : . :

1088;~

Further objects and advantages of the present invention,together with the organization and manner of operation thereof,
will become apparent from the following detailed description of
the invention when taken in conjunction with the accompanying
drawing wherein like reference numerals designate like elements
throughout the several views, and wherein:



FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a building structure
constructed in accordance with the present invention;



FIGURE 2 is a segmented vertical sectional view, on an
enlarged scale, through the building structure of FIGURE 1 showing
the various stages of construction;



FIGURE 3 is a perspective view, on an enlarged scale,
of a hanger member in accordance with the present invention; and



FIGURE 4 is a partial vertical sectional view showing
a blower assembly associated with the inflatable form in a manner
to facilitate inflation of the form.



Referring now to the drawings, and in particular to

FIGURES 1 and 2, a building structure constructed in accordance
with the present invention is indicated generally at 10. In the
illustrated embodiment, the building structure 10 takes the form
of a dome shaped building having a circular base defined by a
footing or foundation 12. The footing 12 is made to establish
a particular size for the building 10 and is dimensioned to




~. ~
.. . . , ~. ,:
. . ~ , . ~ . ,.~ .
.. . .

~08B339
withstand frost conditions and accord with the weight bearing
capacity of the underlying soil.
Briefly, the building 10 is constructed by first laying
the footing 12 after which an inflata~le form 14 is secured at
5 its peripheral bottom edge to the footing in air-tight relation -
therewith. The form 14 is then inflated and a layer of insula-
tion material 16, such as plastic foam, is applied against the
inner surface of the inflated form, followed by the application
of a built-up layer of a cementitious material such as concrete
as indicated at 18 in FIGURE 2. As will become more apparent
hereinbelow, the plastic foam layer 16 and concrete layer 18 are
preferably applied as built-up layers interiorly of the inflatable
form 14 by spraying. The illustrated finished building structure
10 includes access means in the form of a pair of doors 20a and
20b supported by and within a doorway frame structure 22, it being
understood that the access means may take substantially any desired
form. In the illustrated embodiment, a centrally located plenum
tube 24 is shown projecting upwardly from the apex of the dome
shaped building. The plenum tube 24 may extend from ground level
up to and through the dome shaped structure and may be used as
a source of air during inflation of the inflatable form 14 in the
initial stages of construction of the building 10, and thexeafter
used for ventilation purposes after construction of the building
is completed.
The building structure 10 may be formed in situ and
constitutes what is generally termed a monolith structure. The
building 10, while being illustrated as a dome shaped structure,
may take alternative configurations such as a barrel shell shape,
an elliptical shape, or a rectangular shape. The method of
construction in accordance with the present invention facilitates
the construction of buildings of substantial size. For example,
the illustrated dome shaped building 10 may have a base diameter




.

~08833g
as large as approximately 750 feet. A barrel shell configuration
may have a width of 600 feet and substantially unlimited length.
The footing or foundation 12 may take the form shown
in FIGURE 2 and preferably is made of poured concrete. The
footing 12 has a circumferentially disposed groove 28 formed in
the outer peripheral surface 30. The circumferential groove 28
serves as a keyway facilitating attachment of the peripheral edge
of the inflatable form 14. Lengths of steel reinforcing bar or
rod 32 are secured in upstanding relation within the foundation 12
so as to be spaced circumferentially about the footing and extend
upwardly therefrom. The rods 34 will subsequently project up-
wardly within the concrete layer 18 and assist in affixing the
upper building structure to the foundation 12.
It is desirable that prior to securing the inflatable
form 14 to the foundation 12, all equipment that will be used in
the construction of the building and which is too large to be
moved into the building area through an air-doorway, to be des-
cribed, be placed within the area of the foundation 12 before the
inflatable form 14 is secured in position, the form being placed
over the equipment so positioned.
The inflatable form 14 comprises a lightweight gas
and liquid impermeable flexible sheet form which may be made of
cross laminate plastic, a reinforced plastic coated fabric such
as a polyvinylchloride impregnated woven continuous filiment
yarn of desired tenacity and denier, or other suitable material.
As will become more apparent hereinbelow, the form 14 may
be reusable or may be left in place after forming the building
10. The peripheral edge of the form 14, indicated at 14a, is
secured to the outer peripheral surface 30 of the foundation 12
by a sheathed clamping cable 34 pulled tight to engage the base
portion of the inflatable form within the keyway groove 28. If ~ -~
desired, gromets (not shown) may be provided in the peripheral

edge of the inflatable form 14 through which the cable 34 is


_A.,

.

1088339

passed prior to tightening the cable and associated form within
the keyway groove 28. Alternatively, the cable 34 may comprise
a rope sewn into the bottom edge of the form 14. During attach- -
ment of the form 14 to the footing 12, the length of reinforcing
bar 32 may be bent horizontally inwardly so as not to damage the
inflatable form.
After securing the form 14 to the footing 12, the form
is inflated with air. To this end, a suitable opening is pro-
vided in the form 14 adjacent its lower edge of suitable size to
position a blower assembly, such as indicated generally at 38 in
FIGURE 4, which is adapted to introduce air under pressure into
the interior of the form 14. The opening in the form 14 in which
the blower assembly 38 is positioned may comprise the opening
which will ultimately be the entrance and exit area for doors 20a,
b. The form 14 is relatively lightweight so that an air pressure
of approximately 1/2 inch water static pressure is sufficient to
inflate the form. As one example of a blower sufficient to in-
flate the form 14, the blower assembly 38 includes a primary input
air fan housing 40 having a fan drive motor 42, either electrical
or gas powered, thereon operative through a drive belt 44 to ro-
tate an internal fan blade (not shown) to effect air input to
establish the desired inflation pressure. An exhaust vent
housing 46 is mounted on the intake housing 40 and has an adjust-
able weighted baffle plate or louver 48 of known design hingedly
secured thereto and operative to control air exhaust to regulate
the air pressure within the inflatable form. It will be under-
stood that alternative blower systems may be readily employed in
accordance with the present invention to inflate and maintain the
desired pressure within the form 14. Preferably, two fan units
are employed with one being a safety back-up system for the other.
After inflating the form 14 by introducing pressurized

air beneath the form, a relatively thin layer of insulation



-- 8 --

--~ 108~33~

material, such as plastic foam, indicated at 16a in FIGURE 2, is
applied to the inner surface of the inflated form by spraying to
a thickness of approximately 1/2 to 1 inch. Before applying the
plastic foam layer 16a, doorway areas are marked on the inner
surface of the inflated form if the area in which the blower
assembly 38 is positioned is not to be the final or only door
area. The insulation foam layer may comprise a suitable poly-
urethane or similar type plastic foam suitable for spraying to
form the layer 16a by conventional techniques. The initial
relatively thin foam layer 16a provides rigidity for the other-
wise pliable form 14.
The initial layer 16a of plastic foam sets up relatively
quickly and provides a surface against which a plurality of hanger
members, each of which is indicated generally at 52, are adhesively
secured. In accordance with an important feature of the present
invention, and with reference to FIGURE 3, each hanger member 52 ;~
includes a planar base plate portion 54 which, in the illustrated -
embodiment, comprises a two inch square plate. The base plate 54
is preferably made of a suitable strength metallic sheet material
such as galvanized steel sheet which may have a plurality of
holes 56 formed therethrough to reduce the weight of the hanger
member. A thin pad 58 is suitably secured to the rear or under
surface of the planar base 54 and has an exposed adhesive surface
facilitating attachment of the base member 54 to the plastic foam
layer 16a. Each hanger member 52 has a metallic hanger rod 60,
such as aluminum, secured centrally thereto in generally normal
relation to the plane of the associated base member 54. The
hanger rods 60 have predetermined length, as will become more
apparent hereinbelow, and, taken with their associated base
portions 54, provide means facilitating visual observation of
the depth of insulation foam being applied to the initial layer

16a to establish the built-up foam layer 16. The hanger rods 60


1088335

also provide means by which a reinforcing mesh is supported
adjacent the foam layer 16 as will be described hereinbelow.
The hanger members 52 are adhesively secured to the
layer 16a of plastic foam such that the hanger rods 6Q project
inwardly from the foam layer in substantially normal relation
thereto. After securing the hanger members 52 to the foam layer
16a, additional polyurethane foam is sprayed onto the initially
formed layer 16a to establish a composite built-up layer 16 of
plastic foam having an overall depth of approximately 4 inches.
During spray application of the additional urethane foam, the
operator is able to visually observe the depth of foam being
applied through observing the build up depth along the lengths
of the hanger rods 60. The hanger rods 60 are made long enough
to extend outwardly from the completed layer of insulation foam
16 a distance of approximately 3 inches.
By employing hanger members 52 in accordance with the
present invention, the planar base portion 54 of each hanger
member is completely embedded within the foam layer 16 and pro-
vides a substantial area over which any load acting on the
associated hanger rod 60 is distributed. Additionally, the
relatively thin hanger rods 60 result in uniform spraying of the
urethane foam about the hanger rods without impairing uniformity
of density or layer thickness of the foam. Still further, there
is no build up of foam on the outer ends of the hanger rods which
would adversely affect the use of the rod as a visual depth
measuring gauge. The hanger members 52 are preferably secured
to the inner exposed surface of the initial foam layer 16a on
approximately 3 foot centers over the entire exposed surface of
the foam layer 16a.
As the urethane foam layer 16 is applied to the inflated
form 14, the air pressure created by the blower assembly 38 be-

neath the form 14 and associated foam layer 16 is simultaneously

-- 10 --

108~339

increased slightly to compensate for the added weight of the foam
layer. For example, increasing the air pressure beneath the form
14 and foam layer 16 to approximately 1 inch water static pressure
will maintain a substantially constant uplift force on the form,
it being understood that the increase in internal gas pressure
required to maintain a substantially constant uplift force is
dependent on the thickness of the foam layer applied. After com-
pleting the build up of the foam layer 16 and adjusting the air
pressure within the thus far constructed building structure as
necessary to compensate for the additional load on the form 14,
reinforcing means in the form of a reinforcing steel wire mesh 64 -
~is secured to the outwardly extending ends of the hanger rods 60
by suitably bending or looping the ends of the hanger rods over -~
the reinforcing mesh such as indicated by bent or formed loops 66
in FIGURE 2. The reinforcing mesh 64 is of known design and is
preferably applied so as to cover substantially the full interior
surface of the thus far constructed building, it being understood
that the foam layer 16 and associated reinforcing mesh are not
positioned interiorly of the intended openings for doors and
windows in the completed building structure. The reinforcing
mesh 64 is preferably positioned approximately 1 inch from the
inner exposed surface of the foam layer 16. The size and amount
of the reinforcing mesh 64 may vary depending on the engineering
requirements of the building being constructed.
Simultaneously with securing the reinforcing mesh 64 to
the hanger members 52, metal strap hangers (not shown) may be
secured to the reinforcing mesh for later suspension or mounting
of lights, wiring fixtures and the like. Preconstructed steel
trusses are also placed at the previously marked door and window
openings on the form 14 for reinforcing around the openings to
be made in the shell structure, the trusses being permanently

secured in place by subsequent spraying of the cementious layer
18 in completing the building structure.


10883;~9

Prior to securing the reinforcing mesh 64 to the hanger
members 52, a coating of cementitious material such as a suitable
concrete mix may be applied against the inner surface of the foam
layer 16 to a thickness of approximately 1/2 inch, as indicated
at 18a in FIGURE 2. If such preliminary coating 18a of concrete
is desired, the reinforcing mesh 64 is secured to the hanger mem-
bers after forming such initial layer of concrete. Assuming an
initial layer 18a of concrete to have been applied to the insula-
tion foam layer 16, the reinforcing mesh 64 is positioned to
approximately within one inch of the initial layer of concrete.
Thereafter, a second layer of concrete is applied to the inner
exposed surface of the first layer 18a to a depth of approxim~tely
3/4 inch.
The built-up cementitious layer 18 may comprise a spray-

able cementitious material such as commercially available as"Gunite" and "Shotcrete" which are mixtures of graded sand and
cement. The cementitious layers may be applied through a hose at
high velocity which results in extremely dense concrete having a
cured compressive strength of approximately 8,000 - 10,000 p.s.i.
While uncured, the concrete layers can be shaped with suitable
scrapers. The cementitious material may contain metallic rein-
forcing fibers which facilitate spraying.
A third coating of cementitious material is applied to
the previously applied coatings or layers to bring the final
thickness of the built-up composite concrete layer 18 to a depth
of approximately two inches. In this manner, the reinforcing
mesh 64 wilL be positioned internally of the layer of concrete 18
to provide optimum reinforcing strength. It can be seen from
FIGURE 2 that as the concrete layer 18 is built-up adjacent the
footing 12, it will also cover the upstanding reinforcing bars 32
to assist in affixing the upper wall structure to the footing.




- 12 -

i~8833~ ~
As the cementitious layer 18 is built-up by successive
layers, the air pressure from the blower assembly 38 is gradually
increased to, for example, approximately 3-4 inches water static
pressure depending upon the thickness and density of cementitious
material layer selected, to compensate for the added weight of
the concrete layer and maintain a substantially constant uplift
force on the form 14. It may not be necessary to increase the
air pressure internally of the shell structure after the first
two layers of concrete are applied due to the fact that the built-

up concrete layer reaches a point at which it can carry its ownweight. It is seen that a relatively small differential pressure
is sufficient to maintain a substantially constant uplift force
on the form 14 during construction of the building structure 10.
Each successive layer of concrete is applied before the
previous layer is allowed to cure completely so as to effect
maximum bonding between the successive layers of concrete. After
the concrete layers are allowed to cure, the air pressure may be
turned off. The door trusses and any desired window trusses
formed in place by the sprayed concrete may then be prepared to
receive associated doors and windows in a known manner.
After completing the building structure 10 thus far
described, the inflatable form 14 may be removed from the foam
layer 16 and underlying concrete layer 18 and a protective coating
such as asphalt and/or a suitable paint can be applied over the
exposed urethane foam layer to protect it from moisture and ultra-
violet degradation caused by exposure to the sun. The inflatable
form 14 may then be reused. Alternatively, the inflatable form 14
may be retained on the completed building structure, and if desired,
coated to provide additional protection to the building structure.
A further alternative is to remove the form 14, apply a 2 inch
thick coat of shotcrete to the lower outer exposed portion of the
foam layer 16 followed by a moisture barrier coating of asphalt




- 13 -

-- 108l3335~

over the entire structure and a final coating of paint for ob-
taining the desired appearance.
In accordance with the method of constructing the
building structure 10 in accordance with the present invention,
a number of benefits are provided over conventional building
techniques. The thin shell concrete structure is protected from
thermal shock by the foam layer 16. Without such protection, the
stress within the concrete layer would be greatly multiplied and
thus require a thicker concrete layer with significantly increased
reinforcement. In accordance with the method of the present in-
vention, the hanger members 52 with their associated protruding
hanger rods 60 provide means for easily and accurately gauging
the thickness of the insulation foam layer during build up, and
gauging the thickness of the initial layers of concrete as they
15 are spray applied. This substantially lessens the possibility of -
inadequate placement of the foam and concrete material with re-
sulting uneven layer formation. Additionally, by completeIy
embedding the plate portions 54 of the hanger members 52, sub-
stantially greater loads may be supported by the hanger members -
than have heretofore been possible with the prior art techniques.
While a preferred building structure and method of
making the same in accordance with the present invention have been
illustrated and described, it will be understood to those skilled
in the art that changes and modifications may be made therein
without departing from the invention in its broader aspects.
Various features of the invention are called for in the following
claims.




- 14 -

Representative Drawing

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Administrative Status

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Administrative Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date 1980-10-28
(22) Filed 1978-04-04
(45) Issued 1980-10-28
Expired 1997-10-28

Abandonment History

There is no abandonment history.

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Application Fee $0.00 1978-04-04
Owners on Record

Note: Records showing the ownership history in alphabetical order.

Current Owners on Record
SOUTH, DAVID B.
SOUTH, BARRY
Past Owners on Record
None
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.
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Document
Description 
Date
(yyyy-mm-dd) 
Number of pages   Size of Image (KB) 
Drawings 1994-04-12 1 35
Claims 1994-04-12 4 177
Abstract 1994-04-12 1 24
Cover Page 1994-04-12 1 18
Description 1994-04-12 14 684