Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.
CA 02602439 2007-09-21
TOROID GENERATOR COIL
This invention provides an improved generator efficiency by redirecting
EMF air gap flux, reducing the effects of Lenz's Law in the air gap and
additional power with said redirected back EMF flux..
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage
be "induced" in the coil. No matter how the change is produced, the voltage
generated. The change could be produced by changing the magnetic field
moving a magnet toward or away from the coil, moving the coil into or out
of the magnetic field, rotating the coil relative to the magnet, etc.
When an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to Faraday's
polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic
opposes the change which produces it. The induced magnetic field inside any
wire always acts to keep the magnetic flux in the loop constant.
Lenz's Law is one consequence of the principle of conservation of energy. When
permanent magnet moves towards the face of a closed loop of wire (eg. a coil
solenoid). An electric current is induced in the wire, because the electrons
within it are
subjected to an increasing magnetic field as the magnet approaches.
This produces an emf (Electromotive Force) that acts upon them. The direction
induced current depends on whether the north or south pole of the magnet is
approaching: an approaching north pole will produce an anti-clockwise current
perspective of the magnet), and south pole approaching the coil will produce a
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Figure 1, shows the effects of Lenz's Law when a horseshoe magnet 1
approaching a coil
of wire 9 with an applied force 2. Current flows in the coil and a magnetic
field 5 is
produced in the air gap between the magnet poles - North 3 and South 4. The
effect is a resistive force 6 which acts in opposition to the approaching
magnet poles 3
To keep the magnets approaching the coil additional force (and energy) must be
to overcome the effects of Lenz's Law.
Whenever a generator delivers current to a load, the load current creates an
force that opposes rotation of the generator armature. A force is produced
which acts in
opposition to the driving force applied to the generator armature. If the
current in the
conductor increases, the reaction force increases and more force must be
applied to the
generator conductor to keep it from slowing down.
US Naval Personnel Basic Electricity Manual
If it were possible to reduce the induced back EMF magnetic field in the air
according to Lenz's Law, generator efficiencies could be greatly enhanced.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Lenz's Law and the effects of Lenz's Law affect all salient and non salient
generator operation in the world today. It is associated with Newton's 1 st
Law and the
Law of Conservation of Energy. The "negative effects" associated with Lenz's
however only apply in the air gap between the generator's rotating magnetic
field and the
generator's wire coils. Magnetic flux is attracted to iron and will not exit
iron unless it
has to. The Toroid Generator Coil takes advantage of both magnetic properties
same time, i.e. being attracted to iron and an unwillingness to exit. The
flux is attracted to the iron toroid core and similarly the generator coil's
EMF magnetic flux is also attracted to it and will not exit it. With no coil
EMF in the air gap - no "negative effects" of Lenz's Law but Lenz's Law is
because the coils still produces a counter EMF in an attempt to stop the
it. The Toroid Generator Coil with its two adjacent coils captures all the
induced back EMF fluxes with nothing entering the air gap between the coils
rotating magnetic field.
The advantages are twofold, 1) no back EMF in the air gap slowing down the
mover and 2) increased generator output, rotor flux + coil induced back EMF.
In the drawings, which form a part of this specification,
Fig. 1 is a conventional solenoid or salient pole generator coil 2 with and
magnetic field 10 and the coil's resultant effect - induced back EMF magnetic
according to Lenz's Law.
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Fig. 2 is a Toroid Generator Coil with the same approaching magnetic field as
represented in Fig. 1 but with a different effect in the air gap as well as in
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
When a magnet approaches an iron core coil of wire 9 as shown in figure 1, the
attracted to the iron and magnetic flux 10 exits the North pole of the magnet
3, enters the
iron core and closes its magnetic circuit by exiting the iron at its opposite
rejoining the magnet's South pole 4. The iron in the coil represents a lower
flux path to the horseshoe magnet's North and South poles than through the
When current 7 flows in the coil 9 a magnetic field 8 is produced according to
Law. This magnetic field 5 enters the air gap 11 between the North 3 and South
of the horseshoe magnet 1. The resultant magnetic field 5 has the same
polarity as the
approaching magnet poles 3 and 4 and they experience a repelling force 6 in
direction as the one applied to move the magnet in the first place.
Magnetic fields always follow the path of least reluctance. If the relative
the iron is high enough then all of the permanent magnet flux and all the
EMF flux will be contained inside the iron core. If it is not saturation will
Saturation; occurs when the material containing the flux becomes full and
cannot be contained and it exits the material.
Relative Permeability; is a material's ability to contain and allow the flow
magnitudes of magnetic flux. without saturating.
Reluctance; is the resistance to the flow of magnetic flux.
The higher the value of relative permeability of the material used - the less
the flow of magnetic flux it represents to the magnetic circuit.
It is important to note that the reluctance of a magnetic conductor rises with
in flux magnitude i.e. more flux = higher reluctance. Magnetic flux always
path of least reluctance.
When a Toroid Generator Coil is employed as shown in Figure 2, then permanent
rotor flux 7 enters the toroid iron core 8 as with a conventional solenoid
coil. The rotor
flux splits equally with 50% going clockwise and 50% going counterclockwise
the toroid core. The clockwise flux enters coil 10 and the counterclockwise
The rotor flux exits both coils 9 and 10, rejoins each other and completes its
circuit back to the horseshoe magnet's South pole at position 6 through the
air gap 4.
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When place on a resistive load at coil 10 terminal 12, a back EMF induced
fields 13 and 14 are produced according to Lenz's Law. Instead of exiting the
was seen in the solenoid coil of Figure 1, the back EMF induced magnetic
fields of coil
enters coil 9 and vise versa.
The iron core represents a lower reluctance flux path to each coils induced
back EMF and
it cannot enter the air gap so it enters the adjacent coil instead and it
flows in the same
direction as the direction of the rotor flux so the result is cumulative. The
rotor flux and
back EMF fluxes add and the voltage generated in the coil is greater than if
it was relying
on just rotor flux alone as per a conventional generator.
The result of employing a toroid coil are that no induced back EMF is produced
in the air
gaps 3 and 4 causing the approaching magnets to be repelled and the same
EMF is captured and employed to create additional electric energy.