Canadian Patents Database / Patent 2299512 Summary

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(12) Patent: (11) CA 2299512
(54) English Title: A PLANETARY HIGH-ENERGY BALL MILL AND A MILLING METHOD
(54) French Title: BROYEUR PLANETAIRE A BOULET ET A HAUTE ENERGIE

English Abstract

A Planetary High-Energy Ball mill is for producing nanosized powders and it includes: (a) a main axis which can not only rotate but also up and Down, (b) a roll-bearing to be fixed on nether end of the main axis, a revolvable plate to be fixed on the top of the main axis, and several able-swing shafts installed in the plate. (c) a plurality of planetary motion mill pots are fixed on the support canisters which are supported by able-swing shafts. (d) A stationary ring which is disposed coaxially with the main axis and serves as the orbit for mill pots. (e) impact bars on the bottom of mill pots using magnet technology to disperse doposited powders. The invention solves the problems of powders deposited on the bottom of mill pot , avoids tire ruption applied to private shaft which supports mill pots, improves stress distribution. So it capable for industrial-scale producing nanosized powders. The present invention also introduces a milling method for producing a wide variety of nano-scaled ceramic, metal and composite by selecting metal materials from the period table and the ceramic materials from the group of oxide, carbide, nitride, chloride, boride, silicide, sulfite etc .


French Abstract

Un broyeur planétaire à boulet et à haute énergie est conçu pour produire des poudres nanométriques et il comprend : (a) un axe principal qui peut non seulement tourner, mais aussi se déplacer de haut en bas, (b) un roulement à galets qui sera fixé à une extrémité inférieure de l'axe principal, une plaque pivotante fixée sur le dessus de l'axe principal, et plusieurs arbres pouvant pivoter installés dans la plaque. (c) une pluralité de pots de broyeur à mouvement planétaire est fixée sur les conteneurs de support qui sont pris en charge par les arbres pouvant pivoter. (d) un anneau stationnaire qui est disposé coaxialement à l'axe principal et sert d'orbite aux pots du broyeur. (e) des barres de choc situées au fond des pots du broyeur qui utilisent la technologie magnétique pour disperser les poudres déposées. L'invention résout les problèmes des poudres déposées au fond des pots du broyeur, évite les hernies de pneus appliquées à l'arbre d'entraînement privé qui prend en charge les pots du broyeur, améliore la distribution des contraintes. Donc il est adapté à la production à échelle industrielle de poudres nanométriques. La présente invention introduit également une méthode de broyage pour produire une grande variété de céramiques, métaux et matériaux composites à échelle nanométrique en sélectionnant des matériaux métalliques dans le tableau périodique et des matériaux céramiques du groupe oxyde, carbure, nitrure, chlorure, borure, siliciure, sulfite, etc.


Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


CLAIMS

1.A planetary high-energy ball mill for producing nanometer-scale powders,
comprising
(a) a vertical main shaft that is revolvable and glide-able up or down;
(b) a revolvable plate fixed on a top of said main shaft;
(c) at least two un-magnetized support canisters disposed around said
revolvable plate via
swing-able pivotal shafts with substantially equal distance between one
another, a mill pot fixed
into each of said support canisters;
(d) said support canisters operable to rotate in unison about said main shaft
while self-
rotating about their own said swing-able pivotal shafts, said support
canisters self-rotated due to
friction counterforce received from a stationary ring;
(e) said stationary ring disposed coaxially with said main shaft ;
(f) an inside ring of a ball bearing fixed at a bottom of said main shaft,
wherein an
external ring of said ball bearing is clamped by a clamp, said clamp driven by
a transmission
screw for driving said main shaft up or down.

2. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein said main shaft includes one
or more long
keyways located parallel to an axis of said main shaft.

3. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein said revolvable plate
includes more than
one quadrate grooves for mounting said swing-able pivotal shafts, and wherein
a middle plane of
said more than one quadrate grooves is radial to said main shaft, and said
more than one quadrate
grooves are disposed symmetrically.

4. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein said stationary ring is
circular in shape,
wherefrom said support canisters can receive friction counterforce which
drives said support
canisters self-rotating about their own said swing-able pivotal shafts.

5. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein said support canisters are
self-rotating
about their own said swing-able pivotal shafts using bah bearing means.

6. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein each of said support
canisters, upper parts
of said support canister have space for fitting said mill pot, lower parts of
said support canister
have more than two holes disposed around said swing-able pivotal shafts with
equal distance



between one hole and another, wherein a magnetize impact pole and a spring are
inserted into
each of said holes.

7. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein said swing-able pivotal
shafts can not
rotate when said main shaft slides from bottom to top, said swing-able pivotal
shafts will change
from a vertical position to a horizontal position smoothly when said main
shaft slides from said
top to said bottom, and said swing-able pivotal shafts will change from said
horizontal position
back to said vertical position smoothly.

8. An apparatus as set forth in claim 6, further comprising a magnet mounted
proximate
said impact pole such that said impact pole can be attracted.

9. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 or 2, further comprising a main motor
configured
to drive said main shaft using gear transmission means and key connect means.

10. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1, further comprising an auxiliary
motor configured
to move said main shaft up or down using gear transmission means and said
screw driving
means, while said external ring of said ball bearing is clamped by said clamp.

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.

CA 02299512 2000-02-22
A PLANETARY HIGH-ENERGY BALL MILL AND A MILLING METHOD
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an milling apparatus for producing nano-sized
metal or ceramic
powders, and more particularly, it relates to prepare composite of metals and
ceramics at a high
production rate.
There are many methods for preparing nanosized powders, powdered metal-
compound or
composite: Vacuum synthesis techniques, laser ablation, Gas-phase synthesis
includes inert gas
condensation, laser-induced vaporization, laser pyrolysis, and flame
hydrolysis. Condensed-phase
synthesis includes reduction of metal ions in an acidic aqueous solution,
liquid phase precipitation
of semiconductor clusters, and decomposition-precipitation of ionic materials
for ceramic clusters,
chemical vapor deposition (CVD and sol-gel techniques .The nano-scale
particles are known to
exhibit unique physical and chemical properties. The novel properties of nano-
crystalline materials
are the result of their small residual pore sizes , limited grain sizes, phase
or domain dimensions,
and large fraction of atoms residing in interfaces. In a mufti-phase material,
limited phase
dimensions could imply a limited crack propagation path if the brittle phase
is surrounded by ductile
phases, so the cracks in a brittle phase would not easily reach a critical
crack size. Even with only
one constituent phase, nano-crystalline materials may be considered as two-
phase materials. The
possibilities for reacting, coating, and mixing various types of nano-
materials create the potential
for fabricating new composites with nano-sized phases and novel properties.
Not only the structure,
but also the mechanical, electronic, optical, magnetic and thermal properties
of nano-crystalline
materials are different from those exhibited by their bulk counterparts.
Specifically, ceramics
fabricated from ultra-fine particles are known to possess high strength and
toughness because of the
ultra-fne intrinsic defect sizes and the ability for grain boundaries to
undergo a large plastic
deformation. Ultra-fine particles can be sintered at much lower temperatures
also.
For a review on nano-phase materials please refer to A. N. Goldstein,
"Handbook of Nanophase
Materials", Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1997. Tuhe techniques for the
generation of nanosized
particles may be divided into three broad categories: vacuum, gas-phase, and
condensed-phase
synthesis. Vacuum synthesis techniques include sputtering, laser ablation, and
liquid-metal ion
sources. Gas-phase synthesis includes inert gas condensation, oven sources
(for direct evaporation
into a gas to produce an aerosol or smoke of clusters), laser-induced
vaporization, laser pyrolysis,
and flame hydrolysis. Condensed-phase synthesis includes reduction of metal
ions in an acidic
-t

CA 02299512 2000-02-22
aqueous solution, liquid phase precipitation of semiconductor clusters, and
decomposition-
precipitation of ionic materials for ceramic clusters. Other methods include
mix-alloy processing,
chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and sol-gel techniques. All of these
techniques have one or more
of the following problems or shortcomings:
( 1 ) Most of these prior-art techniques suffer from a severe drawback:
extremely low production
rates. It is not unusual to fmd a production rate of several grams a day in a
laboratory scale device.
Vacuum sputtering, for instance, only produces small amounts of particles at a
time. Laser ablation
and laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are also well-known to
be excessively slow
processes. These low production rates, resulting in high product costs, have
severely limited the
utility value of nano-phase materials. There is, therefore, a clear need for a
faster, more cost-
effective method for preparing nano-sized powder materials.
(2) Some processes require expensive precursor materials to ceramic powders
and could result in
harmful gas.
(3) Most of the prior-art processes are capable of producing a particular type
of metallic or
ceramic powder at a time, but do not permit the preparation of a uniform
mixture of two or more
types of nano-scaled powders at a predetermined proportion.
(4) Most of the prior-art processes require heavy and/or expensive equipment,
resulting in high
production costs. In the precipitation of ultra-fine particles form the vapor
phase, when using
thermal plasmas or laser beams as energy sources, the particle sizes and size
distribution can not be
precisely controlled. Also, the reaction conditions usually lead to a broad
particle size distribution
as well as the appearance of individual particles having diameters that are
multiples of the average
particle size.
However, the ball milling technique has a great potential for preparing
powders,but the
conventional ball mill that the axis of the milling pot is fixed by the
bearings have disadvantages:
powders can only be produced up to a certain fineness (down to 0.5 micrometer)
and with a
relatively broad particle-size distribution. Prior art grinding mills are
disclosed in the following U.S.
patents: U.S.Pat.No.5,029,760 (July 9, 1991), 5,205,499 (April 27, 1993),
5,356,084 (Oct.l8, 1994)
and 5,375,783 (Dec.27, 1994). Above four patents are to R.L.Gamblin. In the
last patent , he
reviewed and summarized The drawbacks or shortcomings of these and other prior
art grinding
mills and related methods before his invention. Other related U.S. and foreign
patents include:
U.S. Patent No. 4,579,289 (April 1, 1986 to Siebke, Tycho); U.S. Patent No.
4,715,205(December
29, 1987 to Fazan, Bernard) ;U.S. patent No. 5,035,131(July 30, 1991)
,5,113,623(May 19, 1992),
-z-

CA 02299512 2000-02-22
5,170,652(December 15, 1992), 5,187,965 {February 23, 1993),
5,287,714(February 22, 1994) to
Figge, Dieter and Fink, Peter ; U.S. Patent No.5,232,169 (Aug.3, 1993 to
K.Kaneko, et al.); U.S.
Patent 5,522,558 (June 4, 1996 to K.Kaneko);Canadian patent No.( May 11, 1948
to THOR H.
LJUNGGREN);Canadian patent No. 594012(Mar. 8, 1960 ), 667482(July 23, 1963)
and 975590
(Oct. 7 , 1975) to TADEUSZ SENDZIMIR ; Canadian patent No.1285793(July 9 ,
1991 to Fazan,
Bernard); Canadian patent No.2024120(Aug. 28, 1990) , 2044658(June 14, 1991 )
to Figge, Dieter.
All these prior art grinding ball mills have one or more shortcomings in terms
of power,
efficiency, capacity, production rate, bulkiness, and/or equipment costs. Some
of these grinding
mills are not suitable for use in producing nanometer-scaled powder particles.
Among the prior art
mills, the high-energy ball mills that involve planetary motions of mill pots
appear to have the
greatest potential for use in the preparation of nano-sized particles . A
laboratory-scale planetary
ball mill (see FIG.1)for preparing nanosized powders had been invented by the
FRITSCH GMBH
in Germany) , but this producing efficiency is very low, it needs exceed 10
hours for preparing only
several hundred grams of nanosized powders generally. If the power and
efficiency of a ball mill
can be significantly improved, ball milling technique can become a mass
production method for
preparing nano-scaled powders.
The present invention is a reasonable high energy planetary ball mill (see
FIG.2, FIG.3, FIG. 4
and FIGS).
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A preferred embodiment of the present invention is a planetary ball mill
apparatus for producing
nanometer-scaled powders. This high energy planetary ball mill is composed of
six major
components:
1. A main axis that can not olny rotate, but also up or down .
2. A revolvable plate to be fixed with axis .
3. A stationary ring which is disposed coaxially with the main axis and serves
as the orbit for mill
pots.
4. Several planetary mill pots are fixed with the support canisters which are
supported by the able-
swing shafts. These able-swing shafts are connected with the grooves on the
plate via the pins. On
the other hand , several impact bars for dispersing the powders deposited on
the bottom of the pots
are installed in the support canisters.
5. A screw for moving the main axis up or down.
-3-

CA 02299512 2000-02-22
6. Two motors for driving the main axis and screw respectively. When the main
axis rotating driven
by the motor via the gear pair , the plate will rotate too, the mill pots will
be put on the ring due to
the centrifugal force, then the mill pots can also rotate surrounding its own
axis due to the friction
counterforce that the ring giving mill pots . In this invent , a mill pot not
only can revolve surround
its own pivotal shaft , but also can revolve surround the main axis follow the
plate. It is a
emblematical planetary motion ,and it means these balls or particles in the
mill pots bear double
rotating movement to surround self shaft and the main axis. It is the
planetary movement that the
particles in the pots can be ground to nanosized powers most efficaciously by
the balls in the pots
with large force. After the ball mill work several hours, the thick particles
will be ground to form
fine powders, these fine powders will deposit on the bottom of the pots , it
is adverse for continue
milling. In present invention, we solve the problem: When the main axis moves
to the top , these
mill pots will tend horizontal situations, then using The impact bars located
at the bottom of the
pots can help to disperse the fine powders in the pots. In the present
invention, because of the able-
swing shaft for supporting the mill pot does not revolve, so the able-swing
shaft can avoid tire
rupture. In addition ,the stress distributing can be improved compared with
ordinary planetary ball
mill.
Advantages of the present invention may be summarized as follows:
(I) In present invention , because of the pivotal shaft supported the pot does
not revolve but only
swing, so the shaft can avoid tire rupture; in addition the stress
distributing can be improved
compared with ordinary planetary ball mill. So the present invention allows to
adopt large capacity
pots and can endure high frequency impact for industrial-scale producing
nanosized powders.
(2) A specific characteristic of present invention is the powders on the
bottom of the pots can be
dispersed by the impact bars , it is propitious to fining the powders,
sequentially.
(3) A wide variety of nano-scaled ceramic, metal and composite is that
composed of ceramics and
metals particles can be readily produced. The metal materials can be selected
from the period table.
The ceramic materials can be selected from the group of oxide, carbide,
nitride, chloride, boride,
silicide ,sulfite and so on.
(4) The present invented planetary ball mill exhibits large forces and working
frequencies to drive
the grinding balls to impact particles.
-4-

CA 02299512 2000-02-22
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG.I A schematic sketch of a conventional planetary ball mill.
FIG.2 Working situation when the main axis at the regular position.
FIG.3 Working situation when the main axis up to the highest position.
FIG.4 The figure of the plate.
FIGS The figure of the able-swing shaft.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
In order to illustrate how the present invented planetary ball mill differs
from the conventional
one, a detailed analysis follows:
1. Figure 1 shows a conventional high-energy planetary ball mill. A small
drive rotating pulley 2
is connected to a motor 1 and receives rotational forces therefrom.These
rotational forces are
transmitted from a small pulley 2 to a large pulley 4 through a belt 3. Mill
pots 7 are held
symmetrically on a rotary turntable 5. This rotary turntable, also referred to
as the main shaft, is
mounted on the same rotary shaft as the large pulley 4. The central rotary
shaft 6 of each mill pot 7
forms a revolving pair with the turntable 5. The bottom end of the shaft 6 is
connected to and
supported by a planetary pulley 9. The pulley 9 corresponding to each mill pot
is connected to a
central pulley 8 tluough a belt based transmission system, forming a planetary
motion pair. The
central pulley 8 is disposed coaxially with the large drive pulley 4 and the
turntable 5 on the same
base. The two drive pulleys 4, 5 and the auxiliary central pulley 8 share a
common central axis.
When starting the motor l, the turntable 5 will rotate and all the mill pots
will undergo a primary
rovolving motion surround the central axis. At the same time, each mill pot
7,working congruently
with the auxiliary pulley 8, will make a planetary motion. In this vertical
style ball mill, the pivot
axes of all rotary bodies are vertical to the floor. As compared to a
conventional fixed shaft mill
system, it is far more complex to calculate the motions of balls in a
planetary ball mill. This is
because each mill pot 7 not only revolves around the central shaft axis but
also undergoes a spin
surround its own axis. But the producing efficiency of this conventional high-
energy planetary ball
mill is very low, this is because of its design is not reasonable . The main
problem of the planetary
ball mill is: The shaft to support mill pot is permited revolve surround self
axis, so the root of the
shaft bear maximal moment , and the cycle stress can easily bring on tire
rupture . This shortage
limited the speed of the axis of the ball mill and the size of the mill pots.
-s-

CA 02299512 2000-02-22
2. Fig.2 and Fig.3 show present invented high-energy planetary ball mill. In
the present invention,
when starting the motor 25, the power of the motor 25 transferred to main axis
23 via gear pair 28,
15 and key 24, so the main axis 23 will rotate. The motor 25 is fixed on shelf
27 by the bolts 26, the
gear 28 is fixed on shaft of the motor by bolt 29 . A revolvable plate 33 is
fixed on the top of the
main axis 23 via key 42 , bolt 43 and mat 44 . When starting the motor 17, the
screw 18 will rotate
due to the power of the motor 17 can be transferred via gear pair 50,52 , so
the fork 19 will be
driven at up or down, and the main axis 23 will up or down too. Main axis 23
up and down is due to
a roll-bearing 22 that is controlled by the fork 19 which is fixed on the
bottom of the main axis, the
bolt 20 and mat 21 for fixing the bearing and the bolt 49,51 for fixing gears.
The main axis 23 has a
long key groove for up or down. The motor 25,17 are fixed on the shelf 27 by
the bolts 26,16
respectively . The shelf 27 is fixed on annular shell 12 by the bolt 14, and
the shell 12 is fixed on a
standing seat 30 by the bolts 13. The main axis 23 can slip relative to a
sleeve 45 which is supported
by the roll-bearing 47,53 , and the sleeve 45 also rotates following the main
axis 23 by the key 24.
On the other hand, the bearing 47,53 are embedded into the annular shell 12,
the cover 46,54 for
bearing are fixed on annular shell 12 by the bolts 48,55,and a stationary ring
36 which is disposed
coaxially with the main axis 23 is fixed on the shell 12 by the bolts 35.
Several mill pots 37 are
fixed with corresponding support canister 10 with impact bar 4, the support
canister 10 is supported
by the able-swing shafts 40 which can swing but can not rotate relatively to
plate 33. A end of the
able-swing shafts 40 is connected with the corresponding grooves on the plate
33 via the pins 41
and the nut 11, these grooves are distributed averagely on the plate, and
another end is bolted by a
nut 38 and mat 39, the pots can revolve following support canister 10 surround
the axis of the able-
swing shafts 40 . The impact bar 4 can help to disperse the powders 3
deposited on the bottom of
the pots 37. In Fig.3, when the main axis moves to the top , these pots 37
will tend horizontal
situations. The small iron pole 34 which is felted with impact bar 4 will near
the magnet 32 that is
fixed on non-magnetic plate 33 by the bolts 31, so the small iron pole 34 will
be magnetized by the
magnet 32 resists the elasticity of the spring 5( the spring will be
compressed) , then let the impact
bars 4 leave the pots 37 a distance, due to the pots 37 will roll on the ring
36 ceaselessly, and the
iron pole 34 will leave the magnet 32, then the impact bars 4 will bump the
bottom of the pots 37, it
is frequently bump the pots that these powders on the bottom will be
dispersed, so when the axis 23
down, these dispersed powders can be propitious to be fined by balls 2
sequentially. A cover 6 is
fixed with the pots 37 by bolts 7 and nut 8, and a sealing ring 1 can avoid
the ultrafine powders and
the gas or the liquid in the pots to be leaked out. Same bolts 7 through the
flange of the support
-6-

CA 02299512 2000-02-22
canister 10 , then the mill pot is fixed with the support canister 10 via nut
9, so the pots will rotate
following the support canister 10.
3. Fig.4 is the figure of the plate. Its characteristic is that there are
several quadrate grooves for
installing the able-swing shafts on the plate. This structure permits the able-
swing shaft swing but
does not revolve. The number of the grooves can be any value except one. But
the distributing of
the grooves on the plate must be even for balance.
4. Fig.S is the figure of the able-swing shaft. Its characteristic is the
nether section of the able-
swing shaft is not rounded but is quadrate . This structure make sure the able-
swing shaft swing but
not revolve.

A single figure which represents the drawing illustrating the invention.

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Admin Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date 2004-08-17
(22) Filed 2000-02-22
Examination Requested 2000-02-22
(41) Open to Public Inspection 2001-08-22
(45) Issued 2004-08-17

Abandonment History

Abandonment Date Reason Reinstatement Date
2002-02-22 FAILURE TO PAY APPLICATION MAINTENANCE FEE 2002-04-29

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Request for Examination $200.00 2000-02-22
Filing $150.00 2000-02-22
Reinstatement: Failure to Pay Application Maintenance Fees $200.00 2002-04-29
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 2 2002-02-22 $50.00 2002-04-29
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 3 2003-02-24 $50.00 2003-01-06
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 4 2004-02-23 $50.00 2003-12-05
Final Fee $150.00 2004-05-31
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 5 2005-02-22 $100.00 2004-12-01
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 6 2006-02-22 $100.00 2005-12-14
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 7 2007-02-22 $100.00 2007-01-05
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 8 2008-02-22 $400.00 2008-06-23
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 9 2009-02-23 $100.00 2008-12-05
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 10 2010-02-22 $125.00 2010-01-11
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 11 2011-02-22 $125.00 2011-01-26
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 12 2012-02-22 $125.00 2012-02-07
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 13 2013-02-22 $325.00 2013-03-14
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 14 2014-02-24 $125.00 2014-02-10
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 15 2015-02-23 $225.00 2015-01-26
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 16 2016-02-22 $425.00 2016-02-29
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 17 2017-02-22 $225.00 2017-01-18
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 18 2018-02-22 $225.00 2017-12-13
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 19 2019-02-22 $225.00 2018-12-31
Current owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Current Owners on Record
LI, HUI
Past owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Past Owners on Record
None
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.

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