Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.
FIRF ~TR~TION NOZZLE SYSTEM
FIELD OF INVENTION
The present invention relates to a system for rapidly removing
flames, heat, smoke, dust, or gasses from a specific location or
defined area of intense fire and smoke. The invention comprises an
open ended elongated tubular form, supporting and surrounding a
mist producing nozzle or plurality of nozzles connected to a supply
of high pressure water.
P ~ ~ -n~ ND OF THE INVENTION
Fire fighting is often a very hazardous occupation. Fires
claim the lives of several thousand people, cause terrible injuries
and billions of dollars in property damage each year, each year in
all parts of the world.
New and effective fire fighting equipment and techniques are
being developed however many emergency fire situations and fire or
explosion prevention procedures still result in unnecessary risk or
injury to rescue personnel and victims.
Small and very intense fires fuelled by eg. synthetic
materials, chemicals, gasses, or fires in confined spaces create
serious hazards. These types of fires can produce tremendous
volumes of smoke, deadly gasses, and incredible heat. Traditional
methods of spraying large volumes of water into the smoke filled
area, often result in excessive smoke spread, water damage and
sometimes do not efficiently extinguish the fire.
U.S. PATENTS 4,703,808 AND 4,779,801 issued November 3, 1987
And October 1988 respectively, to Mr O'Donnell, recognize and
address the fact that water from a pressure nozzle is capable of
removing smoke from a building. Mr O'Donnell's smoke eliminator is
designed to position a standard "fog nozzle" into, for example, an
upstairs window of a building. The suction created by the nozzle
removes some of the smoke and heat from the building.
The FIRE EXTRACTION NOZZLE SYSTEM which I invented and filed
patents for in the U.S.A. (08/531,565) 19950907 and (08/524/931)
19950908, and in Canada 2,168,376 on 1996/01/30. This system does
extract flames, heat, smoke, dust or gasses from a structure in
large volumes, however some fire situations could benefit from an
additional or independent highly concentrated extraction force. At
this time I am not aware of any other device or invention which
will rapidly extract intense flames, smoke, and heat directly form
the source or seat of a fire and extinguish the extracted flames.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT INVENTION:
It is the object of the present invention to provide a means
of rapidly removing flames, heat, smoke, dust, or gasses from a
specific area or precise location, ie. within a confined structure,
from inside a vehicle or from the point of ignition on a burning
gas cylinder. The extracted flames and gasses are simultaneously
extinguished, cooled, and forced at hight speed in a desired
The invention requires an external supply of high pressure
water and uses the principle of entrainment to develop significant
suction force. The suction is created by a special nozzle or
series of nozzles, formed and positioned to produce a specific
spray pattern inside a tubular housing.
THF PREFERRED E~BODI~ENTS INCLUDF:
Preferably the tubular housing is open ended.
Preferably the tubular housing is of sufficient diameter and
length, to control the direct and deflected spray pattern
and airflow from the attached nozzle or nozzles.
Preferably the tubular housing is comprised of a material
capable of withstanding heat, high pressure water spray
and has the integrity to support and position the nozzle or
Preferably the nozzle or nozzles are positioned close to one
end of the open tube and are directed to discharge a spray
pattern through the tube and exit through the opposite end.
Preferably the nozzle or nozzles produce a fine mist, evenly
distributed spray, with a spray angle of between 20 degrees
and 60 degrees.
Preferably the nozzles are supplied with water at sufficient
pressure, that the nozzle or nozzles discharge the fine mist
at speeds in excess of 36 meters per second.
BRIEF D~r~TPTION OF DRAWINGS.
The invention is described with the preferred embodiments
which are illustrated with the following drawings in which
FIG.l Is a schematic illustration of the invention mounted onto a
support frame. A cut away section of the outside tubular housing
exposes a single nozzle spraying water mist at a very high speed.
FIG. 2 Is a perspective of the invention as seen from the suction
end of the device, the mist spray is directed away from the
view through the tube toward the exhaust end.
FIG.3 Is a cut away view of the invention as seen in FIG.l at line
A-B, this schematic illustrates flames and smoke at the
left hand, suction end, being drawn through the tube and
expelled at the right hand, exhaust end.
FIG. 4 Is a view of the invention formed with a rectangular
housing and a set of four nozzles, as seen from the suction
FIG.5 This schematic cross section of the line C-D in FIG.4
showing the side view with two of the nozzles, spraying fine
water mist through the tube, at very high speed.
FIG.6 Shows an exploded view of the preferred nozzle for the
invention and the nozzle assembly, projecting a full cone fine
mist spray pattern with the cross section indicated as dots.
D~ TPTION OF THE PR~KK~ EMBODINENTS.
The invention, as exemplified by preferred embodiments, are
described with reference to the drawings in which:
Embodiments illustrated in FIGURES 1,2 and 3 show that the
present invention 10, takes the form of an open ended cylindrical
tubular housing 12. The housing accommodates water transfer
piping, 24, a nozzle mount, 26 and a special nozzle, 30.
An external source of high pressure water is supplied to the
fire extraction nozzle system through the inlet line, 20. A
control valve, 22 regulates the flow of water through the transfer
piping, 24. The piping, 24, supports and positions a nozzle mount,
26, and special nozzle, 30, at the centre radius, of the suction
end, 14 of the tubular housing, 12.
The special nozzle, 30 is designed and positioned to project
a fine, water mist spray, at very high speed, 52. The full cone
spray pattern, indicated as 36, in figure 6, is pro~ected as an
expanding cone, with a preferred spray angle, l measured as the arc
between two opposing lines from the nozzle tip, 39 and p
(perimeter) of the spray cone, in a range between 20 degrees and 60
The length of the tubular housing, 12 has to be sufficient so
that the expanding spray pattern of mist droplets, 44, contact the
inside of the housing in the area of, 46, and deflect to continue
in the general direction of airflow, 42.
Figure 3 illustrates the inventions entrainment of flames,
smoke and gasses indicated as, 50, being drawn, or sucked at high
speed along the lines, 40 and 42, through the tubular housing, 12.
At the suction end, 14 of the tubular housing, an area of low
atmospheric pressure, generally between v-w, S4 creates a
significant suction force. In the area between w-x, 56 the flames
and smoke are being entrained within the rapidly moving water mist
droplets, 52, and forced through the housing. The area x-y, 58,
designates the expansion of water to steam as flames, heat and mist
droplets mix. The resulting rapid flow of steam and saturated
smoke, travel in the direction 42 through the exhaust end, 16 of
the tubular housing.
A second embodiment of the invention is shown in FIGURES 4 and
5, as a rectanglular, tubular housing 12. This housing also
accommodates water supply piping, 24, as previously described,
however, provision is made for four special nozzles, 30, attached
to four nozzle mounts,26. The position and direction of the four
nozzles is such that the combined spray patterns, 52 from the four
nozzles 30, completely fill the inside profile of the housing 12.
Also it is important that the periphery if the combined sprays, 52
make contact, 46 with the interior of the housing. This contact
must take place before the fine mist spray reaches the exhaust end
~5 16 of the housing 12.
The described embodiments of the invention feature cylindrical
and rectangular housings. It will be apparent that the profile of
the housing, 12, and the number and positioning of special nozzles
30, could vary as long as the aforementioned principles are
A nozzle suitable for use in the present invention will
typically be constructed as illustrated in figure 6 and will
include a threaded base, 31 which contains a screen or the like 32
to eliminate the large particles of dirt or the like. A diffuser
33 formed with angles slots 37 shaped to cause the water passing
there through to form a spiral or helical pattern after it leaves
the passages 37 and is provided with a central pin jet reducer,
having an end cap 38 that is received within a suitably contoured
spray disk 34 having an orifice 39. The clearance between the cap
38 and the orifice 39 is set to obtain the required droplet size
the water spray issuing from the nozzle 30. A clearance of about
0.010 Inches has been found satisfactory.
A suitable cap 35 with internal threads cooperates with the
thread on the fitting 31 to clamp all of the parts 32, 33, and 34
in position to form the nozzle structure, 30.
Materials used in the construction of the present invention,
for applications in fire fighting will require that the components
be capable of withstanding high water pressure, heat, and impact.
Some applications e.G. Chemical, dust control, or explosion
prevention, heat resistance may not be a factor.
A wide range of applications for the invention is possible.
In an emergency fire situation, the objective is to position the
fire extraction nozzle system 10, so that the suction end 14 is as
close as possible to the main body of fire or dense smoke. The
exhaust end 16 of the housing is positioned to direct the flow of
mist steam and smoke, away from the firesite and toward a safe open
This could be accomplished with a support frame, 60, and
adjustable legs, 62, however it will also be practical to mount the
invention onto e.g. a hydra~lic arm or a ladder. As a fire
prevention device, the invention could be "built in" to high fire
~XAHPLE OF TESTS
A prototype of the present invention was built and tested, in
the form illustrated in FIGURES 1,2, and 3. The diameter of the
tubular housing was 34 cms, and the length was 100 cms. Water was
supplied to the prototype using a portable pump producing about 200
bar or 3,000 p.s.i. At 4 gallons (16 litres) per minute.
A quantity of flammable liquid was ignited in a container
positioned close to the suction end of the device, large amounts of
flames and smoke were produced. Immediately the fire extraction
nozzle system was activated, substantially all of the flames and
smoke were sucked into the housing, at speeds measured at
approximately 72 k.P.H. Or 20 meters per second. Cooled steam and
smoke were discharged away from the test area.
Variations in nozzle design and nozzle positioning reduced
flow rates significantly from the unaltered prototype.
Having described the invention, modifications, and variations
will be evident to those skilled in the art without departing from
the scope of the appended claims.