Canadian Patents Database / Patent 2511267 Summary

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(12) Patent: (11) CA 2511267
(54) English Title: ROTARY ENGINE WITH PIVOTING BLADES
(54) French Title: MOTEUR ROTATIF AVEC LAMES PIVOTANTES
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • F01C 1/44 (2006.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, GILLES (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, ROXAN (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, YLIAN (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, FRANCOISE (Canada)
(73) Owners :
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, GILLES (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, ROXAN (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, YLIAN (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, FRANCOISE (Canada)
(71) Applicants :
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, GILLES (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, ROXAN (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, YLIAN (Canada)
  • SAINT-HILAIRE, FRANCOISE (Canada)
(74) Agent: NA
(74) Associate agent: NA
(45) Issued: 2008-07-08
(86) PCT Filing Date: 2003-02-10
(87) Open to Public Inspection: 2004-08-19
Examination requested: 2005-06-20
(30) Availability of licence: N/A
(30) Language of filing: English

English Abstract





The Quasiturbine uses a rotor arrangement peripherally supported by four
rolling carriages,
the carriages taking the pivoting blade pressure-load, of the blades forming
the rotor, and
transferring the load to the opposite contoured housing wall. The present
invention discloses a
central, annular, rotor support for the rotor geometry defined by the pivoting
blades and
associated wheelbearings, while still maintaining the important center-free
engine
characteristic. The pressure-load on each pivoting blade is taken either by
its own set of wheel
bearings rolling on annular tracks part of the casing, or is cancelled out in
symmetrically
pressurized fluid energy converter mode through the central holding action of
annular power
sleeves. This central, annular, rotor support could generally apply to all the
family of
Quasiturbine rotor arrangements and particularly to the limit case here
considered, where the
previous carriage design is replaced by a cylindrical pivoting blade joint as
developed in the
present patent, and for which an efficient solution of the five bodies rotary
engine sealing
problem is given.


French Abstract

L'invention concerne une Quasiturbine (abrégé en Qurbine) qui fait intervenir un dispositif de rotor supporté sur sa périphérie par quatre chariots roulants, ces chariots supportant la charge de pressurisation de la lame pivotante des lames qui forment le rotor et transférant la charge sur la paroi profilée opposée du logement. L'invention décrit une embase de rotor centrale annulaire pour la configuration géométrique définie par les lames pivotantes et les roulements de roues associés, tout en conservant la caractéristique importante d'un moteur exempt de centre. La charge de pressurisation sur chaque lame pivotante est soit supportée par l'ensemble de roulements de roues respectif de chaque lame pivotante roulant sur des pistes annulaires fixées sur la zone centrale de couvercles latéraux faisant partie du carter, soit neutralisée dans un mode de conversion de l'énergie du fluide pressurisé symétriquement sous l'action centrale de retenue de manchons de puissance annulaires. Cette embase de rotor centrale annulaire peut généralement être appliquée à toute la famille des dispositifs de rotor Quasiturbine, et particulièrement au cas limite considéré ici, dans lequel la conception antérieure de chariot est remplacée par une lame pivotante cylindrique développée dans le présent brevet, et pour lequel une solution efficace est apportée au problème du scellement du moteur rotatif à cinq corps.


Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.




ROTARY ENGINE WITH PIVOTING BLADES


WE CLAIM:



1. A rotary apparatus producing mechanical energy from hydraulic, steam, and
pneumatic
pressurized fluid flow, and from Stirling cycle, Brayton cycle, Otto and
Diesel internal
combustion cycles and to pump, make vacuum and compress, generally referred to
as a
Quasiturbine, and comprising:
- a stator casing having an internal contoured housing wall, including two
lateral side covers;
- pivoting blades consecutively pivoted one to the other at their ends, and
pivot axes being
parallel; wherein each of said pivoting blades carrying an inwardly directed
power transfer
slot with wheel bearing axes;
- an assembly of said pivoting blades and joints forming a X, Y, .theta.
variable-shape rotor rolling
inside said internal contoured housing wall about a central axis, with
deformation from square
configuration rotor to diamond configuration rotor;
- a family profile of curves being calculated for said internal contoured
housing wall, and a
criteria being selected to meet the pressure volume engine PV diagram;
- each of said lateral side covers carrying an annular track on an inner
surface;
- a set of contour seals in contact with said internal contoured housing wall,
and a system of
lateral seals in contact with said lateral side covers;
- variable volume chambers, each of said variable volume chambers limited by
two successive
contour seals, and extending along the inner surface of the internal contoured
housing wall,
and the outer surface of said pivoting blades, limiting two compression
housing sections
located symmetrically to the center as the two opposed expansion housing
sections;
- each of said pivoting blades carrying a combustion chamber cavity;
- a set of ports in said casing for intakes and exhausts;
- a set of ports in said lateral side covers for intakes and exhausts;
- a set of ports through said pivoting blades, connecting said variable volume
chamber to the
central area;
- an ignition flame transfer slot-cavity;
- a spark plug
- a compression ratio tuner;
- a check valve port,



18




- a set of clutch centrifuge weights inside a rotor;
- a set of annular power sleeves located inside said rotor;
- a modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) within said rotor;
- a set of differential washers linking said annular power sleeves to a power
disk and a power
shaft;
- wherein all consecutive compressions housing sections are occurring
repetitively in the same
housing section, and all consecutive expansions are also occurring
repetitively at different
intermediate housing sections;
- wherein the two compression housing sections are located symmetrically to
the center, as
the two opposed expansion housing sections;
- wherein each successive compression stroke and expansion stroke start and
end
simultaneously;
- wherein the distance between two consecutive contour seals stays almost
constant during a
revolution of said rotor;
- wherein the contour seals stay almost perpendicular to said internal
contoured housing wall
at all times;
- wherein said differential washers prevents the wheel bearings axes
rotational harmonic to
reach said power shaft;
- wherein said rotor and said differential washers linking centers of mass are
immobile during
rotation;
- wherein said variable volume chambers are asymmetric from mid-value, and the
pressure
pulse is short and increases and decreases linearly near the top dead center;
- wherein a Quasiturbine Internal Combustion cycle (QTIC) results from said
pressure pulse
characteristics;
- wherein said Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) is 45 degrees out of phase
with
outward rotor chambers; and
- wherein said Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) is alternately pressurized
to make an
Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ), driving said rotor from the interior;
- wherein the direction of rotation is reversed, reversing the direction of
the flow.


2. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said internal contoured
housing wall is
a rounded corner parallelepiped shape, with four areas of maximum curvature
and four
intermediate areas of minimum curvature, and wherein the complexity of the
internal
contoured housing wall makes the radius of curvature to slightly fluctuate
within one single
quadrant.


3. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein to permit higher
eccentricity of said


19




rotor, the calculated internal contoured housing wall is lobed shaped, with
six areas of
maximum curvature and six intermediate areas of minimum curvature.


4. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the mathematical
contour profile of the
said internal contoured housing wall is one of a family of curves requiring
only symmetry
about the center of the internal contoured housing wall and not through the x-
or y- axis, and
the method for calculating the said internal contoured housing wall profile,
including lobed
and eccentricity limit solutions, referred to a calculation comprising steps:
- selecting a diamond-shaped rotor eccentricity which imposes and defines at
design the x-
and y- axes blade pivot profile coordinates, while the said square
configuration rotor defines
the 45 degrees pivot profile coordinates;
- calculating a set of blade pivots profile;
- linearly assuming empirical blade pivots profile radius in the 0 - 45
degrees interval, and
modulating said empirical blade pivots profiles radius based on at least a two-
parameters
function which does not change the 0 and 90 degree area tangentiality;
- performing oblique lozenge mapping; and a simple Pythagoras Diamond-diamond
mapping
of the 0 - 45 degrees interval, with slope continuity in the 45 degrees area,
in the case of the
perpendicular x- and y- axes of the 45-90 degrees interval;
- obtaining a corresponding set of said internal contoured housing wall by
enlarging said
blade pivots profile by one pivot radius all around;
- wherein from the set of said internal contoured housing walls, selecting of
an optimum
engine application internal contoured housing wall is done, wherein the final
said chamber
expansion volume equals the volume generated by the movement of the tangential
surface of
push, which pressure-volume characteristics meets the standard engine PV
diagram; and
- wherein the calculation method applies for all values, including of positive
values, negative
values and null values of the eccentricity, the pivot diameters, and the x-
and y- arbitrary axes
angle.


5. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the lateral side covers
have:
- multiple notches on the periphery for thermal fins;
- an annular track on the inner surface for the pivoting blade wheel bearings,
the tracks not
necessarily circular except if the pivoting blade wheel bearings are located
on the axis of two
successive pivots;
- a bearing holder on the engine axis for the power shaft;
- a large aperture on one lateral side cover on the engine axis, permitting
the power disk and
the power shaft to slide in-and-out the casing without dismantling the engine;
- a bearing-cap fitting the large aperture, and holding a bearing and the
power shaft; and



20




- volume modulator ports outside the periphery of the annular track, for the
Modulated Inner
Rotor Volumes (MIRV).


6. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein the pivoting blade
comprises:
- an outward surface shaped to insure free rotation of the rotor within the
internal contoured
housing wall for all angles of rotation;
- an outward surface being cave-cut to enlarge the combustion chamber when
required;
- a check valve port made radially through said pivoting blade, and linking
the said
combustion chambers to the central engine area;
- said check valve port allowing chamber intake enhancement by centrifuge
force;
- a power transfer slot extending inwardly toward the central rotor area;
- a receptacle space within the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV), on
both side of
said transfer slot, to locate the clutch centrifuge weights; and
- an axial strong pivoting joint at said pivoting blades ends.


7. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said ports are radial
housing ports for a
spark plug, a compression ratio tuner, and for intake and exhaust ports
located near where the
contour seals stand at top dead center.


8. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said ports are lateral
side cover ports
for a spark plug, a compression ratio tuner, and for intake and exhaust ports
located on the
pivoting blade pivot path, near the blade pivot positions when at top dead
center.


9. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said intake and exhaust
ports comprise:
- several removable intake and exhaust plugs, which are used to convert the
two parallel
compression and expansion circuits into a sole serial circuit;
- two quasi-independent circuits used in parallel with all plugs removed for
operation as a two
stroke rotary internal combustion engine, a fluid energy converter, a
compressor, a vacuum
pump and a flow meter; and
- two quasi-independent circuits used in serial by plugging intermediate
ports, to make a four
stroke internal combustion rotary engine.


10. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said intake and
exhaust ports have
different angular locations for different applications, and wherein:
- symmetrically opposed said ports with respect to engine center are used for
fluid energy
converter, compressor and two stroke engine applications;
- said symmetrically opposed ports are slightly moved toward the high-pressure
zone, to take


21




advantage of the pivoting blade port obstruction during port-seal crossing,
preventing
momentarily free intake-to-exhaust flow;
- said intake port for internal combustion engine is an arc-shaped like
opening in an angular
suction zone in relation to the forward contour seal, and extending further to
account for fluid
flow time delay;
- said check valve port made radially through said pivoting blade, permits
chamber central
intake enhancement by the centrifuge force;
- said exhaust port for internal combustion engine is shaped as an elongated
angular opening,
extending to account for fluid flow time delay and inertial exhausting; and
- said spark plug and compression ratio tuner are located in the high-pressure
zone, anywhere
in between the pivoting blade contour seals when at top dead center horizontal
position,
extending further to account for fluid flow time delay.


11. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein a pivoting blade joint
comprises:
- a male and a female part at the respective ends of said pivoting blade;
- two female parts at both ends of the same said pivoting blades, while said
male parts are at
both ends of the two complementary pivoting blades of said rotor;
- the male part made cylindrical with two different radiuses of curvature,
having an
underneath holding finger so that four and more pivoting blades can be firmly
assembled
together;
- the male part acting as a rubbing pad against the internal contoured housing
wall to guide
the rotor deformation into proper diamond shape, having provision for hard
surface sleeves
insert to allow for material of plastic, ceramic and glass;
- the female part having an arm extension also holding two different radiuses
of curvature;
- an in-joint seal within a groove located in and along said female part; and
- the joint having a provision for an in-joint bearing, linking friction-free
the cylindrical male
part to the female part.


12. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said transfer slot
comprises:
- a pivoting blade wheel bearings shaft parallel to the engine axis, near mid-
way between said
blade pivots;
- a cylindrical wheel bearings shaft holder fitting tightly with the wheel
bearings shaft and the
transfer slot;
- the extremities of said wheel bearings shaft each carrying one wheel
bearings rolling on said
lateral side cover annular track; and
- an attachment space on said wheel bearings shaft for one of the said annular
power sleeves
bearing ears, allowing driving of the central power disk and power shaft.



22




13. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, having a set of contour seals
each located in a
linear groove extending along the engine axis within said pivoting blade male
joint and
comprising:
- a gate type seal being a back spring-loaded sliding;
- a gate type seal being a back spring-loaded sliding in fit contact
simultaneously with the
internal contoured housing contour wall and the lateral side covers; and
- a contour seal damper made of a rubber band lying in the bottom of the
groove on which
said contour seal and spring are sited.


14. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, having a system of lateral
seals carried by said
pivoting blades and comprising:
- a curved groove and a curved seal in contact with said lateral side covers;
and
- a moon-like shaped groove and pellet seal on each side of said male joint.


15. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said lateral seals
include:
- a moon-like shaped groove and pellet seal on each side of said male joint;
and
- an almost elliptic pivots path groove and static back-pressured ring in each
side cover, which
by design is in permanent contact with the rotor.


16. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein lubrication needs are
suppressed, and
comprising:
- a favorable geometry where lubricant is not needed for cooling;
- a favorable geometry where no internal parallax forces exist;
- a favorable geometry where no seal is under internal stress, and subject to
hydrogen
combustion; and
- said contour seals and lateral seals system made of very hard material for
operation without
lubricant.


17. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said annular power
sleeves comprises:
- an empty annular ring concentric with the engine axis, with an interior
receptacle for said
differential washers linking the power disk;
- two opposed small bearing-rings, each linked to a pivoting blade wheel
bearings axes;
- multiple grooves on the inner surface of said empty annular ring, for
tangential torque
transfer to said differential washers;
- a set of seals carried by said empty annular ring, to leak proof the inner
area from the outer
area;



23


- wherein the two said annular power sleeves are inserted co-linearly 90
degrees apart within
the Quasiturbine, each one making a relative back and forth rotation not at
constant angular
speed; and
- wherein the load-pressure on two opposed said pivoting blades when in the
fluid energy
converter mode is canceled out by the annular power sleeves, generally
suppressing the need
for the said wheel bearings and the annular track.


18. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said clutch centrifuge
weights
comprise:
- a plurality of said clutch centrifuge weights located in-between said
pivoting blade and the
annular power sleeves;
- said clutch centrifuge weights pivoting around the closest wheel bearings
axes;
- a plurality of friction clutch pads located on the outer surface of the
annular power sleeves,
where the rotation is not at constant angular speed;
- a plurality of friction clutch pads located on the inside surfaces of the
said annular power
sleeves, where the rotation is not at constant angular speed;
- a plurality of friction clutch pads located on the surface of said power
disk, where the
rotation is at constant angular speed;
- a plurality of friction clutch pads located outside the Quasiturbine engine,
but driven by the
centrifuge weights inside said clutch; and
- a clutch pad-locking mechanism to permit to crank the engine by the said
power shaft for
starting.


19. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said Modulated Inner
Rotor Volume
(MIRV) comprises:
- a triangular shaped chamber defined by the inward joint of two successive
said pivoting
blades and the outer surface of the annular power sleeves, and extending from
one respective
pivoting blade wheel bearings axes to the other;
- wherein the Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) are 45 degrees out of phase
with said
outward rotor chambers;
- wherein said triangular shaped-like chamber has a minimum volume at open
diamond corner
angles and a maximum volume at closed angles;
- wherein the rotation of said rotor expels the gas-liquid enclosed in the
maximum volume,
and intakes similar content from the minimum volume configuration;
- wherein said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) act as a compressor-
ventilator, and as
a second stage low-flow high-pressure compressor mode;
- wherein said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) ventilate the rotor inside
area

24


through two independent top and bottom circuits by either pulsing, parallel
and counter flow
directions;
- wherein the said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) circulate air-liquid
coolant
through the engine block and in the rotor central area, providing an integral
cooling active
circuit;
- wherein said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) provide the pressure
fluctuation
required to operate a standard carburetor fuel diaphragm pump;
- wherein said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) work in both directions of
rotation,
upon reversing the direction of the flow; and
- wherein very high-pressure is obtained from the pivoting blades scissor-
effect, to drive a
Diesel fuel pump and other device.


20. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said Modulated Inner
Rotor Volumes
(MIRV) work as a compressor, a pump and an oscillating engine, without
rotation but simply
by successive oscillating deformation of said diamond shaped rotor, by using
an alternating
piston, external fluid pressure.


21. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said pivoting blade
Modulated Inner
Rotor Volumes (MIRV) act as an Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ), and
comprises:
- a triangular shaped-like chamber defined by the inward joint of two
successive said pivoting
blades and the outward surface of the annular power sleeves, and extending
from one
respective pivoting blade wheel bearings axes to the other;
- wherein the said triangular shaped-like chamber has a minimum volume at open
diamond
corner angles, and maximum volume at closed angles;
- wherein a pressure in the minimum volume configuration of said chamber
provokes the said
rotor to rotate 90 degrees toward a maximum volume configuration;
- wherein successive said triangular shaped-like chamber pressurizations
continuously drive
said rotor in an engine mode; and
- wherein the said Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ) mode leaves the
rotor outward
areas free for compressor, pump and other uses.


22. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said differential
linking washers
comprises:
- a large diameter power disk concentric to, and carrying the power shaft, and
having a
plurality of radially extending pins receptacles;
- a set of differential washers carrying two washer-pins inserted into said
radially extending
pins;




- said power disk external surface shape as part of a sphere of same diameter
and the
differential washer shaped accordingly to permit perfect sitting on the power
disk spherical
surface;
- said two washer-pins of the differential washers fitting into said annular
power sleeves
interior grooves and steps;
- a play in-between said power disk external diameter and said annular power
sleeves internal
diameter to permit said differential washers to rotate slightly around said
radially extending
pins;
- a curvature of the said power disk perimeter surface along the axial
direction, to give room
for the rotation of the said differential washers;
- a design permitting the sliding in-and-out of said differential washers
linking through one of
the Quasiturbine said lateral side covers central aperture without dismantling
the engine; and
- wherein said differential linking washers prevents said pivoting blades
rotational harmonic
to reach the said power disk and power shaft.


23. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said central shaft
comprises:
- a central shaft collinear with the central housing axis, crossing the two
lateral side covers
and supported by bearings in at least one of the lateral side covers;
- a central shaft coupling mechanism composed of said power disk and said
differential
linking washers;
- wherein the shaft coupling mechanism is made as a sliding plug-in unit,
easily slide in-and-
out without dismantling the engine;
- wherein said differential washers linking mechanism removes the RPM harmonic

modulation on the shaft;
- wherein the shaft gives full power takeoff at both of its ends;
- wherein said power disk and power shaft are not mandatory for engine
operation and are
removed;
- wherein the central shaft can be a very large diameter thin wall tube shaft
carrying an axial
thrust bearing at least at one end, and an engine crank starting device at
either ends, enclosing
accessories like propellers screw, electrical components, generator, gearbox
shaft and similar;
and
- wherein several Quasiturbines in different modes, are stacked side-by-side
on a single
common said power shaft through simple ratchet coupling for torque addition.


24. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein in engine mode, said
ignition flame
transfer slot-cavity comprises:
- a cut into the internal contoured housing wall, located nearby where the
forward contour seal

26


stands at maximum chamber pressure, to allow a flame transfer from one said
chamber to the
next following chamber, and to permit continuous combustion; and
- wherein said ignition flame transfer slot-cavity allows the injection of
high-pressure hot
burning gas into the next ready to fire chamber, producing a dynamically
enhanced
compression ratio.


25. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein in engine mode, the
high-tech fuel
gases and hydrogen fuel capability enable:
- multi facing said intake ports located axially one each side of the engine,
and easily
accessible to permit independent and stratified admission of fuel and air;
- multi side-by-side said intake ports located radially on the internal
contoured housing wall,
and easily accessible to permit independent and stratified admission of fuel
and air;
- said pivoting blades, wheel bearings and annular tracks made very strong;
and
- an intake chamber area kept cold, to permit direct high-tech fuel gas and
hydrogen backfire-
proof intake and engine photo-detonation mode if required.


26. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said Quasiturbine
Internal
Combustion QTIC-cycle comprises:
- a fast and linear pressure-compression raising-falling Quasiturbine
characteristic near top
dead center;
- a continuous atmospheric air pressure intake without butterfly valve
restriction;
- a fuel vaporized, sprayed, and mixed directly into said continuous
atmospheric air pressure
intake without synchronization means;
- a compression of the said fuel mixture to standard pressure level, and a
uniform combustion
triggered by a spark plug;
- said compression ratio tuner made of a small adjustable threaded piston, to
replace the spark
plug at very high compression ratios;
- a compression of said fuel mixture to the Diesel-like pressure level by the
short fast raising-
falling Quasiturbine pressure pulse, and a uniform combustion driven by the
adiabatic high
temperature and radiation conditions;
- at very high-pressure, a photo-detonation engine mode made possible, where
no sparkplug
or otherwise synchronization means is needed;
- a volume variation near top dead center without said pivoting blade mass
momentum
transfer, to well resist the photo-detonation knocking; and
- a heavy construction of said pivoting rotor blades for inertial smooth-out
of the photo-
detonation knocking.


27


27. The rotary apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein thermalization
comprises:
- said cylindrical shape male joint of the pivoting blade being in direct
mechanical contact
with said internal contoured housing wall, thereby increasing the combustion
chamber walls
thermalization, heat transportation and dissipation;
- at least one of the two lateral side covers having a large central hole
exposing the pivoting
blades central area of the rotor, thus eliminating the so called internal
engine parts, and so
improving the cooling and reducing the need for lubricant cooling; and
- a forced liquid and gas ventilation by said Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes
(MIRV) in the
area between said pivoting blades and said annular power sleeves.


28

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

OPIC Application No. 2,511,267 - Version of September, 2007

ROTATY ENGINE WITH PIVOTING BLADES
FIELD OF THE INVENTION:
This invention relates generally to a perfectly balanced, zero vibration,
rotary device, and
specifically to rotary engines, compressors, and pressure or vacuum pumps.

DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART:
The patent USA 6,164,263 discloses a general rotary device called the
Quasiturbine (Qurbine
in short), which uses four pivoting blades and four rolling carriages to make
a rotor of
variable diamond-shaped geometry, the rotor mounted within a contoured housing
wall
formed along a Saint-Hilaire confinement profile shaped somewhat like a
skating rink, the
sides of the housing wall closed by lateral side covers. That Quasiturbine
device uses four
peripheral rolling carriages to hold the rotor in place within the housing
wall and to transfer
the pivoting blade radial load-pressure to the opposite part of the housing
wall, in such a
manner as to remove all load pressure from the center, making the Quasiturbine
a center-free
engine. USA 6,164,263 also discloses an effective but simple rotor-to-shaft
differential
linking mechanism and further provides a general method for the precise
calculation of the
Saint-Hilaire confinement profile family of curves for the housing wall. In
most rotary
engines, the sealing at the pivot connection or apex between two adjacent
blades must be done
simultaneously with the contoured housing wall and also with the two lateral
side covers
which is a critical and difficult five-bodies sealing problem. This sealing
problem was
satisfactorily solved in patent USA 6,164,263 through a male-female pivot
design overlapped
by the carriage. Results of theoretical simulation and some experimental data
revealed
exceptional engine characteristics for the Quasiturbine device, and in
particular the possibility
of a shorter pressure pulse with a linear ramp compression-pressure raising-
falling slope near
top dead center.
In the present context, this invention is not an improvement of the
Quasiturbine device in
USA 6,164,263, but instead discloses a "central, annular, rotor support"
applicable to all the
family of Quasiturbine rotor arrangements for similar or other applications,
where pivoting
blades, wheel bearings, and annular tracks are located within the rotor, while
maintaining a
center-free engine characteristic for direct power takeoff. To illustrate the
central, annular,
rotor support, an embodiment of the Quasiturbine has been used which employs a
rotor made

1


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

up of four blades incorporating simple cylindrical pivoting joints between
adjacent blades
without rolling carriages. The pivoting joint includes an underneath holding
finger at the male
end, and efficiently solves the five bodies sealing problem. The device of the
present
40 invention includes wheel bearings and lateral side covers carrying the
annular tracks to take
the pressure-load applied by the blades. The invention also provides a precise
parametric
calculation method and criteria for unique selection of the appropriate Saint-
Hilaire
confinement profile so as to satisfy the optimum engine efficiency of the PV
(Pressure-
Volume) diagram; and this geometry permits the Quasiturbine to be scaled-up to
provide
power in excess of 100 MW and more. This new rotor arrangement further allows
the
insertion of annular power sleeves each linking each pair of two opposite
blades with or
without centrifuge clutch weights, on the external surface of the sleeves. A
Modulated Inner
Rotor Volume (MIRV) allows pumping-ventilating action and is particularly
useful to cool
the interior of the rotor in an internal combustion engine mode. The MIRV is
also generally
50 applicable to the Quasiturbine design disclosed in patent USA 6,164,263.
Finally, on the
interior wall of the annular power sleeve, differential washers make a large
diameter
tangential mechanical differential coupling with the power disk and shaft. Due
to a shorter
confinement time and a faster linear ramp compression-pressure raising-falling
slope, a new
combined Otto and Diesel QTIC-cycle mode is made possible, and is photo-
detonation
compatible.

OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:
The object of this invention is to provide a Quasiturbine central, annular,
rotor support using
60 pivoting blades, wheel bearings, and lateral side covers carrying annular
tracks (or
alternatively the canceling out of the pressure-load in the fluid energy
converter mode through
the annular power sleeves) generally applicable to all the family of
Quasiturbine rotor
arrangements and other rotary engines, compressors or pumps, and particularly
to an
embodiment of the Quasiturbine which employs four blades incorporating simple
cylindrical
pivoting joints between adjacent blades without carriages, all this while
maintaining a large
empty area in the center of the engine for direct power takeoff and preserving
most previously
claimed Quasiturbine characteristics.

Another object of this invention is to provide a "Saint-Hilaire confinement
profile calculation
70 method" of the contoured housing wall appropriate to the chosen
Quasiturbine design
arrangement, minimizing the surface to volume ratio in the compression
chambers and
reducing the flow turbulence. This calculation method includes criteria for
engine optimum
confinement profile selection from the family of curves to generate the
contoured housing

2


CA 02511267 2007-09-17
wall.

A further object of this invention is to provide a low friction, pivoting
blade, joint design
which is particularly suitable for non-metallic material like plastic, ceramic
or glass, the joint
allowing for maximum air-tightness; space for gate-type, near zero in-groove
movement with
single or multiple contour seals; higher maximum RPM; and suitable for very
high-pressure
80 applications with the seals designed accordingly. A compression ratio tuner
can replace the
spark plug in high compression ratio photo-detonation combustion engine mode.

Another further object of this invention is to provide a Modulated Inner Rotor
Volume
(MIRV) producing annular pumping-ventilating action between the inner surfaces
of the
moving pivoting blades and the outer surfaces of the annular power sleeves,
with or without
centrifuge clutch weights. The Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) is
particularly useful
to cool the interior of the rotor in an internal combustion engine mode, while
allowing for the
insertion of the differential washers on the inner surface of the annular
power sleeves, to be
able to make a large diameter tangential mechanical differential coupling with
the power disk
90 and shaft.

Yet another further object of this invention is to provide a new combined Otto
and Diesel
Quasiturbine operation in an Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle mode, this due to
the possible
shorter confinement time and the faster linear ramp compression-pressure
raising-falling
slope, which is photo detonation compatible.

In order to achieve these objects, the Quasiturbine rotor arrangement makes
use of an
appropriate contoured housing wall calculated to receive the present, pivoting
blades, rotor
geometry, with a set of contour and lateral seals (linear gate type and
pellets) engineered for
100 the selected rotor arrangement.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS:
A more complete appreciation of the invention will be readily apparent when
considered in
reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. I is a perspective exploded view of the Quasiturbine device with a
contoured housing
wall and the four interconnected pivoting blades shown in a square
configuration rotor.

110 FIG. 2 is a top view with the lateral side covers removed, the four
interconnected pivoting
3


CA 02511267 2007-09-17
blades shown in a diamond configuration.

FIG. 3 is a detail perspective exploded view of the Quasiturbine showing
interior details,
where the contoured housing wall and two of the pivoting blades have been
removed for
better viewing.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT:
The USA 6,164,263 patent disclosed a Quasiturbine rotor arrangement using four
rolling
120 carriages to take the pivoting blade pressure-load and transfer it to the
opposite contoured
housing wall. The present invention discloses a Quasiturbine rotor arrangement
without
carriages, where the pressure-load on each pivoting blade is taken by its own
set of wheel
bearings axes located in a power transfer slot in the inner side of blade, the
wheel bearings
rolling on annular tracks, one track attached to the central area of each
lateral side cover. This
rotor supporting configuration can apply to all the Quasiturbine family of
designs, and is here
illustrated on a specific Quasiturbine embodiment without rolling carriages.
This Quasiturbine
rotor arrangement reduces the number of components, reduces the friction
surface, reduces
the total wall surface in the compression chambers, and is particularly
suitable for non-
metallic pivoting blades, the blades being made instead from material such as
plastic, ceramic
130 or glass. Furthermore, this rotor arrangement allows for single or
multiple contour seals with a
near zero in-groove movement, and eliminates the need of a cooling system for
carriages.
This invention applies generally to rotary engines, compressors, or pressured
or vacuum
pumps.

The present Quasiturbine invention is generally referred on FIG. I as number
10, and
comprises a stator casing 12 made of a contoured housing wall 14 and two
lateral side covers
16, one on each side of the housing wall 14, and a rotor 18 of four or more
pivoting blades 20
confined within this casing. Each pivoting blade 20 carries a power transfer
slot 22 on its
inner surface 24 in which wheel bearings 26 are located. The lateral side
covers 16 each have
140 an annular track 28, not necessarily circular, on their inner surface 30
to support the wheel
bearings 26 carried by the pivoting blades 20, the wheel bearings rolling on
the tracks.
Multiple notches 32 are provided on the extemal perimeter of the covers 16
where cooling
fins 34 can be inserted. Liquid cooling is also easily feasible. Radial intake
36 and exhaust 38
ports are located in the housing wall 14 or axially (not shown) in the lateral
side covers 16. A
check valve port 40 can be located through each pivoting blade 20 to benefit
from the
centrifuge intake pressure. A spark plug 44 is located in the combustion
chamber. A

4


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

compression ratio tuner 42 can replace the spark plug 44 at high compression
ratio photo-
detonation mode.

150 One end of each pivoting blade 20 carries a male connector 46 and the
other end carries a
complementary female connector 48, the male and female connectors of adjacent
blades
connected to provide a low friction pivot joint 50 as shown in FIG. 2. The
cylindrical male
connector 46 carries a contour sea] groove 52 and has a rounded outer portion
that acts as a
guiding-rubbing pad 54 with the contoured housing wall 14, with provision for
a hard metal
or ceramic insert in that guiding-rubbing area. The pivoting blades 20 also
have a lateral pellet
hole 56 in the male connector 46 at the joints 50, and lateral seal grooves 58
along their sides
extending between the connectors 46, 48. The set of seals used in the pivoting
blades is made
up of contour seals 60; lateral arched side cover seals 62 (which can be made
continuous
when located in a groove within the lateral side covers 16), and small pellet
seals 64 in the
160 male connector 46 at the pivoting blade joint 50. All the seals have a
back spring, and in
addition the contour seal 60 sits on a contour seal damper made of a rubber
band lying in the
bottom of its groove to help extend the seal life from hammering against the
housing wall.
Two annular power sleeves 66, 68 are provided, as shown in FIG. 3, each linked
to the axes
70 of the wheel bearings 26 in two opposed pivoting blade power transfer slots
22 by opposed
rings 72 on each sleeve. The sleeves 66, 68 leave a large circular hole in the
engine center for
the shaft power disk, a direct power takeoff or other uses. The annular power
sleeves 66, 68
can carry their own set of lateral side cover seals (not shown) to insulate
their inward central
area from their outward area. Furthermore, the inner surface 74 of the annular
power sleeves
170 66, 68 carries several grooves 76 from which any mechanism enclosed by the
sleeves can be
driven. Centrifuge clutch weights 78 are located between the inner surface 24
of the pivoting
blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68, a
clutch weight 78
located adjacent each side of each of the power transfer slots 22. A
tangential mechanical
differential is located on the inner surface 74 of the annular power sleeves
66, 68, and is made
of several (from two to twelve or more) differential washers 82 linking the
annular power
sleeves 66, 68 to the central power disk 84 and the shaft 86. A calculation
method for the
stator Saint-Hilaire confinement profile of the contoured housing wall 14 is
disclosed for the
chosen Quasiturbine rotor arrangement, with a set of optimum engine contoured
housing wall
14 selection criteria.
180
FIG. I shows the four interconnected pivoting blades 20 in a square
configuration rotor within
the housing wall 14, guided by the solid guiding-rubbing pads 54 provided by
the male
connectors 46 at the joints 50 between adjacent blades. The wheel bearings 26
of the blades



CA 02511267 2007-09-17

20 roll on the annular tracks 26 carried by the lateral side covers 16. The
port locations 36, 38
shown are the ones used when the Quasiturbine is operated as a fluid energy
converter or
compressor. The spark plug 44 is positioned as for the internal combustion
mode. For clarity,
the centrifuge weights 78 are not shown on FIG. 1.

FIG. 2 shows the four interconnected pivoting blades 20 in a diamond
configuration. FIG. 2
190 also shows details of the interconnecting pivot joint 50 including details
of the male 46 and
female 48 connectors; the contour 60 and lateral arched seals 62 and pellet
seal 64; the wheel
bearings 26 and annular track 28 positioning; and the guiding-rubbing action
of the pad 54 in
the cylindrical male joints 50. The compression ratio tuner 42, the flame
transfer slot-cavity
88 and one of the pivoting blade check valve ports 40 with the central area
are shown. The
port locations 36, 38 shown in FIG. 2 are the ones used when the Quasiturbine
is operated in
an internal combustion engine mode with counterclockwise direction of
rotation. FIG. 2 also
shows the Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) 90. Annular pumping action is
provided
by the varying size of the volumes 90, each located in between the inner
surface 24 of the
pivoting blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66,
68. It will be
200 seen that the centrifuge clutch weights 78 are located within the volumes
90 and move along
the outer surface 80 of the power sleeves 66, 68.

FIG. 3 shows details of the Quasiturbine with the contoured housing wall 14
and two of the
pivoting blades 20 removed. It also shows details of the centrifugal clutch
weights 78, which
weights could possibly pivot around the closest wheel bearings, the annular
power sleeves 66,
68 and the differential washers 82 making a large diameter tangential
mechanical differential
coupling with the power disk 84 and shaft 86.

The four pivoting blades 20 are attached to one another as a chain in forming
the rotor 18 and
210 show a variable diamond-shaped geometry while moving in a Saint-Hilaire-
like confinement
profile of the contoured housing wall 14 calculated to confine the rotor 18 at
all angles of
rotation. Contour seals 60 between the pivoting blades 20 and the contoured
housing wall 14
are located at each pivot joint 50. The expansion or combustion chamber 92 is
defined by the
volume in-between the outer surface 94 of a pivoting blade 20 and the inner
surface 96 of the
contoured housing wall 14 and extends from one pivot joint contour seal 60 to
the next.
Referring to FIG. 2, as the rotor 18 turns, it does make minimum combustion
chamber 92
volumes at the top and bottom (TDC), and maximum volumes at left and right
(BTC). During
one rotation, each pivoting blade 20 goes through four complete engine
strokes, so that a total
of sixteen strokes are completed in every rotation. Furthermore, as an
expansion stroke starts
220 from a horizontal pivoting blade 20 and ends when it gets vertical, the
next following pivoting
6


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

blade 20 is immediately starting a new expansion cycle without any dead time,
which means
that the Quasiturbine is a quasi-continuous flow engine at intake and exhaust,
both of which
can be located either radially in the contoured housing wall 14 or axially in
the lateral side
covers 16. Two compression housing 14 sections are located symmetrically to
the center, as
the two opposed expansion housing 14 sections. Several removable intake and
exhaust plugs
98 may be used to convert the two parallel compression and expansion circuits
into a sole
serial circuit. The two quasi-independent circuits are used in parallel with
all plugs removed,
for operation as a two stroke internal combustion engine, fluid energy
converter, compressor,
vacuum pump and flow meter. The two quasi-independent circuits are used in
serial by
230 plugging intermediate ports, to make a four stroke internal combustion
engine as shown in the
port arrangement of FIG. 2. Notice that the intake and exhaust ports have
different locations
for different applications and their position can be time advanced or delayed
for exhaust and
intake as shown in FIG. 2. The load-pressure force exercised by the compressed
fluids on
each pivoting blade 20 is taken by the wheel bearings 26 rolling on the
annular tracks 28
attached to their respective lateral side covers 16. With this geometrical
arrangement, even
with heavy pressure-loads on the pivoting blades 20, the diamond-shaped
deformation of the
rotor 18 requires only very little energy, and the rubbing pads 54 located in
the vicinity of the
pivot joints 50 and contour seals 60 guide the rotor 18 during its diamond-
shaped
deformation. During rotation, the wheel bearings axes 70 are not moving at a
constant angular
240 velocity and for this reason, a differential linkage must be built within
the annular power
sleeves 66, 68 to drive the power disk 84 and shaft 86 at constant angular
velocity.

The stator 12 and the lateral side covers 16 are centered on the engine rotor
axis. The lateral
side covers 16 have annular tracks 28 receiving the wheel bearings 26 carried
by the blades
20, which tracks are not necessarily circular. FIG. 1 shows a central hole 100
in the lateral
side covers 16 that can be made large enough so that the power disk 84 and the
differential
washers 82 can be slide in-and-out without having to dismantle the engine. A
cap bearing-
holder can be inserted in the large side cover hole 100. Intake and exhaust
ports 36, 38 are
located either radially in the stator 12 or axially (not shown) in the lateral
side covers 16. For
250 the Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) 90, the lateral side covers 16
carry a set of
ventilation ports 102 for cooling the rotor 18. A spark plug 44 can be located
at a variable
angle on the top of the stator 12, and also at bottom (not shown) in the two
stroke engine
mode, and replaced, when in a very high compression ratio photo-detonation
mode by a small
threaded piston called a "compression ratio tuner" 42, which can be feedback
controlled to
optimize combustion chamber conditions for different fuels or running
operation. The surface
of contact between the stator 12 and the lateral side covers 16 carry a fix
gasket 104.

7


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

The annular tracks 28 are circular only if the wheel bearings axes 70 are on
the line joining
the axis of two successive blade pivots. The central opening in the rotor 18
could be made
260 smaller or larger by moving the wheel bearings 26 towards or away of the
outer surface 94 of
the pivoting blades 20, out of alignment with pivot joints 50, but then the
annular track 28 in
the side covers 16 will no longer be a perfect circle, but be elliptical-like
in shape. The wheel
bearings 26 are located on each side of the pivoting blade 20 and carry roller
or needle
bearings 106. The blade rubbing pads 54, located in the vicinity of the
contour seals 60, can
be formed by the pivoting blade male connector 46 itself, or it can be formed
by a little insert
(not shown) containing the contour seal 60 so as to prevent the hardening of
the whole
pivoting blade 20. In this arrangement, hard inserts can, alternatively, be
used to make the
complete pivoting blade joint 50. Pressure in the combustion chamber 92 does
not generate a
significant torque around the wheel bearings axes 70 carried by the pivoting
blades 20 and
270 consequently the combustion chamber pressure has little effect on the
rubbing pad 54 pressure
against the housing contour wall 14. The rubbing pad pressure is essentially
due to the small
rotor deformation, which is quite independent of the pressure-load. However,
this same
pressure-load gives a great tangential rotational force on the whole rotor.
The combustion
chamber 92 can be enlarged by cutting the pivoting blade 20 and the very high
compression
ratio photo-detonation mode makes use of a "compression ratio tuner" 42
instead of a spark
plug 44. The manufacturing method allows for the entire stator and rotor to be
made out of a
cylindrical disk, the housing contour wall being formed in the interior of the
disk and the
pivoting blades being formed in the outer periphery. Alternatively, the
contoured housing wall
14 can be shaped by precision forging and the pivoting blades 20 can be metal
cast or metal
280 powder pressed. Similar techniques and molds will also work for plastic or
ceramic.

The pivoting blades 20 can be made all alike with a male connector 46 and a
female
connector 48 to form the pivot joints 50. Alternatively, half the blades 20
can have two female
connectors and the other half two male connectors. A good "five-bodies" sealed
joint design
is quite important and must satisfy an extensive force vector analysis. The
blade pivot joint 50
of the present invention must be strong enough to take some load-pressure and
all the
tangential push-and-pull forces of the torque, while allowing independent low-
friction
rotational movement of the two connected pivoting blades 20. Simultaneously,
the joint must
be leak proof within itself, the contoured housing wall 14 and with the two
lateral side covers
290 16. This pivot joint 50 has space, if needed, to enclose a bearing to
further reduce the required
rotor energy deformation. Extensive research has led to a double chisel joint
pivot concept
detailed on FIG. 2, where the male connector 46 has two different radii 106,
108 on its main
body 110 and a finger 112 spaced from the main body 110 for use in holding the
pivoting

8


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

blades together. The female connector 48 has also two different radii 114, 116
located on an
extending arm 118, the radii 114 116 cooperating with the radii 106, 108 on
the male
connector 46 when the arm 118 is mounted between the main body 110 and the
finger 112,
and preventing the connectors 46, 48 from opening up. As the rotor torque
increases, the
joints 50 get tighter and tighter, and still more leak proof.

300 The contour seals 60 are single or multi-pieces drawer type seals located
in the axial direction
along the pivoting blade male connector 46 and have a near zero in-groove
displacement,
making a contact angle almost perpendicular to the contoured housing wall 14
at all times,
departing only slightly from -6,35 to +6,35 degrees for the selected
arrangement. Consecutive
multiple pieces contour seals (not shown) can be used to prevent two
successive chambers to
be in contact with one another at the time the joint 50 passes in front of the
ports 36, 38. This
multi-seals configuration would also insure that at least one of the seals is
at all times moving
inward in its groove, while the others may be moving outward. In addition, the
contour seal
sits on a contour seal damper made of a rubber band lying in the bottom of its
groove 52 or
between the springs to help extend the seal life from hammering against the
housing contour
310 wall. The pivoting blades 20 seal with the lateral side covers 16, on each
side, by a linear or
slightly curved gate-type lateral seal 62 and a pellet type seal 64 at the end
of the male
connector 46. The seal grooves are at different depth levels, so that the
pressure gas behind
the seals cannot propagate. A non-mandatory linear intra-pivot seal can be
incorporated in the
female connector 48 from one lateral side cover to the other, if required.
When the pivoting
blades 20 are made of smooth or fragile material like plastic, ceramic or
glass, there is room
for a metal insert to be placed at each pivoting blade joint 50 for proper
movement and
friction control. When shaped as an arc, the pivoting blade lateral seal
grooves 58 are easy to
make on a lathe. This arched seal, positioned near the edge of the outer
surface of the pivoting
blade 20 traps a minimum volume in combustion mode, and being at the far reach
of the rotor,
320 it keeps the high-pressure in the outer area of the covers 16, which
reduces the total pressure-
force on them. A continuous elliptical-like seal, shaped like a slightly
shrunken confinement
wall profile, and incorporated into the lateral side covers 16 is also a
simple alternative to the
multi-components lateral seal set described. All seals 60, 62, 64 have a back
spring to
maintain them at all time respectively in contact with the housing wall 14 and
the lateral side
covers 16. The low-friction wheel bearings 26, the pivot joint 50 design, and
the described
seal set, allow the Quasiturbine to withstand high-pressure-load, while
maintaining an
excellent leak proof condition.

Many Quasiturbines may benefit in having some type of centrifuge clutches. The
330 Quasiturbine geometry permits it to have the centrifuge clutch weights 78
within the rotor 18,
9


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

each weight located between the wheel bearings 26 and a blade end, in-between
the pivoting
blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 within
the volumes 90
well ventilated by the Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) annular central
pump effect.
The centrifuge clutch weights 78 can pivot around the wheel bearings axes 70.
As with any
centrifuge clutches, the weights 78 will contribute slightly to increase the
rotor inertia. The
centrifuge clutch weights 78 can be used to drive clutch friction pads (not
shown) located
either on the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68; or within
the power disk 84
where the angular rotational speed is uniform; or externally to the
Quasiturbine. Notice that
with such a centrifuge clutch in place, a conventional starter must be used to
drive the
340 Quasiturbine rotor and not the power shaft 86, unless some kind of clutch-
locking is provided.
Because each pair of opposed wheel bearings 26 does not rotate at constant
angular velocity,
two distinct but identical central annular power sleeves 66, 68 are used side-
by-side along the
engine axis as shown on FIG. 3, each one linking two different opposite wheel
bearings axes
70 by opposed rings 72. Each annular power sleeve 66, 68 is in the form of an
annular ring
with the two outer opposed rings 72 on the outer surface 80 taking the torque
from the
opposite pivoting blades 20 via the wheel bearings axes 70. As an alternative
of the two outer
opposed mounting rings 72 on the annular power sleeves 66, 68, conventional
centrifuge
clutch pads (not shown) linked to the centrifuge weights 78 could be inserted
between the two
350 consecutive wheel bearings 26 and the outer surface 80 of the annular
power sleeves 66, 68.
Inside the annular sleeves 66, 68 are multiple grooves 76 in the inner surface
74 in which the
differential washers 82 can be attached, via washer pins 118 thereon. The
differential washers
82 are rotably attached to the surface of the power disk 84 via power disk
pins 120 to link the
power disk 84, via an oscillating movement of the washers 82 around the power
disk pins
120, to the power sleeves 66, 68. In the design shown, the maximum relative
angular variation
of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 is 6.35 degrees ahead and behind their
respective average
angular position, for a maximum differential angle of 12.7 degrees, which
produces a+/- 15
degrees oscillation of the differential washers 82. In the case of the
pressurized fluid energy
converter mode, like pneumatic or steam, where both the upper and lower
chambers are
360 symmetrically pressurized, the annular power sleeves 66, 68 can take and
cancel out the
mutual pressure-load of the two opposite pivoting blades 20, possibly
suppressing in this case
the need to use the wheel bearings 26 and the lateral side cover annular
tracks 28.

To power the shaft 86 by the two side-by-side annular power sleeves 66, 68,
the shaft power
disk 84 or the large diameter shaft have multiple radial extending disk pins
120 on which sits
the set of differential washers 82. Each washer 82 has two opposite radially
extending washer
pins 118, each one fitting into its own internal groove 76 on power sleeve 66,
68 respectively.



CA 02511267 2007-09-17

The thicker, or wider, that the Quasiturbine design is, the greater can be the
diameter of the
differential washers 82, however, fewer differential washers can be setup on
the
370 circumference of the power disk 84, except if one accepts a partial
overlapping, which is well
possible. Practically, the numbers of differential washers 82, the number of
power disk pins
120 and the corresponding grooves 76 in the power sleeves 66, 68 can vary from
two to
twelve or more. In the design shown, the differential washers 82 angular
oscillation around
the disk pin 120 is +/- 15 degrees, which requires a little play between the
power disk 84 and
the internal surface 74 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 to account for the
washer being
slightly off shaft axis during oscillation. Alternatively, if the power disk
84 external surface is
shaped as part of a sphere of the same diameter, the differential washer 82
can sit perfectly on
it if also shaped accordingly and furthermore, since the washer pins 118 on
the differential
washers 82 need to be cylindrical only on a 15 degree arc, the two pins shape
can be
380 elongated toward the washer center for better strength. Each radially
extending disk pin 120
can be part of the differential washer itself, and can carry a bearing. This
set of differential
washers 82 makes a large diameter tangential mechanical differential coupling
between the
two annular power sleeves 66, 68 and the unique power disk 84, and suppresses
the rotational
harmonic for a constant and uniform rotational speed of the output shaft.
Another differential
design is presented in USA 6,164,263, and most other conventional differential
designs can
work, but the above described tangential differential design is more
convenient because it
works at a high radius, where the torque-force is minimal; it takes up little
space; and it leaves
a large central-free engine area for power take-off. Furthermore, it allows
the large shaft
diameter or the power disk-shaft 84 86 assembly to slide in-and-out of the
Quasiturbine
390 engine without it being disassembled. Like for the Quasiturbine rotor,
this differential design
has a fixed center of gravity during rotation and maintains the zero vibration
engine
characteristics. The power disk can hold a conventional feed-through shaft, or
can carry, or be
part of, a very large diameter thin wall tube shaft. This tube shaft may
enclose a propeller
screw for a water jet or pumping, or an electrical generator or else. It can
also carry an axial
thrust bearing at least at one end, and an engine crank starting device at
either ends.

Each Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) 90 is generally triangular in shape,
each
volume formed by the inner surfaces 24 of adjacent pivoting blades 20
extending from their
common pivot 50 to their respective transfer slots 22 and the outer surface 80
of the annular
400 power sleeves 66, 68. The volumes 90 vary as the rotor 18 rotates. The
volumes 90 are forty
five degrees out of phase with the outer combustion chambers 92, and make an
integrated
efficient annular pump or ventilating device, displacing a total of 8 times
its volume in every
rotation. Ventilating ports 102 are located in the lateral side covers 16 near
the external
surface of the annular track 28 in the vicinity of the wheel bearings 26 when
the rotor is in its

11


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

maximum diamond length configuration. The geometry permits pulsing ventilation
if all the
ventilating ports 102 in the lateral side covers 16 are open, or two different
one-way
ventilation circuits in the same or opposed axial direction, if proper
ventilation ports 102 are
selected on both sides of the engine. When the side covers 16 have only a
crossed-
symmetrical-through-center set of ventilation ports 102, as shown in FIG. 1,
entrances occur
410 only from one engine side and exits to the other, while consecutive ports
on the same side
covers would make the entrances and exits on the same engine side. Using a
radial check-
valve 40 across and through the pivoting blade body could allow transfer to-
and-from the
chambers with the central area, which may be of interest for example in the
Quasiturbine-
Stirling-Steam engine, compressor, or enhanced mixture intake by the gas
centrifuge force
through the central engine area. The Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) 90
forms a
well-integrated annular pump and can be used as such in many applications, or
to ventilate
and cool the rotor in engine mode. They can also form a second stage low flow
high-pressure
device when in compressor mode, or to provide the pressure fluctuation
required by a
standard carburetor diaphragm fuel pump. Furthermore, a very high-pressure can
be obtained
420 from the scissor-pivoting-blade effect at the joint 50 when the guiding
male finger 112 moves
in and out of position. Similarly, other piston-like devices can be
incorporated in this scissor
action to produce high-pressure pumping effect like a Diesel fuel pump to
drive the fuel
injectors. Ultimately, the Modulated Inner Rotor Volumes (MIRV) 90 can also be
made to
work as an Inward Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ), while the Quasiturbine
outward rotor
is used as a compressor, a pump, or for other applications.

A new Quasiturbine Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle mode is made possible,
combining
Otto, Diesel and eventually photo-detonation mode. Otto engine cycle intakes
and compresses
a sub-atmospheric manifold pressure air-mixture for uniform combustion, while
the Diesel
430 engine cycle always intakes and compresses atmospheric pressure air-only,
which gives a
non-uniform injected fuel combustion. Due to the possibility of a shorter
confinement time
and a faster linear ramp compression-pressure raising-falling slope, the new
Quasiturbine
Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle mode consists of intaking, at atmospheric
pressure, a
continuous air-fuel mixture for uniform combustion, thereby combining Otto and
Diesel
modes. This mode is not possible with a piston engine, because the sine-wave
shape of the
maximum compression ratio poorly defines the top dead center by making an
unnecessary
long confinement time, consequently requiring a reliable external trigger
source such as a
spark plug or a fuel injector. The Quasiturbine Internal Combustion QTIC-cycle
can work at a
moderate compression ratio with a spark plug 44, or without it at a very high
compression
440 ratio for almost any fuel, the photo-detonation being auto-synchronized by
its very short
linear ramp pressure pulse tip. A regular piston cannot stand photo-detonation
because it
12


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

keeps the mixture confined too long, and because the relatively small piston
mass required by
the severe accelerations at both strokes ends prevent making a stronger
piston. The upward
piston momentum aggravates the effect of knocking, while the homo-kinetic
rotation of the
Quasiturbine allows for relatively more massive pivoting blades making the
passage at top
dead center almost without momentum change. This QTIC-cycle mode only requires
a non-
synchronized fuel pulverization and vaporization in the Quasiturbine
atmospheric intake
continuous airflow, suppressing the need of conventional vacuum carburetor or
synchronized
fuel injector and spark plug timing in photo-detonation mode, and allows for a
much higher
450 RPM than the conventional mode due to continuous intake flow without valve
obstruction and
faster photo-detonation chemistry combustion. The photo-detonation being a
fast radiative
volumetric combustion, it leaves much less unburnt hydrocarbon that has plenty
of extra time
left for completing the combustion. Furthermore, due to the possibility of
shorter confinement
time, the combustion chemistry does not have enough time-pressure to produce
the NO,,
before expansion begins, producing a cleaner exhaust, including with the hot
hydrogen
combustion in presence of nitrogen. Because of the zero dead time, the
Quasiturbine can
provide continuous combustion by using an ignition transfer slot-cavity 88 cut
into the
housing wall 14 for flame transfer from one chamber to the following one. This
ignition flame
transfer slot-cavity 88 also allows the injection of high-pressure hot burning
gas into the
460 following, ready-to-fire, chamber, producing a dynamically enhanced
compression ratio,
since near top dead center, a little volume change in the combustion chamber
makes a large
change in the compression ratio. For better multi-fuel capability, a
compression ratio tuner 42
made of a simple small threaded piston in a tube is used in place of the spark
plug 44, and
allows compression ratio fine-tuning as needed, and can be dynamically
feedback controlled.
The Quasiturbine can be generally used as an engine, compressor or pump, and
sometimes in
a dual mode. To name a few applications, it is suitable for small or very
large units in steam,
pneumatic and hydraulic mode (including use in reversible waterfall hydro-
electric stations),
and in a combined engine-turbo-pump mode where one intake port and its
corresponding
470 exhaust port are used in a compressed fluid energy converter engine mode
while the other
intake and exhaust ports can be used as a positive or vacuum pump or
compressor. The
Quasiturbine can be used as an internal combustion engine in Otto or Diesel in
two or four
stroke mode. The Quasiturbine engines in photo-detonation mode with a high
compression
ratio (20 to 30:1) are particularly suitable for natural gas and other fuels
that are hard to burn
to environmental standards like jet fuel or low specific energy gases, in
which case the fuel is
simply mixed to the atmospheric pressure intake without any synchronization
means. It can be
further used in a continuous combustion mode with a flame transfer cavity 88
at the forward
contour seal 60 near top dead center. It can be used in a Quasiturbine-
Stirling-Steam rotary

13


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

engine mode with pressurized gas or phase change liquid-steam, with the hot
poles alternating
480 with the cold poles, a device which is reversible and can be used as a
heat pump. Most of the
previous engine modes allow operation without a spark plug (no electromagnetic
field), with a
plastic or ceramic engine bloc and with low noise level, all qualities most
suitable for low
signature stealth military operation. Furthermore, those previous modes permit
very energy
efficient operation and more complete internal combustion than conventional
piston engines
to meet the most severe environmental standards of the future. The
Quasiturbine can also be
used as an engine to drive a turbo-jet engine-compressor, allowing the
suppression of the hot-
power-turbine and its associated limitations in temperature, efficiency and
speed. In the
opened or closed Brayton mode, a cold Quasiturbine can act as compressor while
a second hot
Quasiturbine possibly on the same shaft can produce power in a pneumatic mode,
in order to
490 make a jet engine without jet (no gas kinetic energy intermediary
transformation is involved,
which makes it almost insensitive to dust particles). The second hot
Quasiturbine can be
suppressed and the system used as a high flow hot gas generator. It can be
used in a vacuum
engine mode, including with imploding Brown gas. Many applications do not
require the
Quasiturbine to have its own power disk 84 and/or shaft 86, since the shaft
attachment
differential washers 82 can be fixed directly on the accessory shaft (of a
generator, a gearbox,
a differential shaft, by way of example) and the Quasiturbine simply slides
over the accessory
shaft to mount it without any need for shaft alignment. The empty center of
the Quasiturbine
is particularly suitable to locate a propeller therein and makes a self-
integrated marine jet
propulsion system, or a liquid or gas turbine-like pump, where the complete
engine can be
500 submerged. This empty center is also suitable to locate electrical
components for a
lightweight compact electrical generator or electrical motor for a compressor
or pump. The
fast acceleration resulting from the absence of the flywheel and the high
engine specific
power density allows the use of the engine in strategic applications, as in
heavy load soft
landing parachuting. Improved engine intake characteristics allow the
Quasiturbine to run
better than piston engines in rarefied-air as in high altitude airplane
operation. Its low
sensitivity to photo-detonation and potentially oil-free operation make it
most suitable for
hydrogen fuel operation, including with lateral intake stratification and
natural atmospheric
aspiration. Since the Quasiturbine has no oil pan and does not require gravity
oil collection, it
can run in all possible orientations, and even out in space in micro-gravity.
The Quasiturbine
510 can also be used as a general replacement engine, compressor or pump in
most present and
future applications, and with most principles or processes where modulated
volume is
required.

The contoured housing wall 14 is derivate from an empirical generating
equation of the
variable diamond geometry of the rotor for all rotation angles. The housing
wall 14 is not
14


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

unique but part of a family of curves, and selection must be done according to
an engine
efficiency criteria. Before calculating the Saint-Hilaire confinement profile
for the housing
wall 14, one must calculate the blade pivots 44 profile curve. Since this
profile does require
only symmetry across the central engine axis, any initial arbitrary pivot
movement from 0 to
520 45 degrees (or 1/8 of a turn in a non-orthogonal axis situation) does
determine the complete
pivot point curve. This empirical 0 to 45 degree curve must meet three
constraints: be parallel
to the y- axis at 0 degree angle x- crossing; be matching at the diamond-
square rotor
configuration corners; and furthermore, the slope at those corners must be
continuous.
Assuming Rx the pivot profile radius on the x- axis, and Ry the pivot profile
radius on y- axis,
and R45 the pivot profile radius at 45 degrees where in square configuration
rotor, the
modified M(O) linear radius variation between 0 and 45 degree could be
empirically of the
form (pivot profile, not the actual housing contour wall 14):

R(0) = (Rx - (Rx - R45) 0 /45) M(A)
530
Where the modifying parametric function M(O) has the form:
M(0) = 1+ A sin(4 0(1 - P sin(4 0)))

The pivot profile in the 45 (R45) to 90 (Ry) degrees interval is simply given
by the
Pythagoras diamond-lozenge formula. The two constants A and P provide a
parametric
adjustment of the radius variation where +/- A controls the amplitude and
affects mostly the
axis areas, and +/- P controls the angular maximum variation position and
affects the
wideness of the overlap zone near 45 degree from the x- axis. This empirical
representation
540 has been found adequate to explore most of the family of pivot profiles of
interest, including
the very high eccentricities leading to two lobes confinement profiles. The
housing wall 14
presented in Figs. I and 2 is obtained from the pivot concave eccentricity
limit profile curve,
enlarge by the rubbing pad radius 106 all around. This enlargement must be
perpendicular to
the local pivot profile tangency at all angles. Furthermore, in order for the
engine to be
described by the most efficient Pressure - Volume PV diagram, the final
expansion volume of
the engine chamber must be equal to the volume generated by the variable
surface of
tangential push, which is proportional to the radius difference of two
successive contour seal
60 positions during rotation. These criteria permit to select a subfamily for
the optimum
engine mode efficient housing wall 14. A good way to fine-tune the value of
the A and P
550 parameters is to control the smoothness of the calculated confinement wall
radius of
curvature. This radius of curvature continuity can be easily achieved for the
no-lobe limit case
with both A and P positive and less than 0.09, but it is not progressive here
as other profiles



CA 02511267 2007-09-17

previously reported in USA 6,164,263. Great care must be taken not to be
mislead by the
appearance of this housing wall 14 which is far more complex than an ellipse.
For the
example presented here, where the pivot to pivot length is L = 3.5" and the
pivot rubbing pad
47 diameter is D = 0.5", the housing wall 14 radius of curvature in one
quadrant goes from
2.67" near the x- axis, down to 2.05" near 33 degrees, up to 4.50" near 65
degree, and finally
down again to 2.60" near the y- axis, which indicates a relative flat zone
between 33 and 65
degree. This flat zone housing wall 14 structure is not as obvious in USA
6,164,263, but
560 demands a high precision calculation method. An additional interesting
exploratory profile
parameter is the exponent of M(O) in the 0.3 to 3 range, which is not detailed
here. Notice that
the profile complexity depends greatly on the selected pivoting blades diamond
eccentricity
(here Ry /Rx = 0.8).

The Saint-Hilaire housing wall 14 presented on the FIGURES uses nearly the
same rotor
pivot eccentricity (Ry /Rx = 0.8) as the Quasiturbine in patent USA 6,164,263.
One should
notice that increasing the radius of the joint-rubbing pad centered on each
pivot tends to
attenuate the high curvature in the corners of the Saint-Hilaire "skating
rink" confinement
profile, but contributes to increase the maximum torque, with no net penalty
on the specific
570 power and weight density of the Quasiturbine, without however achieving as
stiff a linear
ramp pressure that the rolling carriages design permits. If the rotor can be
made of strong
material like steel, the pivot pad radius 106 can be made relatively small and
lead to the
selected housing wall 14 shown, which is a near optimum Quasiturbine specific
power and
weight density. It is hard to notice by looking at the housing wall 14 that
the radius of
curvature fluctuates along the profile. Inside the rotor 18, one notices a
generally triangular
Modulated Inner Rotor Volume (MIRV) 90 in-between the inner surface 24 of the
pivoting
blades 20 and the outer surface 80 of the annular power sleeves 66, 68 at
every rotor pivot 50
location. Changing the shape of the rotor 18 for the purpose of producing
internal central
volume variation for an annular pumping application would need no rotor
rotation, but only a
580 steady on-site "oscillating rotor deformation", possibly driven by a
rotating external
confinement profile, or by a x- or y- axes movement. The rotor deformation
could also be
driven from an alternating pressurization of these Modulated Inner Rotor
Volumes (MIRV)
90, such as to make an Internal Rotor Engine Quasiturbine (IREQ). This
calculation method
does not require profile symmetry through x- and y- axes, but only through the
central point,
which means that the axes may not be orthogonal with this same calculation
method, in which
case the confinement profile could be asymmetrical, producing an interesting
Quasiturbine
with different intake and exhaust volume characteristics, and with only minor
rotor change.

16


CA 02511267 2007-09-17

590 ROTARY ENGINE WITH PIVOTION BLADES
CROSS REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS:
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
USA 6,164,263 Dec. 26, 2000 Saint-Hilaire et al. 123/205

17

A single figure which represents the drawing illustrating the invention.

For a clearer understanding of the status of the application/patent presented on this page, the site Disclaimer , as well as the definitions for Patent , Administrative Status , Maintenance Fee  and Payment History  should be consulted.

Admin Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date 2008-07-08
(86) PCT Filing Date 2003-02-10
(87) PCT Publication Date 2004-08-19
(85) National Entry 2005-06-20
Examination Requested 2005-06-20
(45) Issued 2008-07-08
Lapsed 2017-02-10

Abandonment History

There is no abandonment history.

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Request for Examination $400.00 2005-06-20
Application Fee $200.00 2005-06-20
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 2 2005-02-10 $50.00 2005-06-20
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 3 2006-02-10 $50.00 2005-06-20
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 4 2007-02-12 $50.00 2005-06-20
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 5 2008-02-11 $100.00 2005-06-20
Final Fee $150.00 2008-04-11
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 6 2009-02-10 $100.00 2008-12-22
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 7 2010-02-10 $100.00 2010-01-22
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 8 2011-02-10 $100.00 2010-12-08
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 9 2012-02-10 $100.00 2011-11-25
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 10 2013-02-11 $125.00 2012-11-26
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 11 2014-02-10 $125.00 2014-01-02
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 12 2015-02-10 $125.00 2014-12-01
Current owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Current Owners on Record
SAINT-HILAIRE, GILLES
SAINT-HILAIRE, ROXAN
SAINT-HILAIRE, YLIAN
SAINT-HILAIRE, FRANCOISE
Past owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Past Owners on Record
None
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.

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Claims 2005-06-20 11 550
Abstract 2005-06-20 1 87
Drawings 2005-06-20 3 174
Description 2005-06-20 17 1,071
Representative Drawing 2005-06-20 1 59
Cover Page 2005-09-19 1 75
Abstract 2006-01-11 1 23
Description 2006-01-11 17 894
Claims 2006-01-11 11 454
Abstract 2007-04-03 1 23
Claims 2007-04-03 11 458
Description 2007-04-03 17 922
Abstract 2007-09-17 1 24
Description 2007-09-17 17 942
Claims 2007-09-17 11 489
Representative Drawing 2008-06-11 1 36
Cover Page 2008-06-11 1 75
Prosecution-Amendment 2007-04-03 30 1,436
PCT 2005-06-20 2 76
Assignment 2005-06-20 5 152
Correspondence 2005-09-15 1 27
Prosecution-Amendment 2005-11-17 2 79
Prosecution-Amendment 2006-01-11 30 1,404
Correspondence 2006-06-28 1 60
Assignment 2005-06-20 6 212
Correspondence 2006-11-09 1 13
Prosecution-Amendment 2007-03-28 2 47
Prosecution-Amendment 2007-07-23 2 81
Prosecution-Amendment 2007-09-17 31 1,521
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Fees 2008-12-22 1 63
Fees 2010-01-22 1 56
Fees 2010-12-08 1 45
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Fees 2014-01-02 1 127
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