Canadian Patents Database / Patent 2602695 Summary

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(12) Patent: (11) CA 2602695
(54) English Title: WIRELESS DEVICE WITH READER FOR MACHINE READABLE INDICIA AND METHOD OF EFFECTING COMMUNICATION WITH A REMOTE SERVER
(54) French Title: DISPOSITIF SANS FIL PRESENTANT UN LECTEUR POUR UN INDICE LISIBLE PAR MACHINE ET METHODE D'ETABLISSEMENT DE COMMUNICATION AVEC UN SERVEUR ELOIGNE
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • H04M 1/27 (2006.01)
  • G06F 17/30 (2006.01)
  • H04M 1/2745 (2006.01)
  • H04M 1/2755 (2006.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • SILVERBROOK, KIA (Australia)
  • LAPSTUN, PAUL (Australia)
  • WALMSLEY, SIMON ROBERT (Australia)
  • KING, TOBIN ALLEN (Australia)
  • ATKINSON, DAVID JOHN (Australia)
  • TOW, GREGORY MICHAEL (Australia)
  • HOLLINS, MICHAEL J. (Australia)
  • HENDERSON, PETER CHARLES BOYD (Australia)
  • PLUNKETT, RICHARD THOMAS (Australia)
  • LAPSTUN, JACQUELINE ANNE (Australia)
(73) Owners :
  • SILVERBROOK RESEARCH PTY LTD (Australia)
(71) Applicants :
  • SILVERBROOK RESEARCH PTY LTD (Australia)
(74) Agent: OYEN WIGGS GREEN & MUTALA LLP
(74) Associate agent: OYEN WIGGS GREEN & MUTALA LLP
(45) Issued: 2011-08-16
(86) PCT Filing Date: 2005-05-09
(87) Open to Public Inspection: 2006-11-16
Examination requested: 2007-09-25
(30) Availability of licence: N/A
(30) Language of filing: English

English Abstract




A method of accessing at least one electronic connection address using a
mobile device and an interactive printed document that includes human-readable
information and machine-readable coded data, the mobile telecommunications
device comprising: a transceiver configured to send and receive signals via a
wireless telecommunications network; sensing means; and decoding means; the
method comprising the steps of: (a) sensing, with the sensing means, at least
some of the coded data while the mobile telecommunications device is used to
physically interact with the printed document; (b) sending, with the
transceiver, the indicating data to a remote computer system; (c) receiving,
with the transceiver, at least one electronic connection address in response
to the indicating data; and (d) outputting the at least one connection address
in a human readable manner.


French Abstract

L'invention concerne une méthode d'accès à au moins une adresse de connexion électronique faisant appel à un dispositif mobile et à un document imprimé interactif comprenant des informations lisibles par des humains et des données codées lisibles par machine. Le dispositif de télécommunication mobile de l'invention comprend: un émetteur/récepteur conçu pour envoyer et pour recevoir des signaux par un réseau de télécommunication sans fil; un moyen de détection; et un moyen de décodage. La méthode comprend les étapes consistant à: (a) détecter, à l'aide de moyens de détection, au moins certaines données codées pendant que le dispositif de télécommunication mobile est utilisé pour interagir physiquement avec le document imprimé; (b) envoyer, à l'aide de l'émetteur/récepteur, les données d'indication au système informatique éloigné; (c) recevoir, à l'aide de l'émetteur/récepteur, au moins une adresse de connexion électronique en réaction aux données d'indication; et (d) produire l'adresse de connexion de manière lisible par un humain.


Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


207
CLAIMS
1. A mobile telecommunications device including:
a transceiver for sending and receiving signals via a wireless
telecommunications network;
a processor for processing schedule data to generate dot data representing a
visual layout of the schedule
data;
a printer having a printhead configured to receive the dot data and print it
onto a print medium together
with a two dimensional pattern of coded data such that the visual layout and
the two dimensional pattern of coded
data create a positional registration between the visual layout and the two
dimensional pattern of coded data which,
during use, is stored in a remote computer system, said print medium having a
linear-encoded data track extending
in an intended direction of printing;
a data track sensor configured to sense the data track during printing of the
dot data;
fire control means connected to generate a fire control signal based on an
embedded clock signal within the
data track, the fire control means being configured to generate the fire
control signal in the form of a clock signal
extracted from the sensed data track such that the printer operates the
printhead in accordance with the clock signal;
and,
an optical sensor for sensing at least some of the two dimensional pattern of
coded data such that the
processing means generates indicating data from the sensed coded data, the
indicating data being indicative of a
location in the visual layout, the indicating data being sent to the remote
computer system which generates a
response to the transceiver based on the positional registration between the
coded data and the visual layout;
wherein,
the processor initiates an action regarding an entry in the schedule data, the
action being based on the
response from the remote computer system.

2. A mobile telecommunications device according to claim 1, configured to
send, using the transceiver, a
request to the remote computer system, the request identifying the schedule
data, the schedule data being received in
response to the request.

3. A mobile telecommunications device according to claim 2, wherein the coded
data is indicative of an
identity of a document containing the schedule data.

4. A mobile device according to claim 1, further including a light-emitting
device for illuminating the data
track while the sensor is sensing it during printing.

5. A mobile device according to claim 4, wherein the data track is printed
with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum and the photosensor is sensitive
in the infrared spectrum.

6. A mobile device according to claim 5, wherein the data track includes first
information, the first
information including an embedded clock signal, the fire control means being
configured to generate the fire control
signal in the form of a clock signal extracted from the sensed data track.


208
7. A mobile device according to claim 6, wherein the first information is
indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile device being configured to
control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the physical characteristics.

8. A mobile device according to claim 7, configured to use the sensed data
track to determine an absolute
position of the print medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto
the print medium in reliance on the
determination.

9. A mobile device according to claim 8, the data track further encoding first
information and the print
medium further including second coded data that encodes second information,
the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the mobile device is configured to print
onto the print medium such that there is
a predetermined registration between what is being printed and the second
coded data.

10. A mobile device according to claim 1, configured to receive the
information indicative of the
predetermined registration from a remote computer system via the transceiver.

11. A mobile device according to claim 1, the data track further encoding
first information and the print
medium further including second coded data that encodes second information,
the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the mobile device is configured to
determine a registration between what is
being printed and the second coded data.

12. A mobile device according to claim 11, configured to transmit the
determined registration to a remote
computer system via the transceiver.

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
1

WIRELESS DEVICE WITH READER FOR MACHINE READABLE INDICIA AND
METHOD OF EFFECTING COMMUNICATION WITH A REMOTE SERVER

FIELD OF INVENTION
The present invention relates to mobile devices with inbuilt printers. The
invention has primarily been designed for
use in a mobile device such as a mobile telecommunications device (i.e. a
mobile phone) that incorporates a printer,
and will be described with reference to such an application. However, it will
be appreciated by those skilled in the
art that the invention can be used with other types of portable device, or
even non-portable devices.
The invention has primarily been designed for use in a mobile
telecommunications device such as a mobile
telecommunications device (i.e. a mobile phone) that incorporates a printer,
and will be described with reference to
such an application. However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the
art that the invention can be used with
other types of portable device, or even non-portable devices.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
The Assignee has developed mobile phones, personal data assistants (PDAs) and
other mobile telecommunication
devices, with the ability to print hard copies of images or information stored
or accessed by the device (see for
example, US Patent 6,405,055 (Docket No. AP06US), filed on November 9, 1999).
Likewise, the Assignee has also
designed digital cameras with the ability to print captured images with an
inbuilt printer (see for example, US Patent
6,750,901 (Docket No. ARTOIUS) filed on July 10, 1998). As the prevalence of
mobile telecommunications
devices with digital cameras increases, the functionality of these devices is
further enhanced by the ability to print
hard copies.

As these devices are portable, they must be compact for user convenience.
Accordingly, any printer incorporated
into the device needs to maintain a small form factor. Also, the additional
load on the battery should be as little as
possible. Furthermore, the consumables (ink and paper etc) should be
relatively inexpensive and simple to
replenish. It is these factors that strongly influence the commercial success
or otherwise of products of this type.
With these basic design imperatives in mind, there are on-going efforts to
improve and refine the functionality of
these devices.

The Assignee of the present invention has also developed the Netpage system
for enabling interaction with computer
software using a printed interface and a proprietary stylus-shaped sensing
device.

As described in detail in US Patent 6,792,165 (Docket No. NPSO27US), filed on
November 25, 2000 and US Patent
Application USSN 10/778,056 (Docket No. NPSO47US), filed on February 17, 2004,
a Netpage pen captures,
identifies and decodes tags of coded data printed onto a surface such as a
page. In a preferred Netpage
implementation, each tag encodes a position and an identity of the document.
By decoding at least one of the tags
and transmitting the position (or a refined version of the position,
representing a higher resolution position of the


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
2

pen) and identity referred to by the decoded tag, a remote computer can
determine an action to perform. Such
actions can include, for example, causing information to be saved remotely for
subsequent retrieval, downloading of
a webpage for printing or display via a computer, bill payment or even the
performance of handwriting recognition
based on a series of locations of the Netpage pen relative to the surface.
These and other applications are described
in many of the Netpage-related applications cross-referenced by the present
application.

When printing a Netpage, a printer in a mobile telecommunications device can
print the Netpage tags
simultaneously with visible user information. The association between the tags
and information can already exist on
a remote Netpage server, such as where the printer is printing a fully
rendered page (including tags) provided by the
Netpage server or another computer. Alternatively, the mobile
telecommunications device can generate the tags (or
source them remotely) and define an association between the tags and user
information. The association is then
recorded in the remote Netpage server.

The problem with these options is that they require the mobile
telecommunications device to include Netpage tag
printing capabilities. This requires an additional row of print nozzles in the
printhead, and reduces the amounts of
ink that can be stored for non-tag use. Whilst this is less of an issue with
large, mains-powered printers, it can be an
issue in small form-factor articles such as mobile telecommunications devices.

Alternatively, the mobile telecommunications device can be configured to print
on print media that is pre-printed
with Netpage tags. That way the printer need only print the user information
and record an association between the
visible information and the pre-printed tags.

One way of doing this is to use a Netpage sensing device that scans the page
as it is printed to determine the content
of at least one of the tags and positions of various elements of the user
information relative to the tags. This requires
that the printer include a Netpage sensing device, which may be somewhat bulky
for use in mobile applications, and
requires additional processing capacity. Even if a Netpage sensing device is
provided to enable the mobile
telecommunications device to act as a Netpage pen in a more general sense, it
is undesirable for a user to have to
separately scan a portion of the pre-printed media to determine parameters of
the coded data before inserting the
media for printing.
It would be desirable to overcome the problem of associating user information
to be printed onto media at least
partially pre-printed with Netpage tags.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION
In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of accessing at
least one electronic connection address
using a mobile device and an interactive printed document that includes human-
readable information and machine-
readable coded data, the mobile telecommunications device comprising:
a transceiver configured to send and receive signals via a wireless
telecommunications network;
sensing means; and
decoding means;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
3
the method comprising the steps of.
(a) sensing, with the sensing means, at least some of the coded data while the
mobile telecommunications
device is used to physically interact with the printed document;
(b) sending, with the transceiver, the indicating data to a remote computer
system;
(c) receiving, with the transceiver, at least one electronic connection
address in response to the indicating data;
and
(d) outputting the at least one connection address in a human readable manner.

Optionally, the mobile device includes an integral printer, wherein step (d)
includes printing the at least one
connection address onto a print medium with the printer.

Optionally, the mobile device includes a display, wherein step (d) includes
displaying the at least one connection
address on the display.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a user interface, the method
including the steps, performed after step
(d), of.
(e) receiving, via the user interface, user selection of at least one of the
at least one connection address
displayed on the display;
(t) establishing a connection with the selected at least one connection
address, via the transceiver and the
mobile telecommunications network.

Optionally the selected at least one connection address is a telephonic
number, and step (t) includes establishing a
telephonic connection between the mobile device and the at least one
connection address.

Optionally the telephonic connection is a voice connection.
Optionally the telephonic connection is an audio-visual connection.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a user interface, the method
including the steps, performed after step
(d), of:
(e) receiving, via the user interface, user selection of at least one of the
at least one connection address
displayed on the display;
(d) sending information, or causing information to be sent, to the at least
one connection address via the
establishing a connection with the selected at least one connection address,
via the transceiver and the mobile
device.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of an identity of the print medium.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of at least one location in relation
to the print medium.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
4
Optionally the coded data is indicative of an object.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of an electronic address of the
object.

Optionally the electronic connection address comprises one or more of the
following:
an email address;
a fax number;
a phone number;
a network address; and
a URL.

Optionally the mobile device includes a printer, the method including printing
the connection address onto a print
medium.

Optionally the method further including steps of:
determining a relationship between the connection address printed or to be
printed onto the print medium;
and
transmitting the data indicative of the relationship to a remote computer
system for storage.
Optionally the print medium is a card.

Optionally the mobile device stores one or more templates for use in
generating an image to be printed, the image
incorporating the connection address in human readable form.

Optionally the mobile device is configured to access a remote computer system
to download one or more templates
for use in generating an image to be printed, the image incorporating the
connection address in human readable
form.

In a first aspect there is provided method of enabling interaction with a
printed schedule document using a mobile
device including sensing means, processing means and a transceiver, the
schedule document including human-
readable first schedule information and machine-readable coded data, the
method including the steps of:
(a) sensing at least some of the coded data with the sensing means while the
mobile telecommunications
device is used by a user to physically interact with the schedule document;
(b) decoding, with the processing means, at least some of the sensed coded
data and generating indicating data
on the basis of the decoded coded data;
(c) transmitting , using the transceiver, the indicating data to a remote
computer system via the wireless
telecommunications network;
(d) receiving, using the transceiver, response data from the computer system,
the response data having been
sent in reply to the indicating data;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

(e) generating, using the processing means, a layout based on the response
data, the response data representing
further schedule information; and
(f) outputting the layout in a human-readable form.

5 Optionally the mobile device further includes a display, the method
including outputting the layout by displaying it
on the display.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a printer, the method including
outputting the layout by printing it
using the printer.
Optionally the mobile device further includes a printer controller, the method
including processing the layout with
the printer controller to generate dot data, and supplying the dot data to the
printer to be printed.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a printer, the method including
outputting the layout by printing it
using the printer.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a printer controller, the method
including processing the layout with
the printer controller to generate dot data, and supplying the dot data to the
printer to be printed.

Optionally the print medium includes a linear-encoded data track extending in
an intended direction of printing, the
mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing of the dot data;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.
Optionally the mobile device further includes a light-emitting device for
illuminating the data track while the sensor
is sensing it during printing.

Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum
and the photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.

Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
the sensed data track.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
6

Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the
physical characteristics.

Optionally the mobile device further configured to use the sensed data track
to determine an absolute position of the
print medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium
in reliance on the determination.
Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to print onto the print medium such that there is
a predetermined registration between
what is being printed and the second coded data.

Optionally the mobile device further configured to receive the information
indicative of the predetermined
registration from a remote computer system via the transceiver.
Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to determine a registration between what is being
printed and the second coded data.

Optionally the mobile device further configured to transmit the determined
registration to a remote computer system
via the transceiver.

In a first aspect there is provided a mobile telecommunications device
including:
a transceiver for sending and receiving signals via a wireless
telecommunications network;
a processor for processing schedule data to generate dot data representing a
visual layout of the schedule
data; and
a printer configured to receive the dot data and print it onto a print medium.

Optionally the printer is configured to print coded data onto the print medium
along with the visual layout
represented by the dot data.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device configured to receive, using
the transceiver, the schedule data
from a remote computer system via the telecommunications network.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device configured to send, using the
transceiver, a request to the remote
computer system, the request identifying the schedule data, the schedule data
being received in response to the
request.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of an identity of a document
containing the schedule data.


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Optionally print medium includes a linear-encoded data track extending in an
intended direction of printing, the
mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing of the dot data;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a light-emitting device for
illuminating the data track while the sensor
is sensing it during printing.

Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum
and the photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.

Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.
Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the
physical characteristics.

Optionally the mobile device configured to use the sensed data track to
determine an absolute position of the print
medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium in
reliance on the determination.
Optionally the mobile device wherein the data track further encoding first
information and the print medium further
including second coded data that encodes second information, the first
information being indicative of the second
information, wherein the mobile device is configured to print onto the print
medium such that there is a
predetermined registration between what is being printed and the second coded
data.

Optionally the mobile device configured to receive the information indicative
of the predetermined registration from
a remote computer system via the transceiver.

Optionally the mobile device wherein the data track further encoding first
information and the print medium further
including second coded data that encodes second information, the first
information being indicative of the second
information, wherein the mobile device is configured to determine a
registration between what is being printed and
the second coded data.


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Optionally the mobile device configured to transmit the determined
registration to a remote computer system via the
transceiver.

In a first aspect there is provided a mobile device for enabling interaction
with a printed email document, the email
document including human-readable first email information and machine-readable
coded data, the mobile device
including:
a transceiver for sending and receiving signals via a wireless
telecommunications network;
sensing means for sensing at least some of the coded data while the mobile
device is used to interact with
the email document;
processing means for decoding at least some of the sensed coded data and
generating indicating data on the
basis of the decoded coded data;
the mobile device being programmed and configured to:
(a) transmit, using the transceiver, the indicating data to a remote computer
system via the wireless
telecommunications network;
(b) receive, using the transceiver, response data from the computer system;
(c) generating, using the processing means, a layout based on the response
data, the response data representing
further email information; and
(d) outputting the layout in a human-readable form.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a display, the mobile device
being configured to output the layout by
displaying it on the display.
Optionally the mobile device further includes an integral printer, the mobile
device being configured to output the
layout by printing it using the printer.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a printer controller circuit
configured to process the layout to generate
dot data and supply the dot data to the printer to be printed.

Optionally the mobile device further includes an integral printer, the mobile
device being configured to output the
layout by printing it onto a print medium using the printer.
Optionally the mobile device further includes a printer controller circuit
configured to process the layout to generate
dot data and supply the dot data to the printer to be printed.

Optionally the print medium includes a linear-encoded data track extending in
an intended direction of printing, the
mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing of the dot data;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.


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Optionally the mobile device further includes a light-emitting device for
illuminating the data track while the sensor
is sensing it during printing.

Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum
and the photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.

Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the
physical characteristics.

Optionally the mobile device configured to use the sensed data track to
determine an absolute position of the print
medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium in
reliance on the determination.
Optionally the mobile device wherein the data track further encoding first
information and the print medium further
including second coded data that encodes second information, the first
information being indicative of the second
information, wherein the mobile device is configured to print onto the print
medium such that there is a
predetermined registration between what is being printed and the second coded
data.
Optionally the mobile device configured to receive the information indicative
of the predetermined registration from
a remote computer system via the transceiver.

Optionally the mobile device wherein the data track further encoding first
information and the print medium further
including second coded data that encodes second information, the first
information being indicative of the second
information, wherein the mobile device is configured to determine a
registration between what is being printed and
the second coded data.

Optionally the mobile device configured to transmit the determined
registration to a remote computer system via the
35- transceiver.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device configured to
enable a user to play a game by
interacting with an interactive gaming document, the mobile device comprising:
(a) a transceiver configured to send and receive signals via a wireless
telecommunications network;
(b) a sensor configured to read at least some of coded data printed on the
interactive gaming document; and


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(c) decoding means for decoding the coded data read by the sensor and
generating indicating data based on the
decoded data;
the mobile telecommunications device being programmed and configured to:
send the indicating data to a remote computer system using the transceiver;
5 receive gaming data in response via the transceiver; and
based on the gaming data, output visual information to a user.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of an identity of the print medium.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of at least one location in relation
to the print medium.
Optionally the coded data is indicative of an object.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of an electronic address of the
object.
Optionally the gaming data includes any one or more of the following:
audio;
text;
video;
images; and
vibration patterns.

Optionally the gaming data includes printable content, and the mobile device
includes a printer, the method
comprising the step of printing the printable content onto a print medium
using the printer.

Optionally the gaming data includes registration information indicative of a
registration between the printable
content and coded data, the mobile device being configured to print the
printable gaming data onto the print medium
in accordance with the registration information.

Optionally the printable content includes one or more maps.
Optionally the mobile device further configured to print a plurality of the
print media having maps, wherein the print
media having maps are printed such that they can be tiled together to form a
larger map.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a user interface, the printable
content including information or
instructions for use by a user in interacting with the user interface.

Optionally the mobile device further configured to print one or more
additional print media in response to input
entered via the user interface, the input being at least partially based on
the information and/or instructions on one or
more of the earlier printed game cards.


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11

Optionally the print medium to be printed on includes a linear-encoded data
track extending in an intended direction
of printing, the mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing of the dot data;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a light-emitting device for
illuminating the data track while the sensor
is sensing it during printing.
Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum
and the photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.

Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
the sensed data track.
Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least. one of the
physical characteristics.

Optionally the mobile device further configured to use the sensed data track
to determine an absolute position of the
print medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium
in reliance on the determination.
Optionally the mobile device wherein the data track further encoding first
information and the print medium further
including second coded data that encodes second information, the first
information being indicative of the second
information, wherein the mobile device is configured to print onto the print
medium such that there is a
predetermined registration between what is being printed and the second coded
data.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
(a) a transceiver configured to send and receive data via a wireless
telecommunications network;
(b) processing means for processing data received via the receiver, thereby to
generate dot data representing
game information for generating at least one card for use in an interactive
game; and
(c) a printhead operatively connected to the processing means to receive the
dot data and print it onto a print
medium, thereby to generate the at least one card.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
12

Optionally the at least one card includes coded data indicative of a plurality
of positions, the positions being
associated, in a remote computer system, with one or more actions or
instructions associated with the interactive
game.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of an identity of the card.

Optionally the game information includes map data indicative of an image of at
least part of a map associated with
the interactive game.

Optionally the game information includes map information to be printed on a
plurality of the cards.

Optionally mobile telecommunications device configured to print the cards such
that the map portions can be tiled
together to form a map.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further including a sensing
device for sensing coded data while the
mobile telecommunications device is being used to interact with coded data on
a surface, the processing means
being configured to decode at least some of the code data to determine at
least an identity of the surface.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device configured to send at least the
identity to a remote computer system
via the transceiver and to receive via the transceiver in reply

Optionally the game information includes visible user information in the form
of text, icons or images, the coded
data being disposed adjacent or coincident with the user information, thereby
allowing a user to interact with the
user information with a sensing device.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device includes the sensing device
for sensing at least some of the coded
data on the card whilst the mobile telecommunications device is used to
interact with the game information on the
card.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device wherein the processing means
being configured to process at least
some of the sensed coded data to determine at least an identity of the card.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device configured to:
send at least the identity of the card to a remote computer system;
receive, in response from the remote computer system, further data
representing further game information.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device configured to output the further
game information to a user.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
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Optionally the processing means are configured to process the further data to
generate further dot data, and the
printhead is configured to receive the further dot data and print it onto a
print medium, thereby to generate a further
game card.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further including a user
interface, and wherein the device is
programmed and configured such that at least some of the game cards include
information or instructions for use by
a user in interacting with the user interface.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device configured to one or more game
cards in response to input entered
via the user interface, the input being at least partially based on
information and/or instructions on one or more of
the earlier printed game cards.

Optionally the processing means further includes decompression means, wherein
at least some of the game data is
received in a compressed format and the decompression means is configured to
decompress the data for supply to
the processing means.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further including a sensor for
sensing coded data disposed on or in
the print medium before or during printing.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device , configured to extract a clock
signal from the sensed coded data,
and to synchronize printing by the printhead onto the print medium in
accordance with the clock signal.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device, further including light-
emitting means, the light emitting means
being controlled to emit light while the coded data is being sensed by the
sensor.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a cartridge for use in a
mobile device including:
(a) an inkjet printhead;
(b) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing; and
(c) a drive mechanism for driving the print media past the inkjet printhead
for printing.
Incorporating the printhead into a cartridge ensures its regular replacement
and thereby maintains print quality.
Putting the drive mechanism in the cartridge means that the dimensional
tolerances between the drive mechanism
and the printhead can be closely controller and the fragile printhead nozzles
can be safely enclosed within the
cartridge casing. The only opening required in the cartridge are the media
entry and exit slots which significantly
limits the opportunity for tampering or contamination.

Optionally the drive mechanism is a passive mechanism with a drive shaft for
engaging the print media and driving
it past the inkjet printhead.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
14

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising a drive roller for rotating
the drive shaft, the drive roller being
configured to be driven by a complementary drive mechanism in the mobile
device when the cartridge is installed
therein.

Optionally the drive roller is coaxial with the drive shaft.

Optionally the drive shaft is positioned in the print media path upstream of
the printhead.

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising a printhead having an array
of ink ejection nozzles and at least one
ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for ejection by the nozzles,
each of the at least one ink reservoirs
including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a negative hydrostatic
pressure in the ink at the nozzles, and a
capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in use.

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead;
(b) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to the capper
by the force transfer mechanism, thereby
to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position to the
uncapped position prior to the media
reaching the capper.

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead; and
(b) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media; wherein,
(b) the capper assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media such
that it moves to the capped position
upon disengagement with the media.

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising:
the media substrate is a sheet; wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive mechanism before completion of its
printing such that the trailing edge
of the sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
Optionally the printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
5 a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from a beacon operated
by a print engine controller in
the mobile device.

Optionally the mobile device comprises:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
10 a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

15 Optionally the mobile device comprises:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; wherein
during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts
the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the angular
velocity of the drive shaft.

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising at least one ink reservoir
for supplying ink to the printhead, the at
least one ink reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally the media substrate is a sheet with coded data on at least part of
its surface; and the mobile
device further comprises a print engine controller for operatively controlling
the printhead; and,
a sensor for reading the coded data and generating a signal indicative of at
least one dimension of the sheet,
and transmitting the signal to the print engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.

Optionally the media substrate has coded data on at least part of its surface;
and,
the mobile device further comprising a print engine controller for operatively
controlling the printhead;
and,
a dual sensing facility for reading the coded data before, as well as after,
it has past the printhead.
Optionally the mobile device is a telecommunication device.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
16

Optionally the mobile device is a mobile phone.

In a first aspect there is provided a print medium for use in a mobile device
having a printer, the print medium
comprising:
a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces;
first coded data in a first data format disposed in a first data region on the
laminar substrate, the first coded
data encoding first information; and
at least one orientation indicator indicative of an orientation of the print
medium.

Optionally the at least one orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent
an edge of the print medium.

Optionally the print medium having a leading edge and a trailing edge defined
relative to intended feed direction of
the print medium through a media feed path, at least one of the at least one
orientation indicators being disposed on
or in the print medium at or adjacent the leading edge.
Optionally one of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a first
corner of the print medium on the first face.
Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
second corner of the print medium on the
first face, the second corner being diagonally opposite the first corner.
Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
third corner of the print medium on the
second face, the third corner being adjacent the second corner.

Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
fourth corner of the print medium on the
second face, the fourth corner being diagonally opposite the third comer.

Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
second corner of the print medium on the
first face, the second comer being diagonally opposite the first corner.

Optionally the print medium further including a plurality of the orientation
indicators, the position and number of
the orientation indicators being positioned and configured such that, when the
print medium is used in a suitably
equipped mobile device, the device can determine the orientation of the card
without having to read all of the
orientation indicators.

Optionally the first coded data a linear-encoded data track extending in an
intended direction of printing.
Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink.

Optionally the data track includes a clock track containing only a clock code
from which a clock signal can be
derived during printing onto the print medium.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
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Optionally the first information includes an embedded clock from which a clock
signal can be derived during
printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the print medium further including second coded data that encodes
second information, the first
information being indicative of the second information.

Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.
Optionally the print medium further including pre-printed human-readable
information printed on either or both of
the first and second faces.

Optionally the first coded data is printed in infrared ink that is
substantially invisible to an average unaided human
eye.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a print medium for use with a
mobile device having a printer, the
print medium comprising:
a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces; and
an orientation indicator disposed on at least one of the first and second
faces, the orientation indicator being
indicative of at least one orientation of the print medium, thereby enabling
the mobile device to determine the print
medium's orientation prior to printing thereon.

Optionally the orientation indicator is indicative of which of the first and
second faces it is disposed upon.
Optionally the orientation indicator is indicative of an absolute planar
rotational orientation of the print medium.
Optionally a print medium having a leading edge and a trailing edge defined
relative to intended feed direction of
the print medium through the media feed path, wherein the orientation
indicator is positioned at or adjacent the
leading edge and is indicative of the leading edge.

Optionally a print medium further including a plurality of the orientation
indicators.
Optionally a print medium wherein:
(a) each of the orientation indicators is indicative of which of the first and
second faces it is disposed upon;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
18

(b) each of the orientation indicators is indicative of an absolute planar
rotational orientation of the print
medium; and/or
(c) the print medium has a leading edge and a trailing edge defined relative
to intended feed direction of the
print medium through the media feed path, wherein the orientation indicator is
positioned at or adjacent the leading
edge and is indicative of the leading edge.

Optionally the orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent an edge of the
print medium.

Optionally the orientation indicator is positioned adjacent a first corner of
the print medium on the first face.
Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
second corner of the print medium on the
first face, the second corner being diagonally opposite the first corner.

Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
third corner of the print medium on the
second face, the third corner being adjacent the second corner.

Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
fourth corner of the print medium on the
second face, the fourth corner being diagonally opposite the third corner.

Optionally the orientation indicator forms part of a coded data region on the
print medium.
Optionally the coded data takes the form of a linear-encoded data track.

Optionally the data track extends along an edge of the print medium in an
intended print direction of the card.
Optionally the data track encodes first information in addition to the
orientation indicator.

Optionally the print medium further including second information encoded in
accordance with a coding different
from the linear-encoding of the data track, the first information being
indicative of the second information.
Optionally the coded data is printed in infrared ink.

Optionally the first coded data is printed in infrared ink that is
substantially invisible to an average unaided human
eye.
Optionally a mobile device further including pre-printed human-readable
information printed on either or both of the
first and second faces.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to print onto a print medium, the
mobile device comprising:


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
19

a wireless transceiver for sending and receiving data via a telecommunications
network; and
a printer;
the method comprising the steps of.
(a) determining a geographical location of the mobile device;
(b) determining a product or service available at, in or within a
predetermined distance of, the geographical
location;
(c) formatting a voucher containing information associated with the product or
service; and
(d) printing the voucher using the printer.

Optionally the information is indicative of a location of a commercial entity.
Optionally the information is indicative of an inducement to buy the product
or service.
Optionally the inducement is a price discount.
Optionally the price discount is only valid at an outlet of a commercial
entity at the location.
Optionally the price discount is valid at any of a number of outlets of the
commercial entity.

Optionally the method including the step of using the mobile device to
determine the geographical location.
Optionally the mobile device includes a GPS receiver, the method comprising
determining the geographical location
using the GPS receiver.

Optionally the sensing device includes a wireless receiver for receiving radio-
frequency data from a transmitter, step
of determining the geographical location including the step of receiving, via
the transmitter, radio-frequency data the
geographical location.

Optionally the method including deriving the geographical location using an
Uplink Time Difference of Arrival
technique.

Optionally the providing step includes sending the information to an
electronic address associated with at least one
of the user of the mobile device.

Optionally the geographical location is an area.
Optionally the area is defined by a postal or zip code.
Optionally the area is a city, suburb or town.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

Optionally the area is at least partially defined by a transmission footprint
of one or more cells of a
telecommunications network.

Optionally the area is at least partially defined by a transmission footprint
of one or more cells of the
5 telecommunications network.

Optionally the method including the steps of
using a sensor in the mobile device to sense a data track during printing of
the voucher, the data track being
disposed on a face of the print medium being printed on to generate the
voucher;
10 generating a fire control signal from the sensed data track; and
synchronizing the printing of the voucher using the fire control signal.

Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum
and the photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.
Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
method including the step of generating a
clock signal generated from the sensed data track, the fire control signal
being based on the clock signal.

Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
method including the step of extracting a clock signal from the sensed data
track, the fire control signal being based
on the clock signal.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device including:
a printhead for printing onto a print medium, the print medium including coded
data;
a media path for directing the print medium past the printhead for printing;
an optical sensor;
a first optical pathway for directing optical image information to the sensor
to enable it to read at least
some of the coded data from the print medium while at least some of the print
medium is within the media path; and
a second optical pathway for directing optical image information to the sensor
to enable it to read coded
data from the print medium when the print medium is not in the media path.

Optionally the mobile device including at least one light source for
illuminating the coded data to be sensed via the
first optical pathway.

Optionally the mobile device including at least one light source for
illuminating the coded data to be sensed via the
second optical pathway.

Optionally the light source is an infrared light source.
Optionally the light source is an infrared light source.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
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Optionally the first optical pathway includes at least one mirror.

Optionally the first optical pathway includes a periscope arrangement of
mirrors.
Optionally the mobile device further including a shutter selectively operable
to reduce or prevent light from reaching
the sensor via the second optical pathway during at least part of a printing
procedure.

Optionally the mobile device further including a shutter-closing mechanism
configured to close the shutter in
response to the print medium moving through at least part of the media path.

Optionally the first and second optical pathways share a common optical
pathway portion.
Optionally the mobile device further including a printer.
Optionally the printer takes the form of a replaceable cartridge.
Optionally the replaceable cartridge includes at least one ink reservoir.

Optionally the replaceable cartridge includes at least one sensor for sensing
coded data on print medium intended to
be used with the printer.

Optionally the replaceable cartridge includes a capping mechanism including a
capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print medium as
it moves through the media path.

Optionally in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into the
capping relationship.

Optionally the capping mechanism is configured such that the capper is
displaced in the feed direction as it moves
from the capped position to the uncapped position.

Optionally the replaceable cartridge includes a media drive mechanism for
engaging print media to be printed by the
printer.

Optionally the mobile device further including drive means for driving the
media drive mechanism, the drive means
not forming part of the replaceable cartridge.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
22

Optionally the media drive mechanism includes a driven wheel configured to
engage the drive means when the
replaceable cartridge is installed in the mobile device.

In a first aspect the present invention provides an integrated cartridge for
installation into a mobile device, the
cartridge including:
an inkjet printhead including a plurality of inkjet nozzles;
at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for ejection by
the nozzles; and
a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when it is not in use.

Incorporating the printhead into a cartridge ensures its regular replacement
and thereby maintains print quality. A
capper protects the delicate nozzle structures from paper dust during use.
However, by having it integrated it into
the cartridge, the only openings required in the cartridge are the media entry
and exit slots which significantly limits
the opportunity for tampering or contamination prior to installation.

Optionally the integrated circuit including a plurality of the ink reservoirs,
each supplying ink to a subset of the
nozzles.

Optionally the integrated circuit including reservoirs containing cyan,
magenta and yellow inks, respectively.
Optionally the integrated circuit including reservoirs that respectively
contain cyan, magenta, yellow inks and at
least one other fluid.

Optionally the at least one other fluid includes black ink.
Optionally the at least one other fluid includes infrared ink.

Optionally the at least one other fluid includes infrared ink and black ink.

Optionally a cartridge further comprising a drive shaft for engaging the print
media and driving it past the inkjet
printhead.

Optionally a cartridge further comprising a drive roller for rotating the
drive shaft, the drive roller being configured
to be driven by a complementary drive mechanism in the mobile device when the
cartridge is installed therein.

Optionally the drive roller is coaxial with the drive shaft.

Optionally the drive shaft is positioned in the print media path upstream of
the printhead.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
23

Optionally a cartridge further comprising a printhead having an array of ink
ejection nozzles and at least one ink
reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for ejection by the nozzles, each
of the at least one ink reservoirs
including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a negative hydrostatic
pressure in the ink at the nozzles.
Optionally the capping mechanism has a capper moveable between a capping
position in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead; and the cartridge
further comprises:
a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such that a
force provided by an edge of the
media as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to the capper by
the force transfer mechanism, thereby to at
least commence movement of the capper from the capped position to the uncapped
position prior to the media
reaching the capper.

Optionally the capping mechanism has a capper moveable between a capping
position in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead; and the cartridge
further comprises:
a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of the media
is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the capping mechanism has a capper moveable between a capping
position in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media; such that during use, the capper assembly is held in the
uncapped position by the media such that it
moves to the capped position upon disengagement with the media.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
the media substrate is a sheet; wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive mechanism before completion of its
printing such that the trailing edge
of the sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

Optionally the mobile device comprises:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; wherein
during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts
the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the angular
velocity of the drive shaft.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising at least one ink reservoir for
supplying ink to the printhead, the at
least one ink reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,

i
CA 02602695 2010-10-08
24
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.

Optionally the mobile device is a telecommunication device.
Optionally the mobile device is a mobile phone.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device including:
(a) an inkjet printhead;
(b) a print media feed path for directing a print medium past the printhead in
a feed direction during printing;
(c) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
(d) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the print medium as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to the
capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
print medium reaching the capper.

Optionally the capper is moved completely into the uncapped position by the
force transfer mechanism.
Optionally the force transfer device includes at least one crank member
mounted to pivot about an axis, the crank
member including:
a first region for engaging the print medium; and
a second region, rotationally displaced from the first region, for engaging
the capping mechanism;
the crank member being configured to translate linear force provided by the
print medium into a torque that
causes movement of the capper from the capped position towards the uncapped
position.

Optionally the mobile device further including a locking mechanism for holding
the capper in the uncapped position
whilst the print medium is being printed on by the printhead.
Optionally the locking mechanism includes at least one cam mounted for
rotation between an unlocked position and
a locked position, the at least one cam being configured such that, in the
unlocked position, it extends at least
partially into the feed path when the print medium is not present, the at
least one cam being positioned and
configured to engage an edge of the print medium as the print medium is fed
through the feed path such that the at
least one cam is rotated by the print medium into the locked position, such
that, in the locked position, the capper is
held in the uncapped position until after a trailing edge of the print medium
is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the cam is resiliently biased to return to the unlocked position
once the print medium edge moves past a
predetermined position in the feed path, thereby causing the capper to return
to the capped position.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

Optionally the at least one cam is mounted for rotation about an axis that is
substantially normal to the print medium
as it engages the cam in the feed path.

Optionally print medium for use with the device includes a linear-encoded data
track extending in an intended
5 direction of printing, the mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing of the dot data;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.

.10 Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code,
the fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
15 the sensed data track.

Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the
physical characteristics.
Optionally the mobile device configured to use the sensed data track to
determine an absolute position of the print
medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium in
reliance on the determination.
Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to print onto the print medium such that there is
a predetermined registration between
what is being printed and the second coded data.

Optionally the mobile device includes a transceiver, the mobile device being
configured to receive the information
indicative of the predetermined registration from a remote computer system via
a transceiver.

Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to determine a registration between what is being
printed and the second coded data.
Optionally the mobile device configured to transmit the determined
registration to a remote computer system via the
transceiver.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device including:
(a) an inkjet printhead;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
26

(b) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing; and
(c) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
media, wherein in the uncapped
position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print media as it
moves through the feed path.

De-capping the printhead by engagement with the media substrate avoids the
need for a separate mechanism for
actuating the capper. This permits a more compact cartridge so that the mobile
device can adhere to a small form
factor.

Optionally in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into the
capping relationship.

Optionally the capping mechanism is configured such that the capper is
displaced in the feed direction as it moves
from the capped position to the uncapped position.

Optionally the capping mechanism is further configured such that the capper is
simultaneously displaced in a
direction away from the printhead as it is displaced in the feed direction.
Optionally the capping mechanism is subsequently displaced in a direction
opposite the feed direction in the
uncapped position.

Optionally the mobile device further including a locking mechanism for holding
the capper in the uncapped position
whilst the print media is being printed on by the printhead.

Optionally the locking mechanism includes at least one cam mounted for
rotation between an unlocked position and
a locked position, the at least one cam being configured such that, in the
unlocked position, it extends at least
partially into the feed path when print media is not present, the at least one
cam being positioned and configured to
engage an edge of the print media as the print media is fed through the feed
path such that the at least one cam is
rotated by the print media into the locked position, such that, in the locked
position, the capper is held in the
uncapped position until after a trailing edge of the media is clear of the
printhead.

Optionally the cam is resiliently biased to return to the unlocked position
once the print media edge moves past a
predetermined position in the feed path, thereby causing the capper to return
to the capped position.

Optionally the at least one cam is mounted for rotation about an axis that is
substantially normal to the print media
as it engages the cam in the feed path.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
27

Optionally the mobile device further comprising a drive shaft for engaging the
print media and driving it past the
inkjet printhead.

Optionally the mobile device further comprising a drive roller for rotating
the drive shaft, the drive roller being
configured to be driven by a complementary drive mechanism in the mobile
device when the cartridge is installed
therein.

Optionally the drive roller is coaxial with the drive shaft.

Optionally the drive shaft is positioned in the print media path upstream of
the printhead.

Optionally a mobile device further comprising a printhead having an array of
ink ejection nozzles and at least one
ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for ejection by the nozzles,
each of the at least one ink reservoirs
including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a negative hydrostatic
pressure in the ink at the nozzles.
Optionally during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

Optionally the printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from a beacon operated by
a print engine controller in
the mobile device.

Optionally a mobile device further comprising:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.
Optionally a mobile device further comprising at least one ink reservoir for
supplying ink to the printhead, the at
least one ink reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally the mobile device is a telecommunication device.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
28

Optionally the mobile device is a mobile phone.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device including:
(a) an inkjet printhead;
(b) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
(c) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
media, wherein in the uncapped
position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
(d) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the locking mechanism includes at least one cam mounted for
rotation between an unlocked position and
a locked position, the at least one cam being configured such that, in the
unlocked position, it extends at least
partially into the feed path when print media is not present, the at least one
cam being positioned and configured to
engage an edge of the print media as the print media is fed through the feed
path such that the at least one cam is
rotated by the print media into the locked position, such that, in the locked
position, the capper is held in the
uncapped position until after a trailing edge of the media is clear of the
printhead.
Optionally the cam is resiliently biased to return to the unlocked position
once the print media edge moves past a
predetermined position in the feed path, thereby causing the capper to return
to the capped position.

Optionally the at least one cam is mounted for rotation about an axis that is
substantially normal to the print media
as it engages the cam in the feed path.

Optionally the locking mechanism is configured to hold the capper in the
uncapped position until after the trailing
edge of the media is clear of the capper, such that the capper can be released
into the capped position without
capturing the print media.
Optionally a mobile device further including a locking mechanism for holding
the capper in the uncapped position
whilst the print media is being printed on by the printhead.

Optionally the locking mechanism includes at least one cam mounted for
rotation between an unlocked position and
a locked position, the at least one cam being configured such that, in the
unlocked position, it extends at least
partially into the feed path when print media is not present, the at least one
cam being positioned and configured to
engage an edge of the print media as the print media is fed through the feed
path such that the at least one cam is
rotated by the print media into the locked position, such that, in the locked
position, the capper is held in the
uncapped position until after a trailing edge of the media is clear of the
printhead.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
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Optionally the cam is resiliently biased to return to the unlocked position
once the print media edge moves past a
predetermined position in the feed path, thereby causing the capper to return
to the capped position.

Optionally the at least one cam is mounted for rotation about an axis that is
substantially normal to the print media
as it engages the cam in the feed path.

Optionally a mobile device further comprising a drive shaft for engaging the
print media and driving it past the
inkjet printhead.

Optionally a mobile device further comprising a drive roller for rotating the
drive shaft, the drive roller being
configured to be driven by a complementary drive mechanism in the mobile
device when the cartridge is installed
therein.

Optionally the drive roller is coaxial with the drive shaft.
Optionally the drive shaft is positioned in the print media path upstream of
the printhead.

Optionally a mobile device further comprising a printhead having an array of
ink ejection nozzles and at least one
ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for ejection by the nozzles,
each of the at least one ink reservoirs
including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a negative hydrostatic
pressure in the ink at the nozzles.

Optionally during use, the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before
completion of its printing such that the
trailing edge of the sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete
its printing.

Optionally the printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from a beacon operated by
a print engine controller in
the mobile device.

Optionally a mobile device further comprising:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

Optionally a mobile device further comprising at least one ink reservoir for
supplying ink to the printhead, the at
least one ink reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
5 Optionally the mobile device is a telecommunication device.

Optionally the mobile device is a mobile phone.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a print medium for use with a
printer, the print medium comprising:
10 a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces;
first coded data in a first data format disposed in a first data region on the
laminar substrate, the first coded
data encoding first information; and
second coded data in a second data format disposed in a second data region on
the laminar substrate, the
second coded data encoding second information;
15 wherein the first information is indicative of the second information.
Optionally the first information is the same as the second information.
Optionally the first information is a document identifier.
Optionally the first format is a linear pattern.

Optionally the second format is a two-dimensional pattern.
Optionally the first format is a linear-encoded data track.
Optionally the first format is a linear-encoded data track.

Optionally either or both of the first and second coded data are substantially
invisible to the average unaided human
eye.

Optionally a print medium further including one or more additional regions,
each of the one or more additional
regions including further coded data in the first format.

Optionally the coded data in each of the additional regions includes the first
information.

Optionally the coded data in each of the first region and the additional
regions includes an orientation indicator that
is unique to each of the respective first and additional regions.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
31

Optionally each orientation indicator includes sufficient bits' worth of data
to uniquely identify the region within
which the corresponding coded data is disposed.

Optionally there are three of the additional regions, and wherein:
the first coded data and the coded data of one of the additional regions are
disposed along opposite edges
on a first of the faces; and
the coded data of the remaining two additional regions are disposed along the
opposite edges on the second
of the faces.

Optionally the second coded data is disposed between the first coded data and
the one of the additional regions on
the first of the faces.

Optionally the print medium including further coded data in the second format,
the further coded data being
disposed between the additional regions on the second of the faces.
Optionally the print medium further including human-readable information pre-
printed on at least one of the faces.
Optionally the human-readable information includes at least one direction
indicator.

Optionally the human-readable information includes at least one icon
indicative of a function.
Optionally the first information includes an embedded clock signal.

Optionally the print medium further including at least one clock track on at
least one of the faces.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device including:
a transceiver for sending and receiving signals via a wireless
telecommunications network;
processing means for processing connection history information relating to
communications sent to or from
the mobile telecommunications device via the transceiver, to generate dot data
representing a visual layout of the
connection history information; and
a integral printer configured to receive the dot data and print it onto a
print medium.

Optionally the connection history information includes an originating address
of at least one previous connection or
attempted connection with the mobile telecommunications device.
Optionally the connection history information includes an identity of a person
or other entity associated with the
originating address.

Optionally the connection history information includes a human-readable
indication that a voice-mail has been
received from the originating address.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
32

Optionally the connection history information includes one or more connections
or connection attempts made via
the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the print medium includes a linear-encoded data track extending in
an intended direction of printing, the
mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing of the dot data;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.
Optionally the mobile device further including a light-emitting device for
illuminating the data track while the
sensor is sensing it during printing.

Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum
and the photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.

Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the
physical characteristics.

Optionally a mobile device configured to use the sensed data track to
determine an absolute position of the print
medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium in
reliance on the determination.
Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to print onto the print medium such that there is
a predetermined registration between
what is being printed and the second coded data.
Optionally a mobile device configured to receive the information indicative of
the predetermined registration from a
remote computer system via the transceiver.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
33

Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to determine a registration between what is being
printed and the second coded data-

Optionally a mobile device configured to transmit the determined registration
to a remote computer system via the
transceiver.

In a first aspect the present invention provides an ink cartridge for use in a
mobile device, the ink cartridge
including:
at least one ink reservoir for holding ink;
at least one baffle dividing the at least one ink reservoir into a plurality
of sections, each of the sections in
each ink reservoir being in fluid communication with each of the other
sections in that ink reservoir via an aperture;
and
at least one porous insert in each of the at least one reservoirs, such that
substantially all of each ink
reservoir is filled with the at least one porous insert.

Optionally each reservoir includes a single porous insert including at least
one recessed portion, each recessed
portion being configured to engage one of the baffles in the reservoir.

Optionally a surface of each porous insert around the recessed portion
sealingly engages a surface of its
corresponding baffle.

Optionally the porous insert is of unitary construction.

Optionally the porous insert is formed from open-celled foam.

Optionally an ink cartridge further including a wick that extends along an
edge of the at least one porous insert, the
wick being configured to transport ink from the at least one porous insert to
an ink distribution arrangement
configured to distribute the ink to apagewidth printhead forming part of the
cartridge.
Optionally the ink distribution arrangement includes a plurality of ink ducts.

Optionally an ink cartridge configured such that ink within the at least one
reservoir is held at a negative pressure
with respect to ambient air pressure.
Optionally an ink cartridge further including a plurality of the ink
reservoirs, the ink reservoirs containing relatively
different colored inks.

Optionally an n ink cartridge comprising:


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
34

a print media feed path for directing a print medium past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
and
a drive mechanism for driving the print medium past the inkjet printhead for
printing.

Optionally the drive mechanism is a passive mechanism, including a media
roller for engaging the print medium to
drive it past the inkjet printhead.

Optionally an ink cartridge further including a drive roller configured to be
driven by a complementary drive
mechanism in the mobile device when the cartridge is installed therein.
Optionally the media roller is coaxial with the drive roller.

Optionally the media roller is positioned in the print media path upstream of
the printhead.

Optionally the cartridge is configured such that, in use, the media roller
drives the print medium such that a trailing
edge of the print medium passes the printhead after having disengaged from the
media roller.

Optionally the drive roller is a cog.

Optionally the drive roller includes a resilient peripheral edge.

Optionally a cartridge comprising a capping mechanism for capping the
printhead when it is not in use.
Optionally the capping mechanism includes a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by. an
edge of the print medium as
it is driven through the print media path.
Optionally a cartridge comprising a sensor for sensing coded data on the print
medium as it is being printed.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of retrieving and
storing a ringtone in a mobile
telecommunications device, the method, comprising the steps, performed in the
mobile telecommunications device,
of
sensing coded data printed on a surface;
decoding the coded data to generate decoded data;
transmitting a request for the ringtone based on the decoded data, the request
being transmitted via a mobile
telecommunications network;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

receiving the requested ringtone from a remote computer system via the mobile
telecommunications
network, the ringtone being in a format that is useable as a ringtone by the
mobile telecommunications device; and
storing the ringtone in the mobile telecommunications device.

5 Optionally a method further including the step of associating the ringtone
with at least one ring event in the mobile
telecommunications device.

Optionally the step of associating the ringtone with at least one ring event
includes receiving instructions from a user
via a user interface of the mobile telecommunications device
Optionally the ringtone is a digital sample.

Optionally the request is indicative of the mobile telecommunications device's
type, such that the ringtone is
received in a suitable format.
Optionally the mobile telecommunication device's type is recorded in the
mobile telecommunications network and
determined by the computer system to determine the correct format of ringtone
to transmit.

Optionally a method of retrieving and storing a theme or wallpaper in a mobile
telecommunications device, the
method comprising the steps, performed in the mobile telecommunications
device, of
sensing coded data printed on a surface;
decoding the coded data to generate decoded data;
transmitting a request for the theme or wallpaper based on the decoded data,
the request being transmitted
via a mobile telecommunications network;
receiving the requested theme or wallpaper from a remote computer system via
the mobile
telecommunications network, the theme or wallpapering being in a format that
is useable by the mobile
telecommunications device; and
storing the wallpaper or theme in the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the method including the step of automatically applying the
wallpaper or theme to the mobile
telecommunications device upon receipt.

Optionally the request is indicative of the mobile telecommunications device's
type, such that the wallpaper or
theme is received in a suitable format.
Optionally the mobile telecommunication device's type is recorded in the
mobile telecommunications network and
determined by the computer system to determine the correct format of wallpaper
or theme to transmit.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
36

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device includes a printer, the
printer being configured to print onto a
print medium, such that the printed medium includes coded data that can be
sensed to initiate generation and
transmission of the request.

Optionally the print medium is pre-printed with the coded data, the printer
being configured to print a user interface
onto the print medium.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device includes a sensor, the sensor
being configured to sense at least
some coded data on the print medium during printing, the mobile
telecommunications device being configured to
use the sensed coded data to print the user interface onto the print medium in
accordance with a registration.

Optionally a method further including the step of receiving the known
registration prior to commencing printing.
Optionally the coded data includes a linear-coded data track, the method
including the step of extracting a clock
from the data track and using the clock to synchronize printing of the user
interface onto to print medium.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a print cartridge for a
mobile telecommunications device, the
cartridge comprising:
a drive shaft with a media engagement surface for feeding a media substrate
along a feed path; and,
a media guide adjacent the drive shaft for biasing the media substrate against
the media engagement
surface.

It is important that any mobile telecommunications device that incorporates a
printhead and media feed assembly
does not significantly increase the overall size. Using a single drive shaft
and media guide is significantly more
compact than an opposed pair of media drive rollers.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising at least one ink reservoir, an
inkjet printhead and a capper for
capping the printhead when not in use.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising a rigid outer casing enclosing
the ink reservoir, the printhead, and
capper, the outer casing defining a media entry slot and a media exit slot.

Optionally the media guide is a series of sprung fingers extending from one
side of the media entry slot towards the
media engagement surface of the drive shaft.
Optionally a print cartridge further comprising a drive roller mounted to the
drive shaft, the drive roller having an
elastomeric rim for abutting a drive system in the mobile telecommunications
device.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
37

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising electrical contacts for power
and print data on the outer casing, the
contacts and the drive roller positioned for simultaneously engaging
corresponding contacts and the drive system
respectively upon insertion into the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising a printhead having an array of
ink ejection nozzles and at least one
ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for ejection by the nozzles,
each of the at least one ink reservoirs
including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a negative hydrostatic
pressure in the ink at the nozzles, and a
capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in use.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a printhead adjacent the feed path;

(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead;

(c) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to the capper
by the force transfer mechanism, thereby
to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position to the
uncapped position prior to the media
reaching the capper.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a printhead adjacent the feed path;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead; and
(c) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media is clear of the printhead.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a printhead adjacent the feed path;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media; wherein,
(c) the capper assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media such
that it moves to the capped position
upon disengagement with the media.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
a printhead for printing on to the media substrate; and,
the media substrate is a sheet; wherein during use,


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
38

the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising a printhead, wherein the
printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,

a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from a beacon operated by
a print engine controller in the mobile
telecommunications device.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device has a drive system for
rotating the drive shaft by friction.
Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
an inkjet printhead for printing to the media substrate; and,
the mobile telecommunications device comprises:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.
Optionally a print cartridge further comprising an inkjet printhead for
printing to the media substrate; and,
the mobile telecommunications device comprises:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; wherein
during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts
the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the angular
velocity of the drive shaft.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising at least one ink reservoir for
supplying ink to a printhead, the at least
one ink reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally the media substrate is a sheet with coded data on at least part of
its surface; and the mobile
telecommunications device further comprises a print engine controller for
operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a sensor for reading the coded data and generating a signal indicative of at
least one dimension of the sheet,
and transmitting the signal to the print engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
39

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising a printhead for printing the
media substrate, the media
substrate having coded data on at least part of its surface; and,
The mobile telecommunications device further comprising a print engine
controller for operatively
controlling the printhead; and,
a dual sensing facility for reading the coded data before, as well as after,
it has past the printhead.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a printhead with an array of nozzles for printing a media substrate;
a capper assembly movable between a capped position covering the nozzles and
an uncapped position
spaced from the nozzles; wherein,
the capper assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media such that it
moves to the capped position
upon disengagement with the media.

It is important that any mobile telecommunications device that incorporates a
printhead and media feed assembly
does not significantly increase the overall size. Using the media substrate to
move the capper from the capped
position before printing avoids the need for a separate uncapping mechanism.

Optionally the sheet of media substrate is encoded and the print engine
controller uses an optical sensor to determine
the position of the sheet relative to the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive shaft
for feeding the media past the
printhead.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet and the trailing edge of the sheet
disengages from the drive shaft before it
is printed and is projected past the printhead by its momentum.

Optionally the capper assembly lightly grips the sheet after it has been
printed so that it partially extends from the
mobile telecommunications device in readiness for manual collection.
Optionally the capper assembly moves out of the capped position and toward the
uncapped position upon
engagement with the leading edge of the sheet.

Optionally the printhead is incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises a print media feed path for directing
the print media past the printhead in a feed direction during printing, and a
drive mechanism for driving the print
media past the printhead for printing.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
5 (b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping
position in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead; and
(c) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to the capper
by the force transfer mechanism, thereby
10 to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position to the
uncapped position prior to the media
reaching the capper.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
15 into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead;
(c) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the drive assembly has a drive shaft with a media engagement
surface for feeding a media substrate along
20 a feed path; and,

a media guide adjacent the drive shaft for biasing the media substrate against
the media engagement surface.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device 1 further comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of media substrate past the printhead;
wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
25 sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

Optionally the printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,

30 a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from a beacon operated
by a print engine controller.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of media substrate past the printhead and
a drive system to rotate the drive shaft;
wherein,
the drive system rotates the drive roller by friction.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
41

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a media feed assembly for feeding the media past the printhead;
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding the media past the printhead; and,
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; wherein
during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts
the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the angular
velocity of the drive shaft.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least one
ink reservoir, the at least one
reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally the media substrate is a sheet with coded data disposed on at least
part of its surface; the mobile
telecommunications device further comprising:
a media feed assembly for feeding the sheet of media substrate along a feed
path past the printhead;
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a sensor for reading the coded data and generating a signal indicative of at
least one dimension of the sheet,
and transmitting the signal to the print engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet with coded data disposed on at least
part of its surface; the mobile
telecommunications device further comprising:
a media feed assembly for feeding the sheet of media substrate along a feed
path past the printhead;
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a dual sensing facility for reading the coded data before, as well as after,
it has past the printhead.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a printhead for printing a sheet of media substrate;
a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of media substrate past the printhead;
wherein during use,


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
42

the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

It is important that any mobile telecommunications device that incorporates a
printhead and media feed assembly
does not significantly increase the overall size and compact form factor.
Using a single drive shaft in a mobile
telecommunications device with a printhead allows for a compact design.
However, this makes full bleed printing
(printing to the edges of the media sheet) difficult. If the single shaft is
after the printhead, it is difficult to
accurately print the leading portion of the sheet as it is manually fed past
the printhead. Also, contact between the
roller and the freshly printed media can degrade the print quality. Likewise,
the trailing portion of the sheet can get
artifacts in the print if the feed roller is before the printhead and the
trailing portion is manually drawn past the
printhead to complete its printing. Configuring the drive shaft so that the
trailing edge of the media carries past the
printhead by momentum will allow full bleed printing using a single feed
roller for a compact design.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a media guide
adjacent the drive shaft for
biasing the media substrate against the drive shaft.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive
system for transmitting torque to the
drive shaft, the drive system having a drive wheel wherein the drive shaft can
be moved into contact with the rim of
the drive wheel for the transfer of torque.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a print engine controller for controlling the operation of the printhead; and,
a position sensor connected to the print engine controller such that the print
engine controller can determine
the position of the media substrate relative to the printhead.
Optionally the position sensor reads encoded data on the media substrate.
Optionally the position sensor senses the number of rotations of the drive
shaft.

Optionally wherein the printhead and the drive shaft are incorporated into a
replaceable cartridge for insertion into a
print media feed path within the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:

(a) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
43

(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,

(c) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media substrate as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to
the capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
media substrate reaching the capper.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing media substrate past the printhead
in a feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media substrate is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the drive shaft has a media engagement surface for enhanced contact
friction with the media substrate.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a capping
mechanism including a capper
moveable between a capping position in which the capper is urged into a
capping relationship with the printhead,
and an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the
media substrate, wherein the capper
assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media substrate such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a print
engine controller with a light emitting
beacon, and the printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from the beacon.

Optionally wherein the drive shaft is driven by a piezo-electric resonant
linear drive system.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications further comprising:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
44

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; wherein
during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts
the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the angular
velocity of the drive shaft.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least one
ink reservoir, the at least one
reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a media feed assembly for feeding the sheet of media substrate along a feed
path past the printhead;
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a sensor for reading coded data on at least part of the media substrate and
generating a signal indicative of
at least one dimension of the sheet, and transmitting the signal to the print
engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a dual sensing facility for reading coded data on at least part of the media
substrate before, as well as after,
it has past the printhead.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device comprising:
a processor for outputting print data;
a replaceable printhead cartridge including a photosensor and a printhead for
printing onto print media; and
a light emitting device for receiving the print data and converting it into a
modulated light signal;
wherein the photosensor and the light emitting device are positioned and
orientated such that, in use, the
photosensor receives the modulated light signal, the printhead being
configured to print on the basis of the print data
encoded in the modulated light signal.

Optionally the light emitting device is a light emitting diode.
Optionally the light emitting device is an organic light emitting diode.
Optionally the photosensor is mounted directly to the printhead within the
print cartridge.
Optionally a mobile device further including:


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
a receptacle for holding the cartridge;
an energy storage device;
first electrical contacts connected to receive electrical power from the
energy storage device; and
second electrical contacts disposed on or in the printhead cartridge;
5 the first and second contacts being configured and arranged to electrically
engage each other when the
cartridge is installed in the receptacle.

Optionally the energy storage device is a battery.

10 Optionally the electrical power received by the cartridge via the first and
second electrical contacts is used to power
ink ejection mechanisms in the printhead.

Optionally the ink ejection mechanisms are microelectromechanical systems.

15 Optionally each of the ink ejection mechanisms includes a thermal bend
actuator.

Optionally each of the ink ejection mechanisms includes a heater for ejecting
ink by vaporisation.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a printhead for an inkjet
printer with a print engine controller for
20 operatively controlling the printhead, the printhead comprising:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
an optical sensor for optically receiving the print data from a beacon
operated by the print engine
controller.
Inkjet printhead IC's will typically receive print data as well as nozzle
actuation power from a TAB film. However,
with large numbers of nozzles and high nozzle firing rates, the nozzle
actuation signals can generate a significant
amount of noise which can interfere with the print data signal. To provide the
printhead with a `cleaner' print data
signal, it, can be transmitted via an optical link to a sensor on directly on
the printhead IC. By pulsing a beacon in
the appropriate spectrum, the optical sensor receives the signal free of any
electrical noise due to the firing pulses.
Optionally the optical sensor is an IR sensor and the beacon is an IR LED.

Optionally the printhead is part of a cartridge that can be inserted into the
printer.
Optionally the inkjet printer is part of a mobile telecommunications device.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device comprising:
a print engine controller with a light emitting beacon; and,


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
46

a printhead with an array of nozzles for ejecting ink, print data circuitry
for providing the nozzles with print
data; and,
a sensor for receiving the print data from the beacon.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive shaft
wherein the printhead and drive
shaft are incorporated into a replaceable cartridge for insertion into a media
feed path within the mobile
telecommunications device.

Optionally the printhead is incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for
supplying ink to the printhead for ejection by the nozzles, each of the at
least one ink reservoirs including at least
one absorbent structure for inducing a negative hydrostatic pressure in the
ink at the nozzles, and a capping
mechanism for capping the printhead when not in use.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:

(a) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media substrate as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to
the capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
media substrate reaching the capper.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing media substrate past the printhead
in a feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media substrate is clear of the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive shaft
with a media engagement surface
for enhanced contact friction with the media substrate.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a capping
mechanism including a capper
moveable between a capping position in which the capper is urged into a
capping relationship with the printhead,
and an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the
media substrate, wherein the capper
assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media substrate such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
47

Optionally the sensor is a photosensor for optically receiving the print data
from the beacon.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive shaft
driven by a piezo-electric resonant
linear drive system.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

Optionally during use, the print engine controller senses the number of
complete and partial rotations of the drive
shaft and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations in
the angular velocity of the drive shaft.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least one
ink reservoir, the at least one
reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a media feed assembly for feeding a sheet of the media substrate along a feed
path past the printhead; and,
a sensor for reading coded data on at least part of the media substrate and
generating a signal indicative of
at least one dimension of the sheet, and transmitting the signal to the print
engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a dual sensor facility for reading coded data on at least part of the media
substrate before, as well as after, it
has past the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding a sheet of the media substrate along a feed path
past the printhead, wherein the sheet
disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing such that
the trailing edge of the sheet projects past
the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
48

In a first aspect the present invention provides a print cartridge for an
inkjet printer with a media drive assembly, the
cartridge comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding a media substrate past a printhead, the drive shaft
positioned such that it engages
the media drive assembly upon installation of the cartridge; wherein during
use,
the drive assembly transfer torque to the drive shaft by contact friction.

Transferring power from the drive assembly to the drive wheel by frictional
contact makes installation of the
cartridge easier. Simply sliding the drive wheel into abutment with the drive
assembly removes the need for more
complex couplings such as meshed gears or belt drives.
Optionally the drive shaft has a drive wheel mounted to it for the frictional
engagement with the drive assembly.
Optionally the rim of the drive wheel is formed from an elastomeric material.

Optionally the drive assembly has an idler roller to provide the frictional
contact with the drive wheel.
Optionally the drive assembly has an electric motor to drive the idler roller.

Optionally the drive assembly has a piezo electric resonating linear drive to
drive the idler roller.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and at least one
ink reservoir for supplying ink to the
printhead for ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least one ink reservoirs
including at least one absorbent structure
for inducing a negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at the nozzles, and a
capping mechanism for capping the
printhead when not in use.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism with a capper moveable between a capping position in
which the capper is urged into
a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in which
the printhead is able to print onto the
print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead; and,
(b) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to the capper
by the force transfer mechanism, thereby
to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position to the
uncapped position prior to the media
reaching the capper.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism with a capper moveable between a capping position in
which the capper is urged into
a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in which
the printhead is able to print onto the
print media, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced away
from the printhead; and


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
49

(b) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media is clear of the printhead.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism with a capper moveable between a capping position in
which the capper is urged into
a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in which
the printhead is able to print onto the
print media; wherein,
(b) the capper assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media such
that it moves to the capped position
upon disengagement with the media.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet that, during use, disengages from
the drive shaft before completion of its
printing such that the trailing edge of the sheet projects past the printhead
by momentum to complete its printing.
Optionally the printer has a print engine controller with a light emitting
beacon, and the printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from the beacon.
Optionally the printer is incorporated into a mobile telecommunications
device.
Optionally the cartridge incorporates the printhead; and,
the printer comprises:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

Optionally the cartridge incorporates the printhead; and,
the printer comprises:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; wherein
during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts
the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the angular
velocity of the drive shaft.

Optionally a print cartridge further comprising at least one ink reservoir for
supplying ink to the printhead, the at
least one ink reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet with coded data on at least part of
its surface; and the printer further
comprises a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead;
and,
a sensor for reading the coded data and generating a signal indicative of at
least one dimension of the sheet,
5 and transmitting the signal to the print engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.

Optionally the media substrate has coded data on at least part of its surface;
and,
10 the printer further comprising a print engine controller for operatively
controlling the printhead; and,
a dual sensing facility for reading the coded data before, as well as after,
it has past the printhead.
Optionally the drive shaft has a media engagement surface for feeding a media
substrate along a feed path; and,
the cartridge further comprises a media guide adjacent the drive shaft for
biasing the media substrate
15 against the media engagement surface.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
an inkjet printhead for printing to a media substrate;
a media feed assembly for feeding the media past the printhead;
20 a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.
It is important that any mobile telecommunications device that incorporates a
printhead and media feed assembly
does not significantly increase the overall size and compact form factor of
currently available mobile
telecommunications devices. Using a single media feed roller in a mobile
telecommunications device with a
printhead allows for a compact design. However, the feed roller must be
immediately before the printhead (in terms
of media feed direction) so that the trailing edge of the media carries past
the printhead by momentum. Because of
this, the speed of the feed roller varies during the printing of the media
sheet. Firstly, when the leading edge of the
media sheet initially engages the feed roller the additional load decreases
angular speed. Once the frictional
engagement between the roller and the media has been established, the angular
speed increases again. As the
printhead is so close to the feed roller, the roller is still speeding up when
the leading edge is being printed. If the
print engine controller (PEC) assumes that the speed of the roller is
constant, visible artifacts appear in the printing
of the leading edge portion of the media sheet. By allowing the PEC to sense
the longitudinal position of the media
relative to the printhead, it can then derive its speed and adjust the
operation of the nozzles in response to any
variations to remove artifacts from the printing.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
51

Optionally the media substrate is printed with encoded data and the position
sensor optically reads the encoded data
to generate the signal indicative of the position of the media substrate
relative to printhead.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a media feed roller with encoding, such
that the position sensor optically
reads the encoding to sense the number of complete and partial rotations of
the media feed roller to generate the
signal indicative of the position of the media substrate relative to the
printhead.

Optionally the printhead has an array of nozzles and a capper assembly movable
between a capped position covering
the printhead nozzles and an uncapped position spaced from the printhead
nozzles, the capper assembly being
adapted for engagement with the media substrate to move it away of the capped
position and towards the uncapped
position.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet with a leading edge that engages the
capper assembly and a trailing edge
that disengages from the media feed roller before it is printed and is
projected past the printhead by its momentum
such that the media feed roller accelerates from the reduction in load and the
sheet decelerates from friction.

Optionally the capper assembly lightly grips the sheet after it has been
printed so that it partially extends from the
mobile telecommunications device in readiness for manual collection.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft, the drive and the
printhead being incorporated into a
replaceable cartridge for insertion into a print media feed path within the
mobile telecommunications device.
Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media substrate as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to
the capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
media substrate reaching the capper.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing media substrate past the printhead
in a feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
52

into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media substrate is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft with a media engagement
surface for enhanced contact friction
with the media substrate.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a capping
mechanism including a capper
moveable between a capping position in which the capper is urged into a
capping relationship with the printhead,
and an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the
media substrate, wherein the capper
assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media substrate such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally the print engine controller has a light emitting beacon, and the
printhead further comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
a sensor for receiving the print data from the beacon.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft driven by a piezo-
electric resonant linear drive system.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least one
ink reservoir, the at least one
reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a sensor for reading coded data on at least part of the media substrate and
generating a signal indicative of
at least one dimension of the sheet, and transmitting the signal to the print
engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a dual
sensing facility for reading coded data on
at least part of the media substrate before, as well as after, it has past the
printhead.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
an inkjet printhead for printing to a media substrate;


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a drive shaft for feeding the media past the printhead; and,
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; wherein
during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the media feed roller and
adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the
angular velocity of the drive shaft.
Using a single media drive shaft in a mobile telecommunications device with a
printhead allows for a compact
design. However, the drive shaft must be immediately before the printhead (in
terms of media feed direction) so
that the trailing edge of the media carries past the printhead by momentum.
Because of this, the speed of the drive
shaft varies during the printing of the media sheet. Firstly, when the leading
edge of the media sheet initially
engages the feed roller the additional load decreases angular speed. Once the
frictional engagement between the
roller and the media has been established, the angular speed increases again.
As the printhead is so close to the feed
roller, the roller is still speeding up when the leading edge is being
printed. If the print engine controller (PEC)
assumes that the speed of the roller is constant, visible artifacts appear in
the printing of the leading edge portion of
the media sheet. By allowing the PEC to sense the rotations of the roller, it
can determine the longitudinal position
of the media relative to the printhead and adjust the operation of the nozzles
in response to variations in roller speed
to remove artifacts from the printing.

Optionally the drive shaft has optical encoding and the print engine
controller uses an optical sensor to sense the
number of complete and partial rotations of the drive shaft.
Optionally the printhead has a capper assembly movable between a capped
position covering the printhead nozzles
and an uncapped position spaced from the printhead nozzles, the capper
assembly being adapted for engagement
with the media substrate to move it away of the capped position and towards
the uncapped position.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet with a leading edge that engages the
capper assembly and a trailing edge
that disengages from the drive shaft before it is printed and is projected
past the printhead by its momentum such
that the drive shaft accelerates from the reduction in load and the sheet
decelerates from friction.

Optionally the capper assembly lightly grips the sheet after it has been
printed so that it partially extends from the
mobile telecommunications device in readiness for manual collection.

Optionally the capper assembly returns to the capped position after the sheet
has been manually collected from the
mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the printhead and the drive shaft are incorporated into a
replaceable cartridge for insertion into a print
media feed path within the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least


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one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media substrate as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to
the capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
media substrate reaching the capper.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:

(a) a print media feed path for directing the media substrate past the
printhead in a feed direction during
printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media substrate is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the drive shaft has a media engagement surface for enhanced contact
friction with the media substrate.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a capping
mechanism including a capper
moveable between a capping position in which the capper is urged into a
capping relationship with the printhead,
and an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the
media substrate, wherein the capper
assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media substrate such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally the print engine controller has a light emitting beacon, and the
printhead further comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,
a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from the beacon.
Optionally the drive shaft is driven by a piezo-electric resonant linear drive
system.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.
5
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least one
ink reservoir, the at least one
reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
10 ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a sensor for
reading coded data on at least part
of the media substrate and generating a signal indicative of at least one
dimension of the sheet, and transmitting the
15 signal to the print engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a dual
sensing facility for reading coded data on
20 at least part of the media substrate before, as well as after, it has past
the printhead.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a printhead for printing on a media substrate;

a drive shaft for feeding the media substrate past the printhead;

a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
25 an ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead, the reservoir having:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;

one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one ink
outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,

at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.

30 Optionally the at least one conduit has a cross sectional area small enough
such that capillary action prevents ink
from draining of the conduit under gravity regardless of the orientation of
the housing.


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Optionally the at least one conduit is defined by one or more channels formed
in the exterior surface of the housing
and covered by a sealing film adhered to the exterior surface, the sealing
film having apertures for each of the
outlets respectively for fluid communication with the printhead.

Optionally the housing defines three of the ink storage volumes, each of the
ink storage volumes being elongate and
having the baffles extending transversely across each of the storage volumes
respectively.

Optionally each of the sections contains an ink retaining structure
incorporating porous material such that, capillary
action reduces the hydrostatic pressure of the ink within inactive nozzles of
the printhead to less than atmospheric.
Optionally the printhead is a pagewidth printhead.

Optionally the printhead and the drive shaft are incorporated into a
replaceable cartridge for insertion into a print
media feed path within the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing print media past the printhead in a
feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media substrate as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to
the capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
media substrate reaching the capper.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a print media feed path for directing media substrate past the printhead
in a feed direction during printing;
(b) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(c) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of the
media substrate is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the drive shaft has a media engagement surface for enhanced contact
friction with the media substrate.


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Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a capping
mechanism including a capper
moveable between a capping position in which the capper is urged into a
capping relationship with the printhead,
and an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the
media substrate, wherein the capper
assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media substrate such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally the print engine controller has a light emitting beacon, and the
printhead further comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;

print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,

a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from the beacon.

Optionally the drive shaft is driven by a piezo-electric resonant linear drive
system.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:

a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,

the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

Optionally during use, the print engine controller senses the number of
complete and partial rotations of the drive
shaft and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations in
the angular velocity of the drive shaft.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:

a sensor for reading coded data on at least part of the media substrate and
generating a signal indicative of
at least one dimension of the sheet, and transmitting the signal to the print
engine controller; such that,

the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:

a dual sensing facility for reading coded data on at least part of the media
substrate before, as well as after,
it has past the printhead.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a print medium configured to
be printed on by a mobile device in a
print direction, the print medium comprising:


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a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces; and
a data track containing first information encoded in accordance with a linear
encoding scheme, the data
track extending in a linear read direction across a portion of the first face
of the print medium, the read direction
being oriented at between 45 and 135 degrees with respect to the print
direction.
Optionally the read direction is orientated at about 90 degrees with respect
to the print direction.

Optionally a print medium further including a leading edge and trailing edge
opposite the leading edge, the print
medium being designed for insertion leading-edge-first into the mobile device
for printing, wherein the data track is
positioned closer to the leading edge than to the trailing edge.

Optionally the data track is positioned at or adjacent the leading edge.
Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink.
Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink that is substantially
invisible to an average unaided human eye.
Optionally a print medium further including coded data containing second
information encoded in accordance with a
second encoding scheme distinct from the linear encoding scheme, wherein the
first information is indicative of the
second information.

Optionally the first information is the same as the second information.
Optionally the first and second information are a document identifier.
Optionally a method of printing onto a print medium using a mobile device that
includes a printhead and a data track
reader, the method comprising the steps of
(a) receiving the print medium into the mobile device;
(b) reading the data track;
(c) decoding the data track to obtain the first information;
(d) printing onto the print medium at least partially in reliance on first
information determined from the
decoded data track.

Optionally step (d) includes the substeps of
(e) sending a first message to a remote computer system, the first message
containing the first information;
(f) receiving a second message from the remote computer, the second message
being indicative of whether
printing is authorised for the print medium; and
(g) printing onto the print medium in the event the second message confirms
that the printing is authorised.


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Optionally the method including receiving print data from the remote computer
system in response to the first
message, step (g) including printing onto the print medium based at least
partially on the print data.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a physical characteristic of
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of an identity of the print
medium.

Optionally a print medium further including a second linear-encoded data track
extending along at least a portion of
at least one face of the print medium.

Optionally the second linear-encoded data track is printed in infrared ink
that is substantially invisible to an average
unaided human eye.

Optionally the second linear-encoded data track includes an extractable clock
useable by the mobile device in
synchronizing printing onto the print medium.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of printing onto a
print medium using a mobile device with
a printhead and sensor, the print medium comprising:
a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces; and
a data track containing first information encoded in accordance with a linear
encoding scheme, the data
track extending in a linear read direction across a portion of the first face
of the print medium, the read direction
being oriented at between 45 and 135 degrees with respect to the print
direction;
the method comprising the steps of
receiving the print medium into a media feed path of the mobile device;
using the sensor to sense the data track at least once before or during
printing onto the print medium with
the printhead; and
determining a lateral registration of the data track relative to the sensor.

Optionally the print medium includes coded data having a predetermined
positional relationship relative to the data
track, the method including determining, in the mobile device and based on the
determined lateral registration, a
lateral registration of the coded data with respect to the media feed path
before or during printing.

Optionally the coded data encodes second information, the first information
being indicative of the second
information, the method including the step of decoding the data track to
determine the first information.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

Optionally the first information is the same as the second information.
Optionally the first and second information are a document identifier.
5
Optionally the method comprising the step of printing onto the print medium
with the printhead at least partially in
reliance on determined lateral registration.

Optionally the method comprising the step of printing onto the print medium
with the printhead at least partially in
10 reliance on first information determined from the decoded data track.

Optionally the printing step includes the substeps of
sending a first message to a remote computer system, the first message
containing the first information;
receiving a response from the remote computer, the response being indicative
of whether printing is
15 authorised for the print medium; and
printing onto the print medium in the event the response confirms that the
printing is authorised.

Optionally the method comprising receiving print data from the remote computer
system in response to the first
message, the printing step comprising printing onto the print medium based at
least partially on the print data.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a physical characteristic of
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of an identity of the print
medium.
Optionally the print medium further including a second linear-encoded data
track extending along at least a portion
of at least one face of the print medium, the method including the steps of
sensing the second data track during printing onto the print medium;
deriving a clock signal from the sensed second data track; and
synchronizing printing based on the clock signal.

Optionally the mobile device including a light emitting device, the method
including illuminating the data track with
the light emitting device during sensing of the data track.

Optionallythe data track is printed in infrared ink, and the light emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum.


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In a first aspect the present invention provides a print medium configured to
be printed on by a mobile device in a
print direction, the print medium comprising:
a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces; and
a data track containing first information encoded in accordance with a linear
encoding scheme, the data
track extending in a linear read direction along the print medium in the print
direction, the linear encoding scheme
being selected to enable clock data to be extracted from it while the print
medium is being moved past a printhead in
the mobile device, for use in synchronizing printing onto the print medium
using the printhead.

Optionally the data track is disposed at or adjacent an edge of the print
medium, the edge extending in the print
direction.

Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink.

Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink that is substantially
invisible to an average unaided human eye.
Optionally the print medium further including coded data containing second
information encoded in accordance
with a second encoding scheme distinct from the linear encoding scheme,
wherein the first information is indicative
of the second information.
Optionally the first information is the same as the second information.
Optionally the first and second information are a document identifier.

Optionally the method of printing onto a print medium using a mobile device
that includes a printhead and a data
track reader, the method comprising the steps of
(a) receiving the print medium into the mobile device;
(b) reading the data track using the data track reader during a printing
operation;
(c) extracting a clock signal from the read data track;
(d) printing onto the print medium at least partially in reliance on the clock
signal.
Optionally the method further including the steps of
(f) extracting the first information from the read data track;
(g) sending a first message to a remote computer system, the first message
containing the first information;
(h) receiving a second message from the remote computer, the second message
being indicative of whether
printing is authorised for the print medium; and
(i) printing onto the print medium in the event the second message confirms
that the printing is authorised.
Optionally the method further including a step (j), performed prior to step
(f), of reading the data track using the data
track reader at a separate time to step (b), and using the data read in step
(j) to perform steps (f) to (i).


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Optionally the method including receiving print data from the remote computer
system in response to the first
message, step (g) including printing onto the print medium based at least
partially on the print data.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a physical characteristic of
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of an identity of the print
medium.

Optionally the method further including a plurality of the data tracks
disposed in different places on the print
medium.

Optionally the method the data track includes at least one orientation
indicator.

Optionally the at least one orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent
an edge of the print medium.

Optionally the print medium having a leading edge and a trailing edge defined
relative to intended feed direction of
the print medium through a media feed path of the mobile device, at least one
of the at least one orientation
indicators being disposed on or in the print medium at or adjacent the leading
edge
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device for printing
onto a print medium, the print medium
including a linear-encoded data track extending in an intended direction of
printing, the mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.

Optionally a mobile device further including a light-emitting device for
illuminating the data track while the sensor
is sensing it during printing.

Optionally the data track is printed with infrared ink, the light-emitting
device emits light in the infrared spectrum
and the photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.

Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.


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Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the
physical characteristics.

Optionally a mobile device configured to use the sensed data track to
determine an absolute position of the print
medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium in
reliance on the determination.
Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to print onto the print medium such that there is
a predetermined registration between
what is being printed and the second coded data.

Optionally a mobile device further including a receiver for receiving print
data to be printed and information
indicative of the predetermined registration.

Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information, wherein the
mobile device is configured to:
print onto the print medium;
determine a registration between what is being printed and the second coded
data.
Optionally the mobile device further including a transmitter for transmitting
the determined registration to a remote
computer system.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of an identity of the print
medium.

Optionally the method further including a plurality of the data tracks
disposed in different places on the print
medium.

Optionally the data track includes at least one orientation indicator.


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Optionally the at least one orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent
an edge of the print medium.

Optionally, the print medium having a leading edge and a trailing edge defined
relative to intended feed direction of
the print medium through a media feed path of the mobile device, at least one
of the at least one orientation
indicators being disposed on or in the print medium at or adjacent the leading
edge

In a first aspect the present invention provides a print medium configured to
be printed on by a mobile device in a
print direction, the print medium comprising:
a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces; and
coded data encoding first information, the first information being indicative
of a physical characteristic of
the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.

Optionally the first information is encoded into the coded data in accordance
with a linear encoding scheme.
Optionally the coded data takes the form of a data track.

Optionally the print medium according to claim 6, wherein the data track
extends along an edge of the print
medium.

Optionally the print medium including at least two of the data tracks, each of
which encodes the first information.
Optionally the first information is identical in all the data tracks.
Optionally each of the data tracks includes at least one orientation indicator
indicative of an orientation of the print
medium.

Optionally the orientation indicator is different in each of the data tracks
to account for differences in position and
orientation of the respective data tracks relative to the print medium.

Optionally one of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a first
corner of the print medium on the first face.
Optionally another of the orientation indicators is positioned adjacent a
second corner of the print medium on the
first face, the second corner being diagonally opposite the first corner.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

Optionally the data track further includes at least one orientation indicator
indicative of an orientation of the print
medium.

5 Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink.

Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink that is substantially
invisible to an average unaided human eye.
Optionally the print medium further including coded data containing second
information encoded in accordance
10 with a second encoding scheme distinct from the linear encoding scheme,
wherein the first information is indicative
of the second information.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device for printing
onto a print medium in a print direction,
the print medium including first coded data that encodes first information,
mobile device comprising:
15 a first sensor for sensing the first coded data;
processing means for decoding the coded data and extracting at least the first
information; and
a printhead for printing onto the print medium, wherein the printhead is
controlled to print onto the print
medium at least partially on the basis of the extracted first information, and
printing does not commence until all of
the first information has been extracted.
Optionally the first information is indicative of an identity of the print
medium.

Optionally the first coded data is encoded in a data track in accordance with
a linear encoding scheme, and the print
medium includes second coded data encoded in an encoding scheme different from
the linear encoding scheme, at
least some of the first information being indicative of second information
encoded in the second coded data.

Optionally the first and second information are indicative of the identity of
the print medium.

Optionally the mobile device includes a transmitter configured to transmit a
first message to a remote computer
system, the first message being indicative of the identity of the print
medium.

Optionally the mobile device includes a receiver for receiving a second
message in reply to the first message, the
second message being indicative of whether the print medium can be printed on,
the mobile device being configured
to await the second message before determining whether to print onto the print
medium.
Optionally the mobile device further including a media drive means for driving
the print medium past the printhead
during printing.

Optionally the mobile device defming a print path along which the print medium
travels past the printhead, wherein
the drive means is disposed upstream of the sensor in the print path.


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Optionally the sensor is disposed between the drive means and the printhead.

Optionally the drive means is reversible, thereby enabling the print medium to
be driven past the sensor in the print
direction to allow reading of the first coded data, reversed until the print
medium is positioned substantially
upstream of the printhead, then driven in the print direction past the
printhead during printing.

Optionally the mobile device configured to:
sense the first coded data while the print medium is being driven past the
printhead during printing;
extract a clock signal from the first coded data; and
use the clock signal the provide a fire control signal to the printhead,
thereby to synchronise printing with
movement of the print medium.

Optionally the mobile device defining a print path along which the print
medium travels past the printhead, wherein
the drive means includes first and second drive mechanisms disposed in the
print path upstream and downstream,
respectively, of the printhead.

Optionally the sensor is disposed between the first and second drive
mechanisms.
Optionally the mobile device configured to:
sense the first coded data while the print medium is being driven past the
printhead during printing;
extract a clock signal from the first coded data; and
use the clock signal the provide a fire control signal to the printhead,
thereby to synchronise printing with
movement of the print medium.
Optionally the first coded data includes a separate clock track parallel to
the linear encoded first information, the
mobile device being configured to generate the clock signal from the clock
track during printing.

Optionally the first coded data includes a separate clock track parallel to
the linear encoded first information, the
mobile device being configured to generate the clock signal from the clock
track during printing.

Optionally the mobile device further including a light-emitting device
positioned to output light onto the first coded
data to enable sensing thereof with the sensor.

Optionally the first coded data is printed in infrared ink and the light-
emitting device emits light in the infrared
spectrum.

Optionally the first coded data is printed in infrared ink that is
substantially invisible to an average unaided human
eye.


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In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device for printing
onto a print medium in a print direction,
the print medium including first coded data that encodes first information,
mobile device comprising:
a first sensor for sensing the first coded data;
processing means for decoding the coded data and extracting at least the first
information; and
a printhead for printing onto the print medium, wherein the printhead is
controlled to print onto the print
medium at least partially on the basis of the extracted first information, and
printing commences prior to all of the
first information being extracted.

Optionally the first information is indicative of an identity of the print
medium.
Optionally the first coded data is encoded in a data track in accordance with
a linear encoding scheme, and the print
medium includes second coded data encoded in an encoding scheme different from
the linear encoding scheme, at
least some of the first information being indicative of second information
encoded in the second coded data.

Optionally the first and second information are indicative of the identity of
the print medium.

Optionally the mobile device includes a transmitter configured to transmit a
first message to a remote computer
system, the first message being indicative of the identity of the print
medium.

Optionally the mobile device includes a receiver for receiving a second
message in reply to the first message, the
second message being indicative of whether the print medium can be printed on,
the mobile device being configured
to halt printing in the event the second message indicates that the print
medium is not to be printed on.

Optionally the mobile device further including a media drive means for driving
the print medium past the printhead
during printing.

Optionally the mobile device defining a print path along which the print
medium travels past the printhead, wherein
the drive means is disposed upstream of the sensor in the print path.

Optionally the sensor is disposed between the drive means and the printhead.
Optionally the mobile device configured to:
sense the first coded data while the print medium is being driven past the
printhead during printing;
extract a clock signal from the first coded data; and
use the clock signal the provide a fire control signal to the printhead,
thereby to synchronise printing with
movement of the print medium.

Optionally the first coded data includes a separate clock track in addition to
the first information, the mobile device
being configured to generate the clock signal from the clock track during
printing.


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Optionally the mobile device further including a light-emitting device
positioned to output light onto the first coded
data to enable sensing thereof with the sensor.

Optionally the first coded data is printed in infrared ink and the light-
emitting device emits light in the infrared
spectrum.

Optionally the first coded data is printed in infrared ink that is
substantially invisible to an average unaided human
eye.

Optionally the printhead forms part of a replaceable cartridge.
Optionally the cartridge includes at least one ink reservoir.

Optionally the cartridge includes at least one capping mechanism for capping
the printhead when it is not printing.
Optionally the capping mechanism includes a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print medium as
it moves through the media path.

Optionally in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into the
capping relationship.

Optionally the capping mechanism is configured such that the capper is
displaced in the feed direction as it moves
from the capped position to the uncapped position.

Optionally the processing means is configured to extract a clock signal from
the sensed coded data, the clock signal
being used to synchronize printing onto the print medium.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device comprising:

a printer for printing document information onto one or more of a plurality of
print areas, each of the print
areas including identity data indicative of identity information which
differentiates the print area from others of the
plurality; and

at least one sensor for sensing the identity information of the one or more
print areas.
Optionally the device is a mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the identity data is represented on the print area in a coded form
and the printer includes a decoder which


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receives coded data from the at least one sensor and outputs decoded data
representing at least the identity data or at
least the identity information.

Optionally each identity information is represented on the print area by at
least two discrete items of data and the
decoder outputs decoded data representing at least the identity information
after receiving said at least two separate
items of data.

Optionally said at least one sensor is positioned to sense said identity data
after printing of the document information
on the respective print area has commenced.

Optionally said at least one sensor is positioned to sense said identity data
before printing of the document
information on the respective print area has commenced.

Optionally said at least one sensor is positioned to sense said identity data
during printing of the document
information on the respective print area.

Optionally the mobile device further including a transmitter for transmitting
information to a computer system.
Optionally the mobile device further including a transmitter which transmits
the identity data or identity information
to the computer system.

Optionally the mobile device further including means to detect failure to
correctly print document information onto
a print area and for generating a void signal on detection of said failure,
the transmitter transmitting said void signal
to the computer system.

Optionally said document information is based at least partially on document
data received from a computer system.
Optionally said printer derives and transmits identity data or identity
information associated with a print area to a
computer system prior to receiving document data associated with said print
area.

Optionally said printer derives and transmits identity data or identity
information associated with a print area to a
computer system prior to receiving document data associated with said print
area and said document data is based at
least partially on the identity information of the print area.

Optionally the printer is operable to over-print a print area having existing
document information to render the
existing document information unreadable

Optionally the printer includes a print mechanism for printing on at least two
of print areas substantially
simultaneously.

Optionally the at least one sensor is selected from an image sensor and a
magnetic sensor and a chemical sensor.
Optionally the printer generates at least some of the information printed.

Optionally the printer generates print information indicative of the
information printed.

Optionally the mobile device further including a user interface to enable a
user to input identity information into the
printer.


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In a first aspect the present invention provides print medium configured to be
printed on by a mobile device in a
print direction, the print medium comprising a laminar substrate defining
first and second opposite faces, the laminar
substrate comprising a first portion to be printed on by the mobile device,
and a second portion attached to the
second portion by a relatively weak region in the substrate, the second
portion being detachable from the first
5 portion.

Optionally a print medium including a linear track from which a clock signal
can be extracted by the mobile device
for use in synchronising printing onto the first portion.

10 Optionally the linear track is at least partially disposed on the second
portion.

Optionally the linear track extends on both the first and second portions in a
continuous fashion.
Optionally the linear track is a linear-encoded data track containing first
information extractable by the mobile
15 device prior to or during printing.

Optionally a print medium further including coded data encoded in a format
different from the linear encoding, the
coded data containing second information, wherein the first information is
indicative of the second information.

20 Optionally the linear track extends along the print medium in the print
direction.

Optionally the linear track is disposed at or adjacent an edge of the print
medium, the edge extending in the print
direction.

25 Optionally the relatively weak region is a perforated line extending across
the print medium in direction generally
normal to the print direction.

Optionally the relatively weak region is shaped such that, once the second
portion is detached from the first portion,
an edge of the first portion revealed by removal of the second portion is
shaped substantially the same, in plan view,
30 as an edge of the first portion at an opposite end of the first portion.

Optionally the linear track includes at least one orientation indicator
indicative of an orientation of the print medium.
Optionally the orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent an edge of the
second portion distant from the weak
35 region.

Optionally a print medium including a further orientation indicator in the
linear track, the further orientation
indicator being positioned on the first portion at or adjacent the weak
region.

40 Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink.


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Optionally the data track is printed in infrared ink that is substantially
invisible to an average unaided human eye.
Optionally a print medium further including pre-printed human readable
information on at least one of the faces.
Optionally the second portion includes coded data encoded in a format
different from the linear encoding, the coded
data containing second information.

Optionally the second portion includes pre-printed human readable information
indicative of the second portion
being a lottery ticket.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a physical characteristic of
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to read coded data from a print
medium configured to be printed on by the mobile device in a print direction,
the mobile device including a printer,
a sensor and processing means, the print medium comprising a laminar substrate
defining first and second opposite
faces, the first face bearing coded data, the method comprising the steps of
using the sensor to sense at least some of the coded data from the print
medium;
using the processing means to decode the coded data; and
printing onto the print medium only after the coded data has been decoded.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of a plurality of locations associated
with the print medium, the decoding
step including determining at least one of the locations.

Optionally the decoding step includes determining a position of the print
medium relative to the sensor at the time
the coded data was sensed, based at least partly on the determined location.

Optionally the coded data takes the form of a two-dimensional array of data,
the sensor being configured to capture
an image of a subset of the coded data, the subset of the coded data being
sufficient to enable the location to be
determined.


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Optionally the processing means being configured to determine a position of
the print medium relative to the sensor
at the time the coded data was sensed, based at least partly on the determined
location and a position of the captured
coded data in a capture field of the sensor.

Optionally the mobile device further including a light emitting device, the
method including the step of using the
light emitting device to illuminate the print medium while the sensor senses
the coded data.

Optionally the method including the steps, performed during printing onto the
print medium, of:
using the sensor to determine a clock signal; and
using the clock signal to synchronize the printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the step of using the sensor to sense the coded data includes
capturing a first image of the coded data, and
the step of generating the clock signal includes using the processor to
perform the steps of;
determining a position of the print medium relative to the sensor at the time
the coded data was sensed,
based at least partly on the determined location;
using the sensor to capture subsequent images of the coded data as the
printhead is being printed;
determining movement of the print medium during printing based on the
subsequently captured images;
and
deriving the clock signal based on the movement.
Optionally determining the movement during printing includes using the
processing means to perform the steps of:
decoding the coded data captured in at least some of the subsequently captured
images;
determining a position of the print medium relative to the sensor at the time
each of the images was
captured; and
determining the movement of the print medium based on the positions determined
over time.

Optionally determining the movement during printing includes the step of
performing pattern recognition on at least
some of the coded data in at least some of the captured images to determine
movement of the print medium relative
to initial position.
Optionally the method further including the step of determining movement of
the print medium relative to sensor,
based on the coded data sensed by the sensor.

Optionally determining the movement includes capturing a plurality of images
of the coded data as the print medium
moves past the sensor, and determining the movement based on the plurality of
images.

Optionally determining the movement includes the steps of:
using the processing means to decode the coded data captured in at least some
of the plurality of captured
images;


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determining a position of the print medium relative to the sensor at the time
each of the images was
captured; and
determining the movement of the print medium based on the positions determined
over time.

Optionally determining the movement includes the step of performing pattern
recognition to determine movement of
the print medium relative to at least one absolute position of the print
medium.

Optionally including the step of obtaining the absolute position by using the
processing means to decode the coded
data in at least one of the captured images and obtaining the at least one
absolute position from the decoded data.
Optionally the mobile device further including a light emitting device, the
method including the step of using the
light emitting device to illuminate the print medium while the sensor senses
the coded data.

Optionally the method further including the steps of generating a clock signal
based on the movement, and using the
clock signal to synchronize the printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the medium includes at least one orientation indicator indicative
of an orientation of the print medium,
the method comprising determining the orientation from the orientation
indicator before commencing printing.

Optionally the at least one orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent
an edge of the print medium.

Optionally the print medium having a leading edge and a trailing edge defined
relative to intended feed direction of
the print medium through a media feed path, at least one of the at least one
orientation indicators being disposed on
or in the print medium at or adjacent the leading edge.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to determine movement, relative to
the mobile device, of a print medium configured to be printed on by the mobile
device in a print direction, the
mobile device including a printer, a first sensor and processing means, the
print medium comprising a laminar
substrate defining first and second opposite faces, the first face bearing
coded data, the method comprising the steps
of
using the first sensor to sense at least some of the coded data from the print
medium;
determining movement of the print medium relative to sensor, based on the
coded data sensed by the first
sensor.

Optionally determining the movement includes capturing a plurality of images
of the coded data as the print medium
moves past the first sensor, and determining the movement based on the
plurality of images.

Optionally determining the movement includes the steps of
using the processing means to decode the coded data captured in at least one
of the plurality of captured
images;


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determining a position of the print medium relative to the first sensor at the
time each of the images was
captured; and
determining the movement of the print medium based on the positions determined
over time.

Optionally determining the movement includes the step of performing pattern
recognition to determine movement of
the print medium relative to at least one absolute position of the print
medium.

Optionally the method including the step of obtaining the absolute position by
using the processing means to decode
the coded data in at least one of the captured images and obtaining the at
least one absolute position from the
decoded data.

Optionally the mobile device further including a light emitting device, the
method including the step of using the
light emitting device to illuminate the print medium while the first sensor
senses the coded data.

Optionally the method further including the steps of generating a clock signal
based on the movement, and using the
clock signal to synchronize the printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the coded data is indicative of a plurality of locations associated
with the print medium, the decoding
step including determining at least one of the locations.
Optionally the decoding step includes determining a position of the print
medium relative to the first sensor at the
time the coded data was sensed, based at least partly on the determined
location.

Optionally the coded data takes the form of a two-dimensional array of data,
the first sensor being configured to
capture an image of a subset of the coded data, the subset of the coded data
being sufficient to enable the position to
be determined.

Optionally the processing means being configured to determine a position of
the print medium relative to the first
sensor at the time the coded data was sensed, based at least partly on the
determined location and a position of the
captured coded data in a capture field of the first sensor.

Optionally the mobile device further including a light emitting device, the
method including the step of using the
light emitting device to illuminate the print medium while the first sensor
senses the coded data.

Optionally the method including the steps, performed during printing onto the
print medium, of:
using the first sensor to sense the coded data; and
using the processing means to generate a clock signal based on the sensed
coded data; and
using the clock signal to synchronize the printing onto the print medium.


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Optionally the step of using the first sensor to sense the coded data includes
capturing a first image of the coded
data, and the step of generating the clock signal includes using the processor
to perform the steps of,
determining a position of the print medium relative to the first sensor at the
time the coded data was sensed,
based at least partly on the determined location;
5 using the first sensor to capture subsequent images of the coded data as the
printhead is being printed;
determining movement of the print medium during printing based on the
subsequently captured images;
and
deriving the clock signal based on the movement.

10 Optionally determining the movement during printing includes using the
processing means to perform the steps of
decoding the coded data captured in at least some of the subsequently captured
images;
determining a position of the print medium relative to the first sensor at the
time each of the images was
captured; and
determining the movement of the print medium based on the positions determined
over time.
Optionally determining the movement during printing includes the step of
performing pattern recognition on at least
some of the coded data in at least some of the captured images to determine
movement of the print medium relative
to initial position.

Optionally the print medium includes at least one orientation indicator
indicative of an orientation of the print
medium, the method comprising determining the orientation from the orientation
indicator before commencing
printing.

Optionally the at least one orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent
an edge of the print medium.
Optionally the method further including the steps of using the processing
means to determine, from a known
physical orientation of the print medium and the first image, a first relative
rotation of the coded data with respect to
the print medium.

Optionally the method further including the steps of:
using a second sensor to capture a second image of at least some of the coded
data; and
determining movement of the print medium relative to sensor, based on the
coded data sensed by both the
first and second sensors.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to determine a first relative
rotation of coded data on a print medium, the print medium configured to be
printed on by the mobile device in a
print direction, the mobile device including a printer, a first sensor and
processing means, the print medium
comprising a laminar substrate defining first and second opposite faces, the
first face bearing coded data, the method
comprising the steps of


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(a) using the first sensor to capture a first image of at least some of the
coded data when the print medium is at
a first position;
(b) using the processing means to determine, from a known physical orientation
of the print medium and the
first image, a first relative rotation of the coded data with respect to the
print medium.
Optionally the mobile device further includes a transmitter, the method
further including the step of transmitting,
using the transmitter, the first relative rotation to a remote computer
system.

Optionally the transmitter is configured to transmit the relative rotation via
a mobile telecommunications network.
Optionally the method further including the steps of
using the first sensor to capture a second image of at least some of the coded
data when the print medium is
at a second position;
using the processing means to determine, from a known physical orientation of
the print medium and the
second image, a second relative rotation of the coded data with respect to the
print medium; and
using the processing means to calculate, from the first and second rotations,
a third rotation, the third
rotation being a more accurate indication of the relative rotation of the
coded data with respect to the print medium
than the first or second rotations.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a transmitter, the method
further including the step of transmitting,
using the transmitter, the third relative rotation to a remote computer
system.

Optionally the method further including the steps, performed by the processing
means, of.
decoding at least some of the coded data in the first image;
determining a location from the decoded data; and
determining, based on the location and a position of the coded data within the
first image, a first position of
the print medium relative to the first sensor at time the first image was
captured.

Optionally determining the movement includes capturing a plurality of images
of the coded data as the print medium
moves past the first sensor, and determining the movement based on the
plurality of images.

Optionally the mobile device further including a light emitting device, the
method including the step of using the
light emitting device to illuminate the print medium while the first sensor
senses the coded data.

Optionally the method further including the steps of generating a clock signal
based on the movement, and using the
clock signal to synchronize the printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the coded data takes the form of a two-dimensional array of data,
the first sensor being configured to
capture an image of a subset of the coded data, the subset of the coded data
being sufficient to enable the position to
be determined.


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Optionally the method including the steps, performed during printing onto the
print medium, of:
using the first sensor to sense the coded data; and
using the processing means to generate a clock signal based on the sensed
coded data; and
using the clock signal to synchronize the printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the step of using the first sensor to sense the coded data includes
capturing a first image of the coded
data, and the step of generating the clock signal includes using the processor
to perform the steps of;
determining a position of the print medium relative to the first sensor at the
time the coded data was sensed,
based at least partly on the determined location;
using the first sensor to capture subsequent images of the coded data as the
printhead is being printed;
determining movement of the print medium during printing based on the
subsequently captured images;
and
deriving the clock signal based on the movement.
Optionally determining the movement during printing includes using the
processing means to perform the steps of
decoding the coded data captured in at least some of the subsequently captured
images;
determining a position of the print medium relative to the first sensor at the
time each of the images was
captured; and
determining the movement of the print medium based on the positions determined
over time.

Optionally determining the movement during printing includes the step of
performing pattern recognition on at least
some of the coded data in at least some of the captured images to determine
movement of the print medium relative
to initial position.
Optionally the print medium includes at least one orientation indicator
indicative of an orientation of the print
medium, the method comprising determining the orientation from the orientation
indicator before commencing
printing.

Optionally the at least one orientation indicator is disposed at or adjacent
an edge of the print medium.

Optionally the print medium having a leading edge and a trailing edge defined
relative to intended feed direction of
the print medium through a media feed path, at least one of the at least one
orientation indicators being disposed on
or in the print medium at or adjacent the leading edge.
Optionally the method further including the steps of
using a second sensor to capture a second image of at least some of the coded
data;
using the processing means to determine, from a known physical orientation of
the print medium and the
second image, a second relative rotation of the coded data with respect to the
print medium; and


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using the processing means to calculate, from the first and second rotations,
a third rotation, the third
rotation being a more accurate indication of the relative rotation of the
coded data with respect to the print medium
than the first or second rotations.

Optionally the method including capturing the first and second images
substantially simultaneously.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to determine a position of a print
medium, the print medium configured to to be printed on by the mobile device
in a print direction, the mobile device
including a printer, a first sensor and processing means, the print medium
comprising a laminar substrate defming
first and second opposite faces, the first face bearing coded data indicative
of at least one location, the method
comprising the steps of:
(a) using the first sensor to capture a first image of at least some of the
coded data when the print medium is at
a position within a media feed path within the mobile device;
(b) using the processing means to decode at least some of the sensed coded
data, thereby to determine at least
one location; and
(c) determining the position of the print medium based on the at least one
location determined in step (b).
Optionally step (c) wherein the position is determined based at least partly
on the determined location and a position
of the captured coded data in a capture field of the first sensor.
Optionally the method further including the steps of:
using the first sensor to capture a plurality of the images over time;
using the processing means to decode a plurality of the captured images,
thereby to determine a plurality of
the locations; and
determining a series of positions of the print medium based on the locations.
Optionally the mobile device comprises a second sensor, the method comprising
the steps of.
(d) using the second sensor to capture a second image of at least some of the
coded data;
(e) using the processing means to decode at least some of the sensed coded
data, thereby to determine at least
one location; and
(f) determining a position of the print medium based on the location
determined in step (e).
Optionally the method including capturing the first and second images
substantially simultaneously.

Optionally the method further including using the processing means to
determine a position of the print medium
based on the positions determined in steps (c) and (f).

Optionally the method including averaging the positions determined in steps
(c) and (f).


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Optionally the method further including the step of using the processing means
to determine, from the sensed coded
data, an identity of the print medium.

Optionally the method further including determining movement of the print
medium relative to sensor, based on the
coded data sensed by the first sensor.

Optionally determining the movement includes capturing a plurality of images
of the coded data as the print medium
moves past the first sensor, and determining the movement based on the
plurality of images.

Optionally determining the movement includes the steps o
using the processing means to decode the coded data captured in at least one
of the plurality of captured
images;
determining a position of the print medium relative to the first sensor at the
time each of the images was
captured; and
determining the movement of the print medium based on the positions determined
over time.

Optionally determining the movement includes the stp of performing pattern
recognition to determine movement of
the print medium relative to at least one absolute position of the print
medium.

Optionally the method comprising the step of using the processing means to
determine, from a known physical
orientation of the print medium and the first image, a first relative rotation
of the coded data with respect to the print
medium.

Optionally the mobile device further includes a transmitter, the method
further including the step of transmitting,
using the transmitter, the first relative rotation to a remote computer
system.

Optionally the transmitter is configured to transmit the relative rotation via
a mobile telecommunications network.
Optionally the method including the steps, performed during printing onto the
print medium, of.
using the processing means to generate a clock signal based on the sensed
coded data; and
using the clock signal to synchronize the printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the mobile device further including a light emitting device, the
method including the step of using the
light emitting device to illuminate the print medium while the first sensor
senses the coded data.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a printhead for printing a sheet of media substrate, the sheet of media
substrate having coded data on at
least part of its surface;
a media feed assembly for feeding the sheet of media substrate along a feed
path past the printhead;
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

a sensor for reading the coded data and generating a signal indicative of at
least one dimension of the sheet,
and transmitting the signal to the print engine controller; such that,
the print engine controller uses the signal to initiate the printing when the
sheet is at a predetermined
position relative to the printhead.
5
Detecting the leading edge of the card is necessary for longitudinal
registration of the print from the printhead with
the card. Longitudinal registration of the print is particularly crucial if
the printing is full bleed (printed to the very
edges of the card). The print engine controller (PEC) must be able to initiate
printing at the exact time the leading
edge reaches the printhead. Furthermore, if the cards are pre-printed with a
Netpage tag pattern, accurate
10 longitudinal registration is necessary to ensure that any hyperlinks in the
tag pattern align with the corresponding
printed words or images. Using a micro switch or photo-sensor immediately
prior to the printhead to detect the
leading edge adds to the complexity and size the design. However, encoding the
card with data specifying its
relevant dimension allows the PEC to initiate printing at the correct time.
Once the sensor reads the coded data, the
PEC can determine the distance from the sensor to the leading edge and then
using the media feed speed to
15 determine when to initiate printing.

Optionally the at least one dimension is the distance from at least one marker
in the coded data to the leading edge
of the sheet with respect to the direction of media feed past the printhead.

20 Optionally during use, the media feed assembly feeds the sheet along the
feed path in a forward direction so that the
sensor can read at least some of the coded data before retracting the sheet
along the path in a reverse direction and
then again feeding the sheet along the path in the forward direction past the
printhead for printing.

Optionally the coded data is disposed along a track extending along the sheet
in a direction parallel to the feed path.
Optionally the coded data is distributed across substantially all of at least
one side of the sheet.

Optionally the coded data is disposed along a track extending across the sheet
in a direction normal to the feed path.
Optionally the printhead and the drive shaft are incorporated into a
replaceable cartridge for insertion into a print
media feed path within the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto


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the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(b) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media substrate as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to
the capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
media substrate reaching the capper.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(b) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media substrate is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft with a media engagement
surface for enhanced contact friction
with the media substrate.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a capping
mechanism including a capper
moveable between a capping position in which the capper is urged into a
capping relationship with the printhead,
and an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the
media substrate, wherein the capper
assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media substrate such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally the print engine controller has a light emitting beacon, and the
printhead comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,

a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from the beacon.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft driven by a piezo-
electric resonant linear drive system.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a position sensor for providing the print engine controller with a signal
indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further wherein during use,
the print engine controller senses the number of complete and partial
rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts
the operation of the printhead in response to variations in the angular
velocity of the drive shaft.


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Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least
one ink reservoir, the at least one
reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a dual sensing facility for reading coded data on at least part of the media
substrate before, as well as after,
it has past the printhead.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of
media substrate past the printhead;
wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a printhead for printing a sheet of media substrate, the sheet of media
substrate having coded data on at
least part of its surface;
a media feed assembly for feeding the sheet of media substrate along a feed
path past the printhead;
a print engine controller for operatively controlling the printhead; and,
a dual sensor facility for reading the coded data before, as well as after, it
has past the printhead.

The print engine controller (PEC) need a line sync signal to control the
firing of each line of print data from the
nozzles. The line sync signal essentially indicates when the card has moved
along the feed path by the necessary
amount and the next line of print can be fired from the nozzles. There are
different ways of generating the line sync
signal. However, to minimize components and reduce overall form factor, the
media can be encoded with clock
data that is optically sensed to derive a clock signal which is in turn used
to generate the line sync signal. While the
clock data sensor can be positioned very close to the printhead (on the media
entry side), it can not read the clock
data on trailing edge of the media once it had passed by on its way to the
printhead. This presents a problem as to
how to generate the line sync signal needed to print the trailing portion. By
configuring the sensing device to
conduct dual reading of the clock data, once prior to the printhead, and then
again after the printhead, a line sync
signal can be produced from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the
media. It will be appreciated that this is
necessary for `full bleed' printing (printing to the very edges of the card).
Optionally the sensor facility has a first photosensor positioned adjacent the
feed path before the printhead, and a
second photosensor positioned adjacent the feed path after the printhead.

Optionally the coded data includes clock data configured in a longitudinal
clock track extending along the sheet of
media substrate such that, the first photosensor reads the clock track before
the second photosensor.


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Optionally the first and second photosensors both generate a clock signal when
they are simultaneously reading the
clock track and the print engine controller synchronizes the clock signal from
the second photosensor with the signal
from the first phototsensor.
Optionally the print engine controller has a phase lock loop for the first and
second photosensor signals respectively
in order to generate first and second phase locked clock signals, the print
engine controller also having a phase
difference calculator to determine any phase difference between the first and
second phase locked clock signals, and
a delay to delay the second phase locked clock signal by an amount that
synchronizes it with the first phase locked
signal.

Optionally the print engine controller generates a line sync signal for the
printhead using the first phase locked clock
signal prior to synchronization with the second phase locked clock signal, and
then uses the second phase locked
clock signal to generate the line sync signal after synchronization.

Optionally the printhead and the drive shaft are incorporated into a
replaceable cartridge for insertion into a print
media feed path within the mobile telecommunications device.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and
(b) a force transfer mechanism connected to the capper and configured such
that a force provided by an edge of
the media substrate as it moves relative to the feed path is transferred to
the capper by the force transfer mechanism,
thereby to at least commence movement of the capper from the capped position
to the uncapped position prior to the
media substrate reaching the capper.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
(a) a capping mechanism including a capper moveable between a capping position
in which the capper is urged
into a capping relationship with the printhead, and an uncapped position in
which the printhead is able to print onto
the media substrate, wherein in the uncapped position the capper is displaced
away from the printhead; and,
(b) a locking mechanism configured to hold the capper in the uncapped position
until after a trailing edge of
the media substrate is clear of the printhead.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft with a media engagement
surface for enhanced contact friction
with the media substrate.


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Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a capping
mechanism including a capper
moveable between a capping position in which the capper is urged into a
capping relationship with the printhead,
and an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the
media substrate, wherein the capper
assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media substrate such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a print
engine controller with a light emitting
beacon, and the printhead further comprises:
an array of nozzles for ejecting ink;
print data circuitry for providing the nozzles with print data; and,

a photosensor for optically receiving the print data from the beacon.
Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft driven by a piezo-
electric resonant linear drive system.
Optionally the dual sensing facility provides the print engine controller with
a signal indicative of the position of the
media substrate relative to the printhead; such that,
the print engine controller differentiates the signal to derive the speed of
the media substrate relative to the
printhead and adjusts the operation of the printhead in response to variations
in the speed.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft and the print engine
controller senses the number of complete
and partial rotations of the drive shaft and adjusts the operation of the
printhead in response to variations in the
angular velocity of the drive shaft.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least
one ink reservoir, the at least one
reservoir comprising:
a housing defining an ink storage volume;
one or more baffles dividing the ink storage volume into sections, each of the
sections having at least one
ink outlet for sealed connection to the printhead; and,
at least one conduit establishing fluid communication between the ink outlets
of adjacent sections.

Optionally the coded data includes data indicative of at least one dimension
of the sheet of media substrate;
such that,
the print engine controller initiates the printing when the sheet is at a
predetermined position relative to the
printhead.

Optionally the media feed assembly has a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of
media substrate past the printhead;
wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

In a first aspect the present invention provides a replaceable print cartridge
for installation in a mobile device, the
print cartridge comprising:
a printhead;
at least one ink reservoir; and
5 a first integrated circuit that permanently stores an identifier that is
relatively unique to that integrated
circuit;
such that, upon installation in the mobile device, the mobile device is able
to determine the identifier.
Optionally the print cartridge further including one or more contacts for
operative connection with one or more
10 corresponding complementary contacts in the mobile device upon
installation, the mobile device being able to
interrogate the first integrated circuit via the at least one contact.

Optionally the mobile device includes a second integrated circuit for
interrogating the first integrated circuit to
determine the identifier, the first integrated circuit being configured to
enable authenticated communication between
15 itself and the second integrated circuit.

Optionally the first integrated circuit includes non-volatile memory that
stores a first bit-pattern, the first bit pattern
having been generated by:
(a) applying a one way function to a second bit-pattern associated with the
device, thereby to generate a first
20 result;
(b) applying a second function to the first result and the first bit-pattern,
thereby to generate a second result;
and
(c) storing the second result in the memory, thereby indirectly storing the
first bit-pattern.
25 Optionally the one way function is more cryptographically secure than the
second function.

Optionally each of the first integrated circuits includes secret information
used in authentication by the mobile
device of the cartridge associated with that integrated circuit, the secret
information in each chip being located in a
different location in the memory relative to a plurality of the other chips.
Optionally the printhead is a pagewidth printhead.
Optionally the printhead prints in at least three colors.

Optionally the printhead prints in cyan, magenta and yellow.

Optionally the print cartridge further comprising a capping mechanism
including a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;


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wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print medium as
it moves through the feed path.

Optionally in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into the
capping relationship.
Optionally the capping mechanism is configured such that the capper is
displaced in the feed direction as it moves
from the capped position to the uncapped position.

Optionally the capping mechanism is further configured such that the capper is
simultaneously displaced in a
direction away from the printhead as it is displaced in the feed direction.

Optionally the capping mechanism is subsequently displaced in a direction
opposite the feed direction in the
uncapped position.

Optionally the print cartridge fu ther including a locking mechanism for
holding the capper in the uncapped position
whilst the print medium is being printed on by the printhead.

Optionally the locking mechanism includes at least one cam mounted for
rotation between an unlocked position and
a locked position, the at least one cam being configured such that, in the
unlocked position, it extends at least
partially into the feed path when print medium is not present, the at least
one cam being positioned and configured
to engage an edge of the print medium as the print medium is fed through the
feed path such that the at least one
cam is rotated by the print medium into the locked position, such that, in the
locked position, the capper is held in
the uncapped position until after a trailing edge of the print medium is clear
of the printhead.

Optionally the cam is resiliently biased to return to the unlocked position
once the print medium edge moves past a
predetermined position in the feed path, thereby causing the capper to return
to the capped position.

Optionally the at least one cam is mounted for rotation about an axis that is
substantially normal to the print medium
as it engages the cam in the feed path.
Optionally the print cartridge further comprising:
at least one baffle dividing the at least one ink reservoir into a plurality
of sections, each of the sections in
each ink reservoir being in fluid communication with each of the other
sections in that ink reservoir via an aperture;
and
at least one porous insert in each of the at least one reservoirs, such that
substantially all of each ink reservoir is
filled with the at least one porous insert.

Optionally each reservoir includes a single porous insert including at least
one recessed portion, each recessed
portion being configured to engage one of the baffles in the reservoir.


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In a first aspect the present invention provides a replaceable cartridge for
installation in a mobile device, the
cartridge comprising:
a printhead;
one or more ink reservoirs for supplying ink to the printhead; and
an integrated circuit for enabling validation of the cartridge upon
installation of the cartridge into the
mobile device, the integrated circuit including non-volatile memory for
storing secret information.

Optionally a cartridge further including communication means for enabling
communication between the mobile
device and the integrated circuit during validation.
Optionally the communication means includes first contacts for engaging
complementary second contacts of the
mobile device when the cartridge is installed therein.

Optionally the integrated circuit is configured to communicate with an entity
in the mobile device in a secure
fashion.

Optionally the integrated circuit is configured to store data indicative of a
number of prints remaining, the integrated
circuit including one or more security features for preventing unauthorised
tampering with the data.

Optionally the data includes an ink counter, the integrated circuit being
configured to decrement the ink counter as
ink is used in printing.

Optionally the integrated circuit is designed to prevent incrementing of the
ink counter.

Optionally the data includes a print counter, the integrated circuit being
configured to decrement the print counter
each time a print is made.

Optionally the integrated circuit is designed to prevent incrementing of the
print counter.

Optionally a cartridge further including a sensor, the sensor being configured
to sense coded data on a print medium
to be printed on by the printhead.

Optionally the sensor is configured to output the sensed coded data to the
mobile device.

Optionally a cartridge configured to use a clock derived from the sensed coded
data to synchronize printing onto the
print medium.

Optionally the coded data includes a linear-encoded clock track, the clock
being derived from the clock track during
printing.


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Optionally the coded data includes a linear-encoded data track, the data track
being indicative of an identity of the
print medium, the cartridge being configured to output the sensed coded data
to the mobile device to enable
determination of the identity.

Optionally a cartridge further including a capping mechanism including a
capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print medium as
it moves through the feed path.

Optionally in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into the
capping relationship.

Optionally the capping mechanism is configured such that the capper is
displaced in the feed direction as it moves
from the capped position to the uncapped position.

Optionally the capping mechanism is further configured such that the capper is
simultaneously displaced in a
direction away from the printhead as it is displaced in the feed direction.

Optionally the capping mechanism is subsequently displaced in a direction
opposite the feed direction in the
uncapped position.

Optionally a cartridge further including a locking mechanism for holding the
capper in the uncapped position whilst
the print medium is being printed on by the printhead.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a replaceable print cartridge
for installation in a mobile device, the
print cartridge comprising:
a printhead;
at least one ink reservoir;
storage means configured to store data; and
a data changing mechanism for changing a value of the data, the data being
prevented from being changed
to a value that the storage means has previously stored.

Optionally the storage means stores the data in the form of a plurality of
units, the value of the data being
changeable by permanently altering one or more of the units.

Optionally the units are bits.

Optionally the value of each of the bits is stored in a one-time alterable
form, the print cartridge being configured to
selectively alter the value of one or more of the bits in response to a
predetermined event.


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Optionally the print cartridge including a plurality of fusible links, each of
the fusible links storing one of the bits,
each fusible link being configured to selectively be blown in response to the
event.

Optionally wherein the printhead includes a plurality of unit cells, each of
the unit cells being provided with data
from a corresponding data register, wherein a majority of the unit cells are
associated with a corresponding plurality
of respective print nozzles for outputting ink, and a minority of the unit
cells are associated with a corresponding
plurality of the bits, such that the value of one or more of the bits can be
altered by loading appropriate data into the
register.
Optionally the print cartridge further including one or more contacts for
operative connection with one or more
corresponding complementary contacts in the mobile device upon installation,
the mobile device being able to
control alteration of the value of one or more of the bits via the at least
one contact.

Optionally the data is indicative of a number of prints remaining.

Optionally the data is indicative of an amount of ink used by, or remaining
in, the print cartridge.

Optionally the data is indicative of a number of prints made, or remaining to
be printed, by the print cartridge.
Optionally the print cartridge further including a sensor, the sensor being
configured to sense coded data on a print
medium to be printed on by the printhead.

Optionally the sensor is configured to output the sensed coded data to the
mobile device.
Optionally the print cartridge configured to use a clock derived from the
sensed coded data to synchronize printing
onto the print medium.

Optionally the coded data includes a linear-encoded clock track, the clock
being derived from the clock track during
printing.

Optionally the coded data includes a linear-encoded data track, the data track
being indicative of an identity of the
print medium, the cartridge being configured to output the sensed coded data
to the mobile device to enable
determination of the identity.
Optionally the print cartridge further including a capping mechanism including
a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;


CA 02602695 2010-10-08

wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print medium as
it moves through the feed path.

Optionally in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into the
capping relationship.
5
Optionally the capping mechanism is configured such that the capper is
displaced in the feed direction as it moves
from the capped position to the uncapped position.

Optionally the capping mechanism is further configured such that the capper is
simultaneously displaced in a
10 direction away from the printhead as it is displaced in the feed direction.

Optionally the print cartridge further including a locking mechanism for
holding the capper in the uncapped position
whilst the print medium is being printed on by the printhead.

15 In a first aspect the present invention provides a replaceable print
cartridge for installation in a mobile device, the
print cartridge comprising:
a printhead;
at least one ink reservoir;
storage means configured to store information indicative of an amount of
printing that can be achieved by
20 the cartridge based on the amount of ink in the at least one ink reservoir;
and
an information changing mechanism for changing a value of the information.

Optionally the information is indicative of a volume of ink remaining in the
at least one ink reservoir.

25 Optionally the print cartridge including a plurality of the ink cartridges,
the information being indicative of an
amount of ink remaining in each of the reservoirs individually.

Optionally the print cartridge including a plurality of the ink cartridges,
the information being indicative of an
average amount of ink remaining in the reservoirs in aggregate.
Optionally the information is indicative of an estimated number of typical
prints the print cartridge can achieve
based on the amount of ink in the at least one ink reservoir.

Optionally the storage means stores the information in the form of a plurality
of sub-value units, the value of the
information being changeable by permanently altering the one or more of the
sub-value units.

Optionally the sub-value units are bits.

Optionally the print cartridge configured to automatically change a value of
one of the bits each time a
predetermined amount of ink is consumed by printing.


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Optionally the print cartridge configured to automatically change a value of
one of the bits each time a
predetermined number of prints has been printed.

Optionally the print cartridge the value of each of the bits is stored in a
one-time alterable form, the print cartridge
being configured to selectively alter the value of one or more of the bits in
response to a predetermined event.
Optionally the print cartridge including a plurality of fusible links, each of
the fusible links storing one of the bits,
each fusible link being configured to selectively be blown by the cartridge in
response to the event.
Optionally the printhead includes a plurality of unit cells, each of the unit
cells being provided with data from a
corresponding data register, wherein a majority of the unit cells are
associated with a corresponding plurality of
respective print nozzles for outputting ink, and a minority of the unit cells
are associated with a corresponding
plurality of the bits, such that the value of one or more of the bits can be
altered by loading appropriate data into the
register.

Optionally the print cartridge further including one or more contacts for
operative connection with one or more
corresponding complementary contacts in the mobile device upon installation,
the mobile device being able to
control alteration of the value of one or more of the bits via the at least
one contact.
Optionally the print cartridge further including a sensor, the sensor being
configured to sense coded data on a print
medium to be printed on by the printhead.

Optionally the print cartridge the sensor is configured to output the sensed
coded data to the mobile device.

Optionally the print cartridge configured to use a clock derived from the
sensed coded data to synchronize printing
onto the print medium.

Optionally the print cartridge the coded data includes a linear-encoded clock
track, the clock being derived from the
clock track during printing.
Optionally the coded data includes a linear-encoded data track, the data track
being indicative of an identity of the
print medium, the cartridge being configured to output the sensed coded data
to the mobile device to enable
determination of the identity.

Optionally the print cartridge further including a capping mechanism including
a capper moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print medium as
it moves through the feed path.


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Optionally wherein in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into
the capping relationship.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device including:
a printhead disposed in a print path along which a print medium travels while
being printed; and
a sensor in the print path to sense when a print medium has been inserted
therein;
the mobile device being configured to:
sense, using the sensor, that a print medium has been inserted;
without further user intervention, commence printing onto the print medium.
Optionally the mobile device includes a display for displaying visible
information to a user, the mobile device being
configured to automatically print data associated with a current document or
other type of information being
displayed on the display.

Optionally the mobile device is configured to automatically print the next job
in a print queue maintained by mobile
device.

Optionally printing without user intervention is associated with a mode in
which a user can place the mobile device.
Optionally the mobile device further including drive means for driving the
print medium past the printhead during
printing, the drive means being configured to commence driving the print
medium as part of the printing process.
Optionally the drive means includes at least one roller positioned in the
print path before the printhead.

Optionally the sensor is configured to read coded data on the print medium.

Optionally the mobile device includes a transmitter and a receiver, the
transmitter being configured to transmit a
message to a remote computer based on the read coded data, the receiver being
configured to receive a reply from
the remote computer indicative of whether the print medium can be printed on.
Optionally the mobile device further including drive means, the drive means
being configured to:
drive the print medium along the print path while the sensor reads the coded
data;
drive the print medium backwards along the print path into a printing
commencement position; and
drive the print medium along the print path while the printer prints onto the
print medium.
Optionally the sensor senses the coded data as the print medium is being
printed, the mobile device being configured
to extract a clock signal from the coded data and to use the clock signal to
synchronize printing onto the print
medium.


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Optionally the sensor senses at least some of the coded data upon initial
insertion of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to determine from the sensed coded data an orientation
of the print medium and prevent
printing in the event the print medium is not inserted correctly.

Optionally the mobile device is configured to output an indication to a user
in the event the print medium is inserted
incorrectly.

Optionally the print medium including a linear-encoded data track extending in
an intended direction of printing, the
mobile device including:
a sensor configured to sense the data track during printing;
a printhead for printing onto the print medium in response to a fire control
signal; and
fire control means connected to generate the fire control signal based on the
sensed data track.

Optionally the mobile device further including a light-emitting device for
illuminating the data track while the
sensor is sensing it during printing.

Optionally photosensor is sensitive in the infrared spectrum.

Optionally the data track is a clock track containing only a clock code, the
fire control means being configured to
generate the fire control signal in the form of a clock signal generated from
the sensed data track.

Optionally the data track includes first information, the first information
including an embedded clock signal, the
fire control means being configured to generate the fire control signal in the
form of a clock signal extracted from
the sensed data track.
Optionally the first information is indicative of at least one physical
characteristic of the print medium, the mobile
device being configured to control operation of the printhead at least
partially on the basis of at least one of the
physical characteristics.

Optionally the mobile device configured to use the sensed data track to
determine an absolute position of the print
medium with respect to the printhead, and to print onto the print medium in
reliance on the determination.
Optionally the data track further encoding first information and the print
medium further including second coded
data that encodes second information, the first information being indicative
of the second information.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to authenticate a print medium
before completing printing onto the print medium, the mobile device including
processing means, a printhead and a
sensor, the print medium
comprising a substrate, the method comprising the steps of:


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94

using the sensor to sense coded data provided on a surface of the substrate;
using the processing means to interpret the coded data to authenticate the
print medium; and
in the event the authentication step is successful, using the printhead to
print onto the print medium.

Optionally the step of using the processor means to interpret the coded data
further comprises:
determining, from the sensed coded data:
an identity of the print medium;
a plurality of signature fragments, the signature being a digital
signature of at least part of the identity;
determining, using the plurality of signature fragments, a determined
signature;
generating, using the determined signature and a key, a
generated identity;
comparing the identity to the generated identity; and authenticating the print
medium using
the results of the comparison.

Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of coded data portions, each
coded data portion encoding:
the identity; and,
at least a signature fragment;
wherein the method includes sensing a plurality of coded data portions to
thereby determine the plurality of
signature fragments.
Optionally the plurality of coded data portions are sensed as the print medium
moves past the sensor whilst moving
along a print path defined in the mobile device.

Optionally each coded data portion encodes a signature fragment identity, and
wherein the method includes:
determining the signature fragment identity of each determined
signaturefragment; and
determining, using the determined signature fragment identities, the
determined signature.

Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of layouts, each layout
defining the position of a plurality of first
symbols encoding the identity, and a plurality of second symbols defining at
least one signature fragment.
Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of tags, each coded data
portion being formed from at least one of the
tags.

Optionally the coded data is printed on the surface using at least one of an
invisible ink and an infrared-absorptive
ink, and wherein the method includes, sensing the coded data using an infrared
sensor.


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Optionally the plurality of signature fragments are indicative of the entire
signature.
Optionally the mobile device
5 includes a transmitter and a receiver, the method comprising the steps of:
using the transmitter to send a first message to a remote computer system, the
first message being indicative
of the identity;
using the receiver to receive a second message from the remote computer
system, the second message
including data indicative of at least one of:
10 padding associated with the signature;
a private key; and
a public key; and
generating, using the determined signature and the data, private key or public
key, the generated identity.

15 Optionally the signature is a digital signature of at least part of the
identity and at least part of predetermined
padding, and wherein the method includes:
determining, using the identity, the predetermined padding; and,
generating, using the predetermined padding and the determined signature, the
generated
identity.
Optionally the sensed coded data is further indicative of at least one of.
a location of at least one of the data portions;
a position of at least one of the data portions on the print medium;
a size of the data portions;
a size of the signature;
a size of the signature fragment;
an identity of a signature fragment;
units of indicated locations:
redundant data;
data allowing error correction;
Reed-Solomon data; and
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) data.
Optionally the digital signature includes at least one of.
a random number associated with the identity;
a keyed hash of at least the identity;
a keyed hash of at least the identity produced using a private key, and
verifiable using a
corresponding public key;
cipher-text produced by encrypting at least the identity;
cipher-text produced by encrypting at least the identity and a random number;
and,


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cipher-text produced using a private key, and verifiable using a corresponding
public key.
Optionally the identity includes an, identity of at least one of:
the print medium; and
a region of the print medium.

Optionally the coded data includes a number of coded data portions, each coded
data portion encoding:
an identity; and
at least part of a signature, the signature being a digital signature of at
least part of the identity.
Optionally the method further including the step of commencing printing prior
to determining whether the
authentication step is successful, and halting printing in the event
authentication is not successful.

In a further aspect there is provided a method of using a mobile device to
authenticate a print medium before
completing printing onto the print medium, the mobile device including
processing means, a printhead, a
transmitter, a receiver and a sensor, the print medium comprising a substrate,
the method comprising the steps of.
using the sensor to sense coded data provided on a surface of the substrate;
using the processing means to determine from the sensed coded data, an
identity of the print medium;
using the transmitter to send a first message to a remote computer system, the
first message being
indicative of the identity;
using the receiver to receive a second message from the remote computer
system, the second message
being including data indicative of whether the identity is associated with a
print medium that can be printed upon;
and using the printhead to print onto the print medium in reliance on the
data.

Optionally the print medium includes
an orientation indicator, the method including the steps of
sensing the orientation indicator prior to sensing the coded
data; and
preventing printing in the event the medium is inserted
incorrectly.

Optionally the method including the step, in the event
the medium is inserted incorrectly, of providing an indication to a user of
the mobile device that the orientation of the medium needs to changed.
Optionally the substrate is a laminar substrate.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to authenticate a print medium
online before completing printing onto the print medium, the mobile device
including processing means, a


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printhead, a sensor, a transmitter and a receiver, the print medium comprising
a laminar substrate, the method
comprising the steps of
using the sensor to sense coded data provided on a surface of the substrate;
using the processing means to determine, from the sensed coded data:
an identity of the print medium; and
at least part of a signature, the signature being a digital signature of at
least part of the identity;
using the transmitter to send first data to a remote computer system, the
first data being indicative of the
identity and the at least part of the signature;
using the receiver to receive second data from the remote computer system in
reply to the first data, the
second data being indicative of whether the print medium is authentic based on
the identity and the at least part of
the signature; and
in the event the print medium is authentic, using the printhead to print onto
the print medium.
Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of coded data portions, each
coded data portion encoding:
the identity; and,
at least a signature fragment;
wherein the method includes sensing a plurality of coded data
portions to thereby determine a plurality of signature fragments representing
the at least part of the signature.

Optionally plurality of coded data portions are sensed as the print medium
moves past the sensor whilst moving
along a print path defined in the mobile device.

Optionally each coded data portion encodes a signature fragment identity, and
wherein the method includes:
determining the signature fragment identity of each determined signature
fragment; and
determining, using the determined signature fragment identities and the
corresponding signature fragments,
the at least part of the signature.

Optionally the plurality of signature fragments are indicative of the entire
signature.

Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of tags, each coded data
portion being formed from at least one of the
tags.

Optionally the second data is further indicative of at least one of.
padding associated with the signature;
a private key; and
a public key.

Optionally the sensed coded data is further indicative of at least one of
a location of at least one of the data portions;
a position of at least one of the data portions on the print medium;


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a size of at least one of the data portions;
a size of the signature;
a size of the signature fragment;
an identity of the signature fragment;
units of indicated locations;
redundant data;
data allowing error correction;
Reed-Solomon data; and
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) data.
Optionally the digital signature includes at least one of
a random number associated with the identity;
a keyed hash of at least the identity;
a keyed hash of at least the identity produced using a private key, and
verifiable using a corresponding
public key;
cipher-text produced by encrypting at least the identity;
cipher-text produced by encrypting at least the identity and a random number;
and,
cipher-text produced using a private key, and verifiable using a corresponding
public key.
Optionally the identity includes an identity of at least one of:
the print medium; and
a region of the print medium.

Optionally the coded data includes a number of coded data portions, each coded
data portion encoding:
the identity; and,
at least part of a signature, the signature being a digital signature of at
least part of the identity.

Optionally the method further including the step of commencing printing prior
to determining whether the
authentication step is successful, and halting printing in the event
authentication is not successful.
Optionally the print medium includes an orientation indicator, the method
including the steps of:
sensing the orientation indicator prior to sensing the coded data; and
preventing printing in the event the medium is inserted incorrectly.

Optionally the method further including the step, in the event the medium is
inserted incorrectly, of providing an
indication to a user of the mobile device that the orientation of the medium
needs to changed.

Optionally the coded data is printed on the surface using at least one of an
invisible ink and an infrared-absorptive
ink, and wherein the method includes, sensing the coded data using an infrared
sensor.


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Optionally the print medium includes at least one longitudinally extending
data track, the method comprising
deriving a clock signal from the data track as the print medium is being
printed and using the clock signal to
synchronize the printing onto the print medium.

Optionally the data track further includes first information, the first
information being indicative of the identity.
Optionally the data track is linear encoded.

Optionally the clock signal is embedded in data encoded in the data track, the
method including extracting the clock
signal from the data track.

Optionally the coded data is printed on the surface using at least one of an
invisible ink and an infrared-absorptive
ink, and wherein the method includes, sensing the coded data using an infrared
sensor.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to authenticate a print medium
offline before completing printing onto the print medium, the mobile device
including processing means, a printhead
and a sensor, the print medium comprising a laminar substrate, the method
comprising the steps of:
using the sensor to sense coded data provided on a surface of the substrate;
using the processing means:
determining, from the sensed coded data:
an identity of the print medium; and
at least part of a signature, the signature being a digital signature of at
least part of the identity;
determining, using the at least part of the signature, a determined signature;
generating, using the determined signature and a public key stored in the
mobile device, a
generated identity;
comparing the identity to the generated identity; and
authenticating the print medium using the results of the comparison; and
in the event the authentication step is successful, using the printhead to
print onto the print medium.

Optionally the mobile device includes a receiver, the method comprising the
steps, performed before the step of
generating the generated identity, of
using the receiver to receive data indicative of the public key; and
storing the public key in memory of the mobile device.

Optionally the mobile device includes a transmitter, the method comprising the
step of transmitting to a remote
computer system a request for the public key, the receiver receiving the data
indicative of the public key from the
computer system in response to the request.

Optionally the method further including the step of retrieving the key from a
remote computer system prior to
generating the generated identity.


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Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of fragments of the signature,
the method comprising determining a
plurality of the signature fragments from the sensed coded data.

Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of coded data portions, each
coded data portion encoding:
the identity; and
at least a signature fragment;
wherein the method includes sensing a plurality of coded data
portions to thereby determine the plurality of signature fragments.
Optionally the plurality of coded data portions are sensed as the print medium
moves past the sensor whilst moving
along a print path defined in the mobile device.

Optionally each coded data portion encodes a signature fragment identity, and
wherein the method includes:
determining the signature fragment identity of each determined signature
fragment; and
determining, using the determined signature fragment identities, the
determined signature.

Optionally each coded data portion being formed from at least one of the tags.

Optionally the plurality of signature fragments are indicative of the entire
signature.

Optionally the signature is a digital signature of at least part of the
identity and at least part of predetermined
padding, and wherein the method includes:
determining, using the identity, the predetermined padding; and,
generating, using the predetermined padding and the determined signature, the
generated identity.
Optionally the mobile device includes a transmitter and a receiver, the method
comprising the steps of.
using the transmitter to send a first message to a remote computer system, the
first message being
indicative of the identity;
using the receiver to receive a second message from the remote computer
system, the second message
being including data indicative of padding associated with the signature; and
generating, using the determined signature and the padding, the generated
identity.
Optionally the coded data is further indicative of at least one of:
a location of at least one of the data portions;
a position of at least one of the data portions on the print medium;
a size of at least one of the data portions;
a size of the signature;
a size of the signature fragment;
an identity of the signature fragment;


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units of indicated locations;
redundant data;
data allowing error correction;
Reed-Solomon data; and
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) data.
Optionally the digital signature includes at least one of.
a random number associated with the identity;
a keyed hash of at least the identity;
a keyed hash of at least the identity produced using a private key, and
verifiable using a corresponding
public key;
cipher-text produced by encrypting at least the identity;
cipher-text produced by encrypting at least the identity and a random number;
and,
cipher-text produced using a private key, and verifiable using a corresponding
public key.
Optionally the identity includes an identity of at least one of.
the print medium; and
a region of the print medium.

Optionally the coded data includes a number of coded data portions, each coded
data portion encoding:
an identity; and,
at least part of a signature, the signature being a digital signature of at
least part of the identity.

Optionally the method further including the step of commencing printing prior
to determining whether the
authentication step is successful, and halting printing in the event
authentication is not successful.

Optionally the print medium includes an orientation indicator, the method
including the steps of
sensing the orientation indicator prior to sensing the coded data; and
preventing printing in the event the medium is inserted incorrectly.
Optionally the coded data is printed on the surface using at least one of an
invisible ink and an infrared-absorptive
ink, and wherein the method includes, sensing the coded data using an infrared
sensor.

In a first aspect the present invention provides method of using a mobile
device to authenticate a printed token and
output an image associated with the token, the mobile device comprising a
sensor and processing means, the method
comprising the steps of:
using the sensor to sense coded data on the printed token;
using the processing means to determine, from the sensed coded data, at least
an identity of the token;
authenticating the token using the identity;
based on at least the identity, determining an image associated with the
token; and


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outputting the image from the mobile device in a visible form.

Optionally the mobile device includes a display and the outputting step
includes displaying the image on the display.
Optionally the mobile device includes a printhead and the outputting step
includes printing the image onto a print
medium with the printhead.

Optionally mobile device includes a transmitter and a receiver, the step of
determining the image associated with the
token comprising:
sending first data to a remote computer system using the transmitter, the
first data being indicative of at
least the identity; and
receiving second data from the computer system via the receiver, the second
data being indicative of the
image.

Optionally the mobile device includes a transmitter and a receiver, the method
comprising:
using the processing means to determine, from the sensed coded data, at least
part of a signature, the
signature being a digital signature of at least part of the identity;
using the transmitter to send first data to a remote computer system, the
first data being indicative of the
identity and the at least part of the signature;
using the receiver to receive second data from the remote computer system in
reply to the first data, the
second data being indicative of whether the print medium is authentic based on
the identity and the at least part of
the signature.

Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of coded data portions, each
coded data portion encoding:
the identity; and,
at least a signature fragment;
wherein the method includes sensing a plurality of coded data portions thereby
to determine a plurality of signature
fragments representing the at least part of the signature.

Optionally the method comprising sensing the plurality of coded data portions
as the print medium moves past the
sensor whilst moving along a print path defined in the mobile device.

Optionally each coded data portion encodes a signature fragment identity, and
wherein the method includes:
determining the signature fragment identity of each determined signature
fragment; and
determining, using the determined signature fragment identities and the
corresponding signature fragments,
the at least part of the signature.

Optionally the plurality of signature fragments are indicative of the entire
signature.


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Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of tags, each coded data
portion being formed from at least one of the
tags.

Optionally the second data is further indicative of at least one of-
padding associated with the signature;
a private key; and
a public key.

Optionally the method further comprising:
using the processing means to determine, from the sensed coded data, at least
part of a signature, the
signature being a digital signature of at least part of the identity;
determining, using the at least part of the signature, a determined signature;
generating, using the determined signature and a public key stored in the
mobile device, a generated
identity;
comparing the identity to the generated identity; and
authenticating the print medium using the results of the comparison.

Optionally the mobile device includes a receiver, the method comprising the
steps, performed before the step of
generating the generated identity, of:
using the receiver to receive data indicative of the public key; and
storing the public key in memory of the mobile device.

Optionally the mobile device includes a transmitter, the method comprising the
step of transmitting to a remote
computer system a request for the public key, the receiver receiving the data
indicative of the public key from the
computer system in response to the request.

Optionally the method further including the step of retrieving the key from a
remote computer system prior to
generating the generated identity.

Optionally the method the coded data includes a plurality of fragments of the
signature, the method comprising
determining a plurality of the signature fragments from the sensed coded data.

Optionally the coded data includes a plurality of coded data portions, each
coded data portion encoding:
the identity; and
at least a signature fragment;
wherein the method includes sensing a plurality of coded data portions to
thereby determine the plurality of
signature fragments.

Optionally the plurality of coded data portions are sensed as the print medium
moves past the sensor whilst moving
along a print path defined in the mobile device.


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Optionally each coded data portion encodes a signature fragment identity, and
wherein the method includes:
determining the signature fragment identity of each determined signature
fragment; and
determining, using the determined signature fragment identities, the
determined signature.
Optionally the print medium includes second coded data, the method comprising
the step of printing the image onto
the print medium, such that the print medium becomes a further token
associated with the image.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile device including:
a printer for printing onto a print medium; and
a stylus having a printhead tip for allowing a user to use the mobile device
as a writing or drawing device;
the stylus and the printer sharing at least one common ink reservoir.

Optionally the stylus is supplied ink from the at least one common reservoir
via at least one ink supply conduit.
Optionally the at least one ink supply conduit is flexible.

Optionally the at least one supply conduit includes power and data connections
for the printhead chip.
Optionally the mobile device further including a stylus retraction mechanism.

Optionally the conduit include a flexible PCB carrying the power and data
connections, the flexible PCB forming
one wall of at least one ink supply tube.

Optionally the conduit comprises a plurality of the ink supply tubes.

Optionally the printer includes a replaceable cartridge, the cartridge
including the at least one reservoir.
Optionally the cartridge includes a plurality of the ink reservoirs.
Optionally the cartridge includes a pagewidth printhead.

Optionally mobile device includes a cradle for receiving the cartridge, the
cartridge includes a plurality of contacts
for receiving power and data from corresponding complementary contacts in a
cradle.
Optionally the stylus forming part of the cartridge.

Optionally the printhead tip includes an array of radially extending printhead
nozzle rows.
Optionally the rows extend in a straight radial line from a central region of
the printhead tip.


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Optionally the rows curve outwardly from a central region of the printhead
tip.

Optionally the stylus includes a pressure sensor for determining when the
stylus is in contact with a surface, the
stylus being configured to print only when in contact with the surface.

Optionally the pressure sensor is a switch.

Optionally the printer further includes a capping mechanism including a capper
moveable between:
a capping position in which the capper is urged into a capping relationship
with the printhead; and
an uncapped position in which the printhead is able to print onto the print
medium, wherein in the
uncapped position the capper is displaced away from the printhead;
wherein the capper is moved between the capped and uncapped position by an
edge of the print medium as
it moves through the feed path.
Optionally in the capped position the capper is resiliently urged into the
capping relationship.

Optionally the capping mechanism is configured such that the capper is
displaced in the feed direction as it moves
from the capped position to the uncapped position.
In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a first receiver for receiving signals from a mobile telephony system;

a first transmitter for transmitting signals over the mobile telephony system;
and
a sylus allowing the user to use the mobile device as a writing or drawing
device.

Incorporating a writing stylus or pen into the mobile device allows the user
to write on the cards, fill out forms or
otherwise mark documents that have been printed by the device or another
printer.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a first sensor device for sensing coded data and for outputting raw data based
on said sensed data; and
a transmitter controller operable to control the first transmitter to transmit
output data based at
least partially on said sensed data via the mobile telephony system to a
computer system.

Optionally the first sensing device is postioned on the stylus.

Optionally the sylus has a printhead tip with an array of nozzles to effect
the writing or drawing.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a printer
mechanism with a pagewidth printhead
for printing on a media substrate, the printhead positioned adjacent a media
feed path through the device.


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Optionally the printer mechanism is adapted to receive document data and to
print an interface onto a surface, the
interface being at least partially based on the document data, the document
data including identity data indicative of
at least one identity, the identity being associated with a region of the
interface, the interface including coded data.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least one
ink reservoir wherein the printhead
tip in the stylus and the printer mechanism share the at least one ink
reservoir.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a second
transmitter and a second receiver
adapted to transmit data to and to receive data from one or more sensor
devices, the sensor devices transmitting data.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a second
transmitter and a second receiver
adapted to transmit data to and to receive data from one or more sensor
devices, the sensor devices transmitting data.
Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a transmitter
controller adapted to cause the
mobile telephone unit to transmit data based on the first data to a computer
system via the first transmitter.

Optionally the printer mechanism further comprises a capper assembly movable
between a capped position covering
the nozzles and an uncapped position spaced from the nozzles; wherein,
the capper assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media such that it
moves to the capped position
upon disengagement with the media.

Optionally the sheet of media substrate is encoded with the coded data and the
print engine controller uses a sensor
to determine the position of the sheet relative to the printhead.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising a media feed
roller for feeding the media past
the printhead.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet and the trailing edge of the sheet
disengages from the media feed roller
before it is printed and is projected past the printhead by its momentum.
Optionally the capper assembly lightly grips the sheet after it has been
printed so that it partially extends from the
mobile telecommunications device in readiness for manual collection.

Optionally the capper assembly moves out of the capped position and toward the
uncapped position upon
engagement with the leading edge of the sheet.

Optionally the printhead is incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises a print media feed path for directing
the print media past the printhead in a feed direction during printing, and a
drive mechanism for driving the print
media past the printhead for printing.


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Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive
shaft with a media engagement surface
for feeding a media substrate along a feed path; and
a media guide adjacent the drive shaft for biasing the media substrate against
the media engagement
surface.

Optionally a mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of media substrate past the printhead;
wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a first transmitter for transmitting signals over a mobile telephony system,
and
a first receiver for receiving signals from a mobile telephony system;
a first monochrome image sensor device for sensing coded data and for
outputting raw data based on
said sensed data; and
a transmitter controller operable to control the first transmitter to transmit
output data based at least
partially on said sensed data via the mobile telephony system to a computer
system.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a sylus
allowing the user to use the mobile
telecommunications device as a writing or drawing device.

Optionally the first monochrome image sensor device is positioned on the
stylus.

Optionally the stylus has a printhead tip with an array of nozzles to effect
the writing or drawing.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a printer
mechanism with a pagewidth
printhead for printing on a media substrate, the printhead positioned adjacent
a media feed path through the device.
Optionally the printer mechanism is adapted to receive document data and to
print an interface onto a surface, the
interface being at least partially based on the document data, the document
data including identity data indicative of
at least one identity, the identity being associated with a region of the
interface, the interface including coded data.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least
one ink reservoir wherein the
printhead tip in the stylus and the printer mechanism share the at least one
ink reservoir.


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Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a second
transmitter and a second receiver
adapted to transmit data to and to receive data from one or more monochrome
image sensor devices, the sensor
devices transmitting data.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a second
transmitter and a second receiver
adapted to transmit data to and to receive data from one or more monochrome
image sensor devices, the sensor
devices transmitting data.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a
transmitter controller adapted to cause the
mobile telephone unit to transmit data based on the first data to a computer
system via the first transmitter.
Optionally the printer mechanism further comprises a capper assembly movable
between a capped position covering
the nozzles and an uncapped position spaced from the nozzles; wherein, the
capper assembly is held in the uncapped
position by the media such that it moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally the sheet of media substrate is encoded with the coded data and the
print engine controller uses a sensor
to determine the position of the sheet relative to the printhead.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a media
feed roller for feeding the media past
the printhead.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet and the trailing edge of the sheet
disengages from the media feed roller
before it is printed and is projected past the printhead by its momentum.
Optionally the capper assembly lightly grips the sheet after it has been
printed so that it partially extends from the
mobile telecommunications device in readiness for manual collection.

Optionally the capper assembly moves out of the capped position and toward the
uncapped position upon
engagement with the leading edge of the sheet.

Optionally the printhead is incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises a print media feed path for directing
the print media past the printhead in a feed direction during printing, and a
drive mechanism for driving the print
media past the printhead for printing.
Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.


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Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive
shaft with a media engagement surface
for feeding a media substrate along a feed path; and,
a media guide adjacent the drive shaft for biasing the media substrate against
the media engagement surface.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of media substrate past the printhead;
wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the sheet
projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a mobile telecommunications
device comprising:
a first receiver for receiving signals from a mobile telephony system;
a first transmitter for transmitting signals over the mobile telephony system;
and
a sylus allowing the user to use the mobile telecommunications device as a
writing or drawing device.
Incorporating a writing stylus or pen into the phone or PDA allows the user to
write on the cards, fill out forms or
otherwise mark documents that have been printed by the device or another
printer.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a first sensor device for sensing coded data and for outputting raw data based
on said sensed data; and
a transmitter controller operable to control the first transmitter to transmit
output data based at
least partially on said sensed data via the mobile telephony system to a
computer system.

Optionally the first sensing device is postioned on the stylus.

Optionally the sylus has a printhead tip with an array of nozzles to effect
the writing or drawing.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a printer
mechanism with a pagewidth
printhead for printing on a media substrate, the printhead positioned adjacent
a media feed path through the device.
Optionally the printer mechanism is adapted to receive document data and to
print an interface onto a surface, the
interface being at least partially based on the document data, the document
data including identity data indicative of
at least one identity, the identity being associated with a region of the
interface, the interface including coded data.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising at least
one ink reservoir wherein the printhead
tip in the stylus and the printer mechanism share the at least one ink
reservoir.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a second
transmitter and a second receiver
adapted to transmit data to and to receive data from one or more sensor
devices, the sensor devices transmitting data.


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Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a second
transmitter and a second receiver
adapted to transmit data to and to receive data from one or more sensor
devices, the sensor devices transmitting data.
Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a
transmitter controller adapted to cause the
mobile telephone unit to transmit data based on the first data to a computer
system via the first transmitter.
Optionally the printer mechanism further comprises a capper assembly movable
between a capped position covering
the nozzles and an uncapped position spaced from the nozzles; wherein,
the capper assembly is held in the uncapped position by the media such that it
moves to the capped position upon
disengagement with the media.

Optionally the sheet of media substrate is encoded with the coded data and the
print engine controller uses a sensor
to determine the position of the sheet relative to the printhead.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a media
feed roller for feeding the media past
the printhead.

Optionally the media substrate is a sheet and the trailing edge of the sheet
disengages from the media feed roller
before it is printed and is projected past the printhead by its momentum.
Optionally the capper assembly lightly grips the sheet after it has been
printed so that it partially extends from the
mobile telecommunications device in readiness for manual collection.

Optionally the capper assembly moves out of the capped position and toward the
uncapped position upon
engagement with the leading edge of the sheet.

Optionally the printhead is incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises a print media feed path for directing
the print media past the printhead in a feed direction during printing, and a
drive mechanism for driving the print
media past the printhead for printing.

Optionally the printhead has an array of ink ejection nozzles and is
incorporated into a cartridge that further
comprises at least one ink reservoir for supplying ink to the printhead for
ejection by the nozzles, each of the at least
one ink reservoirs including at least one absorbent structure for inducing a
negative hydrostatic pressure in the ink at
the nozzles, and a capping mechanism for capping the printhead when not in
use.

Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising a drive
shaft with a media engagement surface
for feeding a media substrate along a feed path; and,
a media guide adjacent the drive shaft for biasing the media substrate against
the media engagement
surface.


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Optionally the mobile telecommunications device further comprising:
a drive shaft for feeding the sheet of media substrate past the printhead;
wherein during use,
the sheet disengages from the drive shaft before completion of its printing
such that the trailing edge of the
sheet projects past the printhead by momentum to complete its printing.
In a first aspect there is provided a method of producing a printed business
card using a mobile telecommunications
device, the mobile telecommunications device including processing means, a
mobile transceiver for communicating
with a mobile telecommunications network, and a printhead, the method
comprising the steps, performed in the
mobile telecommunications device, of:
(a) determining a business card to print;
(b) providing dot data to the printhead based on the business card determined
in step (a); and
(c) printing the dot data onto a print medium using the printhead, thereby to
produce the printed business card.
Optionally mobile telecommunications device including a memory for storing
information related to at least one
business card, step (a) including accessing the information related to the at
least one of the business cards stored in
the memory.

Optionally the print medium includes pre-printed coded data and step (a)
includes determining a relationship
between coded data and the dot data, and step (c) includes printing the coded
data in accordance with the determined
relationship.
Optionally the method including the step of determining a position of the
print medium relative to the printhead
prior to commencing printing, thereby to enable the printing to be performed
in accordance with the relationship.
Optionally the medium includes a linear-encoded data track extending in a
direction of intended printing, the
method comprising the steps of.
using a sensor in the mobile telecommunications device, sensing the data track
during printing;
deriving a clock signal from the sensed data track; and
synchronizing the printing based on the clock signal.
Optionally the data track includes only a clock code.

Optionally the data track encodes first information, the clock code being
embedded in the data track for extraction
with the first information.

Optionally the data track includes parallel first and second tracks, the first
track including a clock code and the
second track encoding first information.
Optionally the print medium includes further coded data encoding second
information, wherein the first information
is indicative of the second information.

Optionally the further coded data is indicative of a plurality of reference
points of the business card.


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Optionally the further coded data is indicative of an identity of the print
medium.

Optionally the coded data takes the form of a two-dimensional array of data,
the sensor being configured to capture
an image of a subset of the coded data, the subset of the coded data being
sufficient to enable the location to be
determined.

Optionally the processing means being configured to determine a position of
the print medium relative to the sensor
at the time the coded data was sensed, based at least partly on the determined
location and a position of the captured
coded data in a capture field of the sensor.
Optionally the mobile device further including a light emitting device, the
method including the step of using the
light emitting device to illuminate the print medium while the sensor senses
the coded data.

Optionally "the determining step includes retrieving, from a remote computer
system and using the transceiver,
information related to the business card.

Optionally the information includes personal information related to a user of
the mobile telecommunications device.
Optionally the method further including a step of determining a registration
between the printed dot data and pre-
printed coded data on the print medium, and using the transceiver to send, to
a remote computer system, data
indicative of the registration.

Optionally the method further comprising determining the registration during
printing.
Optionally the method further comprising determining the registration prior to
printing.

In a first aspect the present invention provides a method of using a mobile
device to print onto a print medium, the
method comprising the steps of.
(a) determining print data;
(b) determining a first orientation of a print medium inserted into the mobile
device; and
(c) modifying a second orientation of the print data prior to printing onto
the print medium, to take into
account the first orientation.

Optionally the print medium includes at least one orientation indicator and
the mobile device includes at least one
sensor, step (b) comprising using the sensor to sense the orientation
indicator and determining the orientation of the
print medium from the sensed orientation indicator.

Optionally the print medium including at least two of the orientation
indicators, one on each alternate face of the
print medium, the method comprising sensing one of the orientation indicators.


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Optionally the method comprising the step, prior to step (b), of determiing
whether the orientation of the print
medium is a valid orientation to be printed upon, and preventing printing in
the event it is not.

Optionally the print data is intended to be printed on a predetermined one of
the alternate faces of the print medium
the method including preventing printing if the print medium is inserted
upside down such that the predetermined
one of the faces cannot be printed onto.

Optionally step (c) includes rotating the print data by 180 degrees to take
into account the first orientation.

Optionally one of the at least one orientation indicators is positioned
adjacent a first corner of the print medium.
Optionally another of the at least one orientation indicators is positioned
adjacent a second corner of the print
medium on the first face, the second corner being diagonally opposite the
first corner.

Optionally at least one orientation indicator is printed in infrared ink.

Optionally the at least one orientation indicator is printed in infrared ink
that is substantially invisible to an average
unaided human eye.

Optionally the print medium further comprises first coded data encoding first
information, the first information
being indicative of a physical characteristic of the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a size of the print medium.

Optionally the first information is indicative of a media type associate with
the print medium.
Optionally the first information is indicative of information pre-printed onto
the print medium.

Optionally the first information is encoded into the coded data in accordance
with a linear encoding scheme.
Optionally the first coded data takes the form of a data track.
Optionally the data track extends along an edge of the print medium.

Optionally the method includes at least two of the data tracks, each of which
encodes the first information.
Optionally the method further including second coded data containing second
information encoded in accordance
with a second encoding scheme distinct from the linear encoding scheme,
wherein the first information is indicative
of the second information


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TERMINOLOGY
Mobile device: When used herein, the phrase "mobile device" is intended to
cover all devices that by default operate
on a portable power source such as a battery. As well as including the mobile
telecommunications device defined
above, mobile devices include devices such as cameras, non telecommunications-
enabled PDAs and hand-held
portable game units. "Mobile devices" implicitly includes "mobile
telecommunications devices", unless the
converse is clear from the context.

Mobile telecommunications device: When used herein, the phrase "mobile
telecommunications device" is intended
to cover all forms of device that enable voice, video, audio and/or data
transmission and/or reception. Typical
mobile telecommunications devices include:
= GSM and 3G mobile phones (celiphones) of all generational and international
versions, whether or not they
incorporate data transmission capabilities; and
= PDAs incorporating wireless data communication protocols such as GPRS/EDGE
of all generational and
international versions.
M-Print: The assignee's internal reference for a mobile printer, typically
incorporated in a mobile device or a mobile
telecommunications device. Throughout the specification, any reference made to
the M-Print printer is intended to
broadly include the printing mechanism as well as the embedded software which
controls the printer, and the
reading mechanism(s) for the media coding.
M-Print mobile telecommunications device: a mobile telecommunications device
incorporating a Memjet printer.
Netpage mobile telecommunications device: a mobile telecommunications device
incorporating a Netpage -enabled
Memjet printer and/or a Netpage pointer.
Throughout the specification, the blank side of the medium intended to be
printed on by the M-Print printer is
referred to as the front side. The other side of the medium, which may be pre-
printed or blank, is referred to as the
back side.

Throughout the specification, the dimension of the medium parallel to the
transport direction is referred to as the
longitudinal dimension. The orthogonal dimension is referred to as the lateral
dimension.

Furthermore, where the medium is hereafter referred to as a card, it should be
understood that this is not meant to
imply anything specific about the construction of the card. It may be made of
any suitable material including paper,
plastic, metal, glass and so on. Likewise, any references to the card having
been pre-printed, either with graphics or
with the media coding itself, is not meant to imply a particular printing
process or even printing per se. The
graphics and/or media coding can be disposed on or in the card by any suitable
means.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Preferred embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example
only, with reference to the


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accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the modular interaction in a
printer/mobile phone;
Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the modular interaction in a tag
sensor/mobile phone;
' Figure 3 is a schematic representation of the modular interaction in a
printer/tag sensor/mobile phone;
Figure 4 is a more detailed schematic representation of the architecture
within the mobile phone of Fig. 3;
Figure 5 is a more detailed schematic representation of the architecture
within the mobile phone module of Fig. 4;
Figure 6 is a more detailed schematic representation of the architecture
within the printer module of Fig. 4;
Figure 7 is a more detailed schematic representation of the architecture
within the tag sensor module of Fig. 4;
Figure 8 is a schematic representation of the architecture within a tag
decoder module for use instead of the tag
sensor module of Fig. 4;
Figure 9 is an exploded perspective view of a `candy bar' type mobile phone
embodiment of the present invention;
Figure 10 is a partially cut away front and bottom perspective of the
embodiment shown in Fig. 9;
Figure 11 is a partially cut away rear and bottom perspective of the
embodiment shown in Fig. 9;
Figure 12 is a front elevation of the embodiment shown in Fig. 9 with a card
being fed into its media entry slot;
Figure 13 is a cross section view taken along line A-A of Fig. 12;
Figure 14 is a cross section view taken along line A-A of Fig. 12 with the
card emerging from the media exit slot of
the mobile phone;
Figure 15 is a schematic representation of a first mode of operation of MoPEC;
Figure 16 is a schematic representation of a second mode of operation of
MoPEC;
Figure 17 is a schematic representation of the hardware components of a MoPEC
device;
Figure 18 shows a simplified UML diagram of a page element;
Figure 19 is a top perspective of the cradle assembly and piezoelectric drive
system;
Figure 20 is a bottom perspective of the cradle assembly and piezoelectric
drive system;
Figure 21 is a bottom perspective of the print cartridge installed in the
cradle assembly;
Figure 22 is a bottom perspective of the print cartridge removed from the
cradle assembly;
Figure 23 is a perspective of the print cartridge and the cradle assembly with
6mm diameter DC motor;
Figure 24 is a perspective of the print cartridge and the cradle assembly with
8mm diameter DC motor and magnetic
encoder;
Figure 25 shows the arrangement to Fig. 24 except with an alternative gear
drive train;
Figure 26 is a perspective of the print cartridge and the cradle assembly with
6mm diameter DC motor with worm
gear transmission;
Figure 27 is a perspective of the print cartridge and the cradle assembly with
8mm diameter DC motor with worm
gear transmission;
Figure 28 is a perspective view of a print cartridge for an M-Print device;
Figure 29 is an exploded perspective of the print cartridge shown in Fig. 28;
Figure 30 is a perspective view of an alternative print cartridge;
Figure 31 is an exploded top perspective of the print cartridge shown in Fig.
30;
Figure 32 is an exploded bottom perspective of the print cartridge shown in
Fig. 30;
Figure 33 is a longitudinal cross section of the print cartridge shown in Fig.
30;


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Figure 34 is a lateral cross section of the print cartridge shown in Fig. 30
viewed from the left;
Figure 35 is a partial lateral cross section of the print cartridge shown in
Fig. 30 viewed from the right with a full ink
reservoir;
Figure 36 is a partial lateral cross section of the print cartridge shown in
Fig. 30 viewed from the right with a
depleted ink reservoir;
Figure 37 is an exploded top perspective of another alternative print
cartridge;
Figure 38 is an exploded bottom perspective of the print cartridge shown in
Fig. 37;
Figure 39 is a partial enlargement of the bottom of the housing showing the
ink balance ducts between the outlets;
Figure 40 is a circuit diagram of a fusible link on the printhead IC;
Figure 41 is a circuit diagram of a single fuse cell;
Figure 42 is a schematic overview of the printhead IC and its connection to
MoPEC;
Figure 43 is a schematic representation showing the relationship between
nozzle columns and dot shift registers in
the CMOS blocks of Fig. 42;
Figure 44 shows a more detailed schematic showing a unit cell and its
relationship to the nozzle columns and dot
shift registers of Fig. 43;
Figure 45 shows a circuit diagram showing logic for a single printhead nozzle;
Figure 46 is a schematic representation of the physical positioning of the odd
and even nozzle rows;
Figure 47 shows a magnified partial perspective view of the printhead IC;
Figure 48 shows a vertical sectional view of a single nozzle for ejecting ink
in a quiescent state;
Figure 49 shows a vertical sectional view of the nozzle of Fig. 48 during an
initial actuation phase;
Figure 50 shows a vertical sectional view of the nozzle of Fig. 48 later in
the actuation phase;
Figure 51 shows a perspective partial vertical sectional view of the nozzle of
Fig. 48, at the actuation state shown in
Fig. 50;
Figure 52 shows a perspective vertical section of the nozzle of Fig. 48, with
ink omitted;
Figure 53 shows a vertical sectional view of the of the nozzle of Fig. 52;
Figure 54 shows a perspective partial vertical sectional view of the nozzle of
Fig. 48, at the actuation state shown in
Fig. 49;
Figure 55 shows a plan view of the nozzle of Fig. 48;
Figure 56 shows a plan view of the nozzle of Fig. 48 with the lever arm and
movable nozzle removed for clarity;
Figure 57 shows a perspective vertical sectional view of a part of a printhead
chip incorporating a plurality of the
nozzle arrangements of the type shown in Fig. 48;
Figure 58 shows a schematic cross-sectional view through an ink chamber of a
single bubble forming type nozzle
with a bubble nucleating about heater element;
Figure 59 shows the bubble growing in the nozzle of Fig. 58;
Figure 60 shows further bubble growth within the nozzle of Fig. 58;
Figure 61 shows the formation of the ejected ink drop from the nozzle of Fig.
58;
Figure 62 shows the detachment of the ejected ink drop and the collapse of the
bubble in the nozzle of Fig. 58;
Figure 63 is a perspective showing the longitudinal insertion of the print
cartridge into the cradle assembly;
Figure 64 is a lateral cross section of the print cartridge inserted into the
cradle assembly;


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Figures 65 to 74 are lateral cross sections through the print cartridge
showing the decapping and capping of the
printhead;
Figure 75 is an enlarged partial sectional view of the end of the print
cartridge indicated by the dotted line in Fig.
77B;
Figure 76 is a similar sectional view with the locking mechanism rotated to
the locked position;
Figure 77A is an end view of the print cartridge with a card partially along
the feed path;
Figure 77B is a longitudinal section of the print cartridge through A-A of
Fig. 77A;
Figure 78 is a partial enlarged perspective of one end the print cartridge
with the capper in the capped position;
Figure 79 is a partial enlarged perspective of one end the print cartridge
with the capper in the uncapped position;
Figures 80 to 84 are lateral cross sections of an alternative print cartridge
showing the actuation of the capper by a
force transfer mechanism;
Figure 85 is a perspective of a marking nib version of the cartridge/ cradle
assembly;
Figure 86 is the assembly of Fig. 85 with the nib mechanism exploded;
Figure 87 is the assembly of Fig. 86 with the cartridge separated from the
cradle;
Figure 88 is an exploded perspective of a further print cartridge with optical
transmission of the print data to the
printhead;
Figure 89 is a lateral cross section through the cartridge of Fig. 88 showing
the LED beacon for generating the
modulated IR signal;
Figure 90 is a partially cut away perspective showing the LED beacon and the
photosensor on the printhead;
Figure 91 shows the media coding on the `back-side' of the card with separate
clock and data tracks;

Figure 92 is a block diagram of an M-Print system that uses media with
separate clock and data tracks;
Figure 93 is a simplified circuit diagram for an optical encoder;
Figure 94 is a block diagram of the MoPEC with the clock and data inputs;
Figure 95 is a block diagram of the optional edge detector and page sync
generator for the M-Print system of Fig.
92;
Figure 96 is a block diagram of a MoPEC that uses media with a pilot sequence
in the data track to generate a page
sync signal;
Figure 97 is a schematic representation of the position of the encoders along
media feed path;
Figure 98 shows the `back-side' of a card with a self clocking data track;
Figure 99 is a block diagram of the decoder for a self clocking data track;
Figure 100 is a block diagram of the phase lock loop synchronization of the
dual clock track sensors;
Figure 101 shows the dual phase lock loop signals at different phases of the
media feed;
Figure 102 shows the `back-side' of a card with side and orientation
indicators;
Figure 103 shows the `back-side' of a card with a detachable strip;
Figure 104 shows the card of Fig. MCI I with the detachable strip detached
from the card proper;
Figure 105 shows the `back-side' of a card with a detachable strip detached
and additional side and orientation
indicator;
Figure 106 shows a square-cornered card with detachable strip;


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Figure 107 shows the card of Fig. MC 14 with the detachable strip detached
from the card proper;
Figure 108 shows a card with lateral data track on the detachable strip at the
leading edge;

Figure 109 is a detailed physical view of a Memjet printhead IC with an
integral image sensor for
reading a lateral data track;

Figure 110 is a perspective of a dual drive shaft version of the cartridge
cradle assembly;

Figures 111, 112 and 113 are front, side and plans views respectively of the
assembly shown in Fig. 110;
Figures 114 is a cross section of the cartridge taken along A-A of Fig. 113;
Figure 115 is a schematic representation of an encoder-drive-printhead
configuration;
Figure 116 is a schematic representation of a drive - encoder -printhead
configuration;
Figure 117 is a schematic representation of an encoder- printhead - drive
configuration;
Figure 118 is a schematic representation of an encoder-drive-printhead-drive
configuration;
Figure 119 is a schematic representation of an encoder-drive-printhead -
encoder configuration;
Figure 120 is a schematic representation of a drive - encoder -printhead -
drive configuration;
Figure 121 is a block diagram of the Kip encoding layers;
Figure 122 is a schematic representation of the Kip frame structure;
Figure 123 is a schematic representation of an encoded frame with explicit
clocking;
Figure 124 is a schematic representation of an encoded frame with implicit
clocking;
Figure 125 shows Kip coding marks and spaces that are nominally two dots wide;
Figure 126 is a schematic representation of the extended Kip frame structure;
Figure 127 shows the data symbols and the redundancy symbols of the Reed-
Solomon codeword layout;
Figure 128 shows the interleaving of the data symbols of the Reed-Solomon
codewords;
Figure 129 shows the interleaving of the redundancy symbols of the Reed-
Solomon codewords;
Figure 130 shows the structure of a single Netpage tag;
Figure 131 shows the structure of a single symbol within a Netpage tag;
Figure 132 shows an array of nine adjacent symbols;
Figure 133 shows the ordering of the bits within the symbol;
Figure 134 shows a single Netpage tag with every bit set;
Figure 135 shows a tag group of four tags;
Figure 136 shows the tag groups repeated in a continuous tile pattern;
Figure 137 shows the contiguous tile pattern of tag groups, each with four
different tag types;
Figure 138 is an architectural overview of a Netpage enabled mobile phone
within the broader Netpage system;
Figure 139 shows an architectural overview of the mobile phone microserver as
a relay between the stylus and the
Netpage server;
Figure 140 is a perspective of a Netpage enabled mobile phone with the rear
moulding removed;
Figure 141 is a partial enlarged perspective of the phone shown in Fig. 140
with the Netpage clicker partially
sectioned;
Figure 142 is a system level diagram of the Jupiter monolithic integrated
circuit;
Figure 143 is a simplified circuit diagram of the Ganymede image sensor and
analogue to digital converter;


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Figure 144 shows the basic configuration of a two dimensional tag sensor;
Figure 145 shows a possible configuration of a multiplexed tag sensor with
dual optical paths and single image
sensor;
Figure 146 shows a variant of the tag sensor shown in Fig. 145;
Figure 147 shows a variant of the tag sensor shown in Fig. 146;
Figure 148 shows a variant of the tag sensor shown in Fig. 147;
Figures 149 and 150 show a multiplexed tag sensor with a pivoting mirror for
internal or external image;
Figure 151 is a front elevation of a personal data assistant (PDA) embodiment;
Figure 152 is a front perspective of the PDA shown in Fig. 151 with media
protruding from the exit slot;
Figure 153 is a front perspective of the PDA shown in Fig. 151 with media
protruding from the exit slot and the
Netpage pointer extended;
Figure 154 is a longitudinal cross section of the PDA taken through A-A of
Fig. 151;
Figure 155 is a partially sectioned rear perspective of the PDA shown in Fig.
151;
Figure 156 is an enlarged, partially sectioned, partial perspective of the PDA
shown in Fig. 151;
Figure 157 is a rear perspective of the PDA with the media cartridge removed;
Figure 158 is the PDA of Fig. 157 without the rear moulding;
Figure 159 is an enlarged rear and bottom perspective of the PDA of Fig. 158;
Figure 160 is an exploded perspective of the media cartridge;
Figure 161 is a perspective of the cartridge with universal pen in its
retracted configuration;
Figure 162 is a perspective of the cartridge with universal pen in its
unlocked extended configuration;
Figure 163 is a perspective of the cartridge with universal pen in its locked
extended configuration;
Figure 164 is an exploded perspective of the cartridge with universal pen;
Figure 165 is a partial perspective showing the pen TAB film connection to the
main cartridge TAB film;
Figure 166 is an end elevation showing the nozzle pattern at the nib of the
pen;
Figure 167 is a lateral cross section through the flexible data, power and ink
conduit to the stylus;
Figure 168 shows the stylus nib contacting the substrate at three different
angles;
Figure 169 is an exploded top perspective of the stylus nib;
Figure 170 is an exploded bottom perspective of the stylus nib;
Figure 171 is a plan view of the nib printhead;
Figure 172 is a perspective view of the nib printhead with the capper in the
open position;
Figure 173 is a perspective view of the nib printhead with the capper in the
closed position;
Figure 174 is an axial cross section of the nib printhead;
Figure 175 is a bottom perspective of the nib printhead;
Figure 176 is a bottom perspective of the nib printhead;
Figure 177 is an exploded top perspective of the nib printhead;
Figure 178 is the layer of electrically active semiconductor elements within
the nib printhead;
Figure 179 is a perspective another embodiment of the stylus nib printhead and
cartridge assembly, where the stylus
is mounted to the cartridge;
Figure 180 is an enlarged partial perspective of a cutaway end of the
cartridge showing the ink connection to the
stylus nib;


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Figure 181 is an exploded perspective of the assembly of Fig. 179;
Figure 182 is a perspective of the assembly of Fig. 179 with an optional IR
LED and and CCD photosensor;
Figure 183 shows a first alternative arrangement for the nozzles on the nib
printhead; and,
Figure 184 shows a second alternative arrangement for the nozzles on the nib
printhead.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICE OVERVIEW
Whilst the main embodiment includes both Netpage and printing functionality,
only one or the other of these
features is provided in other embodiments.

One such embodiment is shown in Fig. 1, in which a mobile telecommunications
device in the form of a mobile
phone 1 (also known as a "cellphone") includes a mobile phone module 2 and a
printer module 4. The mobile
phone module is configured to send and receive voice and data via a
telecommunications network (not shown) in a
conventional manner known to those skilled in the art. The printer module 4 is
configured to print a page 6.
Depending upon the particular implementation, the printer module 4 can be
configured to print the page 6 in color or
monochrome.

The mobile telecommunications device can use any of a variety of known
operating systems, such as Symbian (with
UIQ and Series 60 GUIs), Windows Mobile, PalmOS, and Linux.

In the preferred embodiment (described in more detail below), the print media
is pre-printed with tags, and the
printer module 4 prints visible information onto the page 6 in registration
with the tags. In other embodiments,
Netpage tags are printed by the printer module onto the page 6 along with the
other information. The tags can be
printed using either the same visible ink as used to print visible
information, or using an infrared or other
substantially invisible ink.

The information printed by the printer module 4 can include user data stored
in the mobile phone I (including
phonebook and appointment data) or text and images received via the
telecommunications network or from another
device via a communication mechanism such as BluetoothTM or infrared
transmission. If the mobile phone 1
includes a camera, the printer module 4 can be configured to print the
captured images. In the preferred form, the
mobile phone module 2 provides at least basic editing capabilities to enable
cropping, filtering or addition of text or
other image data to the captured image before printing.

The configuration and operation of the printer module 4 is described in more
detail below in the context of various
types of mobile telecommunication device that incorporate a printhead.

Fig. 2 shows another embodiment of a mobile telecommunications device, in
which the printer module 4 is omitted,
and a Netpage tag sensor module 8 is included. The Netpage module 8 enables
interaction between the mobile


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phone 1 and a page 10 including Netpage tags. The configuration and operation
of the Netpage pointer in a mobile
phone 1 is described in more detail below. Although not shown, the mobile
phone 1 with Netpage module 8 can
include a camera.

Fig. 3 shows a mobile phone 1 that includes both a printer module 4 and a
Netpage tag sensor module 8. As with
the embodiment of Fig. 2, the printer module 4 can be configured to print
tagged or untagged pages. As shown in
Fig. 3, where tagged pages 10 are produced (and irrespective of whether the
tags were pre-printed or printed by the
printer module 4), the Netpage tag sensor module 8 can be used to interact
with the resultant printed media.

A more detailed architectural view of the mobile phone 1 of Fig. 3 is shown in
Fig. 4, in which features
corresponding to those shown in Fig. 3 are indicated with the same reference
numerals. It will be appreciated that
Fig. 4 deals only with communication between various electronic components in
the mobile telecommunications
device and omits mechanical features. These are described in more detail
below.

The Netpage tag sensor module 8 includes a monolithically integrated Netpage
image sensor and processor 12 that
captures image data and receives a signal from a contact switch 14. The
contact switch 14 is connected to a nib (not
shown) to determine when the nib is pressed into contact with a surface. The
sensor and processor 12 also outputs a
signal to control illumination of an infrared LED 16 in response to the stylus
being pressed against the surface.

The image sensor and processor 12 outputs processed tag information to a
Netpage pointer driver 18 that interfaces
with the phone operating system 20 running on the mobile telecommunications
device's processor (not shown).
Output to be printed is sent by the phone operating system 20 to a printer
driver 22, which passes it on to a MoPEC
chip 24. The MoPEC chip processes the output to generate dot data for supply
to the printhead 26, as described in
more detail below. The MoPEC chip 24 also receives a signal from a media
sensor 28 indicating when the media is
in position to be printed, and outputs a control signal to a media transport
30.

The printhead 26 is disposed within a replaceable cartridge 32, which also
includes ink 34 for supply to the
printhead.
MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEVICE MODULE
Fig. 5 shows the mobile phone module 2 in more detail. The majority of the
components other than those directly
related to printing and Netpage tag sensing are standard and well known to
those in the art. Depending upon the
specific implementation of the mobile phone 1, any number of the illustrated
components can be included as part of
one or more integrated circuits.

Operation of, and communication between, the mobile phone module 2 components
is controlled by a mobile phone
controller 36. The components include:
= mobile radio transceiver 38 for wireless communication with a mobile
telecommunications network;
= program memory 40 for storing program code for execution on the mobile phone
controller 36;


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= working memory 42 for storing data used and generated by the program code
during execution. Although
shown as separate from the mobile phone controller 36, either or both memories
40 and 42 may be
incorporated in the package or silicon of the controller;
= keypad 44 and buttons 46 for accepting numerical and other user input;
= touch sensor 48 which overlays display 50 for accepting user input via a
stylus or fingertip pressure;
= removable memory card 52 containing non-volatile memory 54 for storing
arbitrary user data, such as
digital photographs or files;
= local area radio transceiver 56, such as a BluetoothTM transceiver;
= GPS receiver 58 for enabling determination of the location of the mobile
telecommunications device (alter-
natively the phone may rely on mobile network mechanisms for determining its
location);
= microphone 60 for capturing a user's speech;
= speaker 62 for outputting sounds, including voice during a phone call;
= camera image sensor 64 including a CCD for capturing images;
= camera flash 66;
= power manager 68 for monitoring and controlling power consumption of the
mobile telecommunications
device and its components; and
= SIM (subscriber Identity Module) card 70 including SIM 72 for identifying
the subscriber to mobile
networks.

The mobile phone controller 36 implements the baseband functions of mobile
voice and data communications
protocols such as GSM, GSM modem for data, GPRS and CDMA, as well as higher-
level messaging protocols such
as SMS and MMS.

The one or more local-area radio transceivers 56 enable wireless communication
with peripherals such as headsets
and Netpage pens, and hosts such as personal computers. The mobile phone
controller 36 also implements the
baseband functions of local-area voice and data communications protocols such
as IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15, and
BluetoothTM.

The mobile phone module 2 may also include sensors and/or motors (not shown)
for electronically adjusting zoom,
focus, aperture and exposure in relation to the digital camera.

Similarly, as shown in Fig. 6, components of the printer module 4 include:
= print engine controller (PEC) 74 in the form of a MoPEC device;
= program memory 76 for storing program code for execution by the print engine
controller 74;
= working memory 78 for storing data used and generated by the program code
during execution by the print
engine controller 74; and
= a master QA chip 80 for authenticating printhead cartridge 32 via its QA
chip 82.

Whilst the printhead cartridge in the preferred form includes the ink supply
34, the ink reservoirs can be housed in a


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separate cartridge in alternative embodiments.

Fig. 7 shows the components of the tag sensor module 8, which includes a CMOS
tag image processor 74 that
communicates with image memory 76. A CMOS tag image sensor 78 sends captured
image data to the processor 74
for processing. The contact sensor 14 indicates when a nib (not shown) is
brought into contact with a surface with
sufficient force to close a switch within the contact sensor 14. Once the
switch is closed, the infrared LED 16
illuminates the surface, and the image sensor 78 captures at least one image
and sends it to the image processor 74
for processing. Once processed (as described below in more detail), image data
is sent to the mobile phone
controller 36 for decoding.
In an alternative embodiment, shown in Fig. 8, the tag sensor module 8 is
replaced by a tag decoder module 84. The
tag decoder module 80 includes all the elements of the tag sensor module 8,
but adds a hardware-based tag decoder
86, as well as program memory 88 and working memory 90 for the tag decoder.
This arrangement reduces the
computational load placed on the mobile phone controller, with a corresponding
increase in chip area compared to
using the tag sensor module 8.

The Netpage sensor module can be incorporated in the form of a Netpage
pointer, which is a simplified Netpage pen
suitable mostly for activating hyperlinks. It preferably incorporates a non-
marking stylus in place of the pen's
marking nib (described in detail later in the specification); it uses a
surface contact sensor in place of the pen's
continuous force sensor; and it preferably operates at a lower position
sampling rate, making it unsuitable for
capturing drawings and hand-writing. A Netpage pointer is less expensive to
implement than a Netpage pen, and tag
image processing and tag decoding can potentially be performed by software
without hardware support, depending
on sampling rate.

The various aspects of the invention can be embodied in any of a number of
mobile telecommunications device
types. Several different devices are described here, but in the interests of
brevity, the detailed description will
concentrate on the mobile telecommunications device embodiment.

MOBILE PHONE
One preferred embodiment is the non-Netpage enabled `candy bar' mobile
telecommunications device in the form
of a mobile phone shown in Figs. 9 to 14. A Netpage enabled version is
described in a later section of this
specification.

While a candy bar style phone is described here, it could equally take the
form of a "flip" style phone, which
includes a pair of body sections that are hinged to each other. Typically, the
display is disposed on one of the body
sections, and the keypad is disposed on the other, such that the display and
keypad are positioned adjacent to each
other when the device is in the closed position.


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In further embodiments, the device can have two body sections that rotate or
slide relative to each other. Typically,
the aim of these mechanical relationships between first and second body
sections is to protect the display from
scratches and/or the keypad from accidental activation.

Photo printing is considered one of the most compelling uses of the mobile
Memjet printer. A preferred
embodiment of the invention therefore includes a camera, with its attendant
processing power and memory capacity.
The elements of the mobile telecommunications device are best shown in Fig. 9,
which (for clarity) omits minor
details such as wires and hardware that operatively connect the various
elements of the mobile telecommunications
device together. The wires and other hardware will be well known to those
skilled in the art.

The mobile phone 100 comprises a chassis moulding 102, a front moulding 104
and a rear cover moulding 106. A
rechargeable battery 108, such as a lithium ion or nickel metal hydride
battery, is mounted to the chassis moulding
102 and covered by the rear cover moulding 106. The battery 108 powers the
various components of the mobile
phone 100 via battery connector 276 and the camera and speaker connector 278.

The front moulding 104 mounts to the chassis to enclose the various
components, and includes numerical interface
buttons 136 positioned in vertical rows on each side of the display 138. A
multi-directional control pad 142 and
other control buttons 284 enable menu navigation and other control inputs. A
daughterboard 280 is mounted to the
chassis moulding 102 and includes a directional switch 286 for the multi
directional control pad 142.

The mobile telecommunications device includes a cartridge access cover 132
that protects the interior of the mobile
telecommunications device from dust and other foreign objects when a print
cartridge 148 is not inserted in the
cradle 124.
An optional camera module 110 is also mounted to the chassis moulding 102, to
enable image capture through a
hole 112 in the rear cover moulding 106. The camera module 110 includes a lens
assembly and a CCD image
sensor for capturing images. A lens cover 268 in the hole 112 protects the
lens of the camera module 110. The rear
cover moulding 106 also includes an inlet slot 228 and an outlet slot 150
through which print media passes.
The chassis moulding 102 supports a data/recharge connector 114, which enables
a proprietary data cable to be
plugged into the mobile telecommunications device for uploading and
downloading data such as address book
information, photographs, messages, and any type of information that might be
sent or received by the mobile
telecommunications device. The data/recharge connector 114 is configured to
engage a corresponding interface in a
desktop stand (not shown), which holds the mobile telecommunications device in
a generally upright position whilst
data is being sent or received by the mobile telecommunications device. The
data/recharge connector also includes
contacts that enable recharging of the battery 108 via the desktop stand. A
separate recharge socket 116 in the
data/recharge connector 114 is configured to receive a complimentary recharge
plug for enabling recharging of the
battery when the desktop stand is not in use.


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A microphone 170 is mounted to the chassis moulding 102 for converting sound,
such as a user's voice, into an
electronic signal to be sampled by the mobile telecommunications device's
analog to digital conversion circuitry.
This conversion is well known to those skilled in the art and so is not
described in more detail here.

A S1M (Subscriber Identity Module) holder 118 is formed in the chassis
moulding 102, to receive a SIM card 120.
The chassis moulding is also configured to support a print cartridge cradle
124 and a drive mechanism 126, which
receive a replaceable print cartridge 148. These features are described in
more detail below.

Another moulding in the chassis moulding 102 supports an aerial (not shown)
for sending and receiving RF signals
to and from a mobile telecommunications network.

A main printed circuit board (PCB) 130 is supported by the chassis moulding
102, and includes a number of
momentary pushbuttons 132. The various integrated and discrete components that
support the communications and
processing (including printing processing) functions are mounted to the main
PCB, but for clarity are not shown in
the diagram.

A conductive elastomeric overlay 134 is positoned on the main PCB 130 beneath
the keys 136 on the front
moulding 104. The elastomer incorporates a carbon impregnated pill on a
flexible profile. When one of the keys
136 is pressed, it pushes the carbon pill to a 2-wire open circuit pattern 132
on the PCB surface. This provides a low
impedance closed circuit. Alternatively, a small dome is formed on the overlay
corresponding to each key 132.
Polyester film is screen printed with carbon paint and used in a similar
manner to the carbon pills. Thin adhesive
film with berrylium copper domes can also be used.

A loudspeaker 144 is installed adjacent apertures 272 in the front moulding
104 to enable a user to hear sound such
as voice communication and other audible signals.

A color display 138 is also mounted to the main PCB 130, to enable visual
feedback to a user of the mobile
telecommunications device. A transparent lens moulding 146 protects the
display 138. In one form, the transparent
lens is touch-sensitive (or is omitted and the display 138 is touch
sensitive), enabling a user to interact with icons
and input text displayed on the display 138, with a finger or stylus.

A vibration assembly 274 is also mounted to the chassis moulding 102, and
includes a motor that drives an
eccentrically mounted weight to cause vibration. The vibration is transmitted
to the chassis 102 and provides tactile
feedback to a user, which is useful in noisy environments where ringtones are
not audible.
MOPEC - HIGH LEVEL
Documents to be printed must be in the form of dot data by the time they reach
the printhead.

Before conversion to dot data, the image is represented by a relatively high
spatial resolution bilevel component (for
text and line art) and a relatively low spatial resolution contone component
(for images and background colors).


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The bilevel component is compressed in a lossless format, whilst the contone
component is compressed in
accordance with a lossy format, such as JPEG.

The preferred form of MoPEC is configurable to operate in either of two modes.
In the first mode, as shown in Fig.
15, an image to be printed is received in the form of compressed image data.
The compressed image data can arrive
as a single bundle of data or as separate bundles of data from the same or
different sources. For example, text can
be received from a first remote server and image data for a banner
advertisement can be received from another.
Alternatively, either or both of the forms of data can be retrieved from local
memory in the mobile device.

Upon receipt, the compressed image data is buffered in memory buffer 650. The
bilevel and contone components
are decompressed by respective decompressors as part of expand page step 652.
This can either be done in
hardware or software, as described in more detail below. The decompressed
bilevel and contone components are
then buffered in respective FIFOs 654 and 656.

The decompressed contone component is halftoned by a halftoning unit 658, and
a compositing unit 660 then
composites the bilevel component over the dithered contone component.
Typically, this will involve compositing
text over images. However, the system can also be run in stencil mode, in
which the bilevel component is
interpreted as a mask that is laid over the dithered contone component.
Depending upon what is selected as the
image component for the area in which the mask is being applied, the result
can be text filled with the underlying
image (or texture), or a mask for the image. The advantage of stencil mode is
that the bilevel component is not
dithered, enabling sharp edges to be defined. This can be useful in certain
applications, such as defining borders or
printing text comprising colored textures.

After compositing, the resultant image is dot formatted 662, which includes
ordering dots for output to the printhead
and taking into account any spatial or operative compensation issues, as
described in more detail below. The
formatted dots are then supplied to the printhead for printing, again as
described in more detail below.

In the second mode of operation, as shown in Fig. 16, the contone and bilevel
components are received in
uncompressed form by MoPEC directly into respective FIFOs 656 and 654. The
source of the components depends
on the application. For example, the host processor in the mobile
telecommunications device can be configured to
generate the decompressed image components from compressed versions, or can
simply be arranged to receive the
uncompressed components from elsewhere, such as the mobile telecommunications
network or the communication
port described in more detail elsewhere.

Once the bilevel and contone components are in their respective FIFOs, MoPEC
performs the same operations as
described in relation to the first mode, and like numerals have therefore been
used to indicate like functional blocks.
As shown in Fig. 18, the central data structure for the preferred printing
architecture is a generalised representation
of the three layers, called a page element. A page element can be used to
represent units ranging from single
rendered elements emerging from a rendering engine up to an entire page of a
print job. Fig. 18 shows a simplified


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UML diagram of a page element 300. Conceptually, the bi-level symbol region
selects between the two color
sources.

MoPEC DEVICE - Low LEVEL
The hardware components of a preferred MoPEC device 326 are shown in Fig. 17
and described in more detail
below.

Conceptually, a MoPEC device is simply a SoPEC device (ie, as described in
cross-referenced application USSN
10/727,181 (Docket No. PEAOIUS), filed on December 2, 2003) that is optimized
for use in a low-power, low
print-speed environment of a mobile phone. Indeed, as long as power
requirements are satisfied, a SoPEC device is
capable of providing the functionality required of MoPEC. However, the
limitations on battery power in a mobile
device make it desirable to modify the SoPEC design.

As shown in Fig. 17, from the high level point of view a MoPEC consists of
three distinct subsystems: a Central
Processing Unit (CPU) subsystem 1301, a Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)
subsystem 1302 and a Print
Engine Pipeline (PEP) subsystem 1303.

MoPEC has a much smaller eDRAM requirement than SoPEC. This is largely due to
the considerably smaller print
media for which MoPEC is designed to generate print data.
In one form, MoPEC can be provided in the form of a stand-alone ASIC designed
to be installed in a mobile
telecommunications device. Alternatively, it can be incorporated onto another
ASIC that incorporates some or all of
the other functionality required for the mobile telecommunications device.

The CPU subsystem 1301 includes a CPU that controls and configures all aspects
of the other subsystems. It
provides general support for interfacing and synchronizing the external
printer with the internal print engine. It also
controls low-speed communication to QA chips (which are described elsewhere in
this specification) in cases where
they are used. The preferred embodiment does not utilize QA chips in the
cartridge or the mobile
telecommunications device.
The CPU subsystem 1301 also contains various peripherals to aid the CPU, such
as General Purpose Input Output
(GPIO, which includes motor control), an Interrupt Controller Unit (ICU), LSS
Master and general timers. The
USB block provides an interface to the host processor in the mobile
telecommunications device, as well as to
external data sources where required. The selection of USB as a communication
standard is a matter of design
preference, and other types of communications protocols can be used, such as
Firewire or SPI.

The DRAM subsystem 1302 accepts requests from the CPU, USB and blocks within
the Print Engine Pipeline (PEP)
subsystem. The DRAM subsystem 1302, and in particular the DRAM Interface Unit
(DIU), arbitrates the various
requests and determines which request should win access to the DRAM. The DIU
arbitrates based on configured
parameters, to allow sufficient access to DRAM for all requestors. The DIU
also hides the implementation specifics


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of the DRAM such as page size, number of banks and refresh rates. It will be
appreciated that the DRAM can be
considerably smaller than in the original SoPEC device, because the pages
being printed are considerably smaller.
Also, if the host processor can supply decompressed print data at a high
enough rate, the DRAM can be made very
small (of the order of 128-256 kbytes), since there is no need to buffer an
entire page worth of information before
commencing printing.

The Print Engine Pipeline (PEP) subsystem 1303 accepts compressed pages from
DRAM and renders them to bi-
level dots for a given print line destined for a printhead interface that
communicates directly with the printhead. The
first stage of the page expansion pipeline is the Contone Decoder Unit (CDU)
and Lossless Bi-level Decoder (LBD).
The CDU expands the JPEG-compressed contone (typically CMYK) layers and the
LBD expands the compressed
bi-level layer (typically K). The output from the first stage is a set of
buffers: the Contone FIFO unit (CFU) and the
Spot FIFO Unit (SFU). The CFU and SFU buffers are implemented in DRAM.

The second stage is the Halftone Compositor Unit (HCU), which halftones and
dithers the contone layer and
composites the bi-level spot layer over the resulting bi-level dithered layer.

A number of compositing options can be implemented, depending upon the
printhead with which the MoPEC device
is used. Up to six channels of bi-level data are produced from this stage,
although not all channels may be present
on the printhead. For example, in the preferred embodiment, the printhead is
configured to print only CMY, with K
pushed into the CMY channels, and IR omitted.

In the third stage, a Dead Nozzle Compensator (DNC) compensates for dead
nozzles in the printhead by color
redundancy and error diffusing of dead nozzle data into surrounding dots.

The resultant bi-level dot-data (being CMY in the preferred embodiment) is
buffered and written to a set of line
buffers stored in DRAM via a Dotline Writer Unit (DWU).

Finally, the dot-data is loaded back from DRAM, and passed to the printhead
interface via a dot FIFO. The dot FIFO
accepts data from a Line Loader Unit (LLU) at the system clock rate, while the
PrintHead Interface (PHI) removes
data from the FIFO and sends it to the printhead.

The amount of DRAM required will vary depending upon the particular
implementation of MoPEC (including the
system in which it is implemented). In this regard, the preferred MoPEC design
is capable of being configured to
operate in any of three modes. All of the modes available under the preferred
embodiment assume that the received
image data will be preprocessed in some way. The preprocessing includes, for
example, color space conversion and
scaling, where necessary.

In the first mode, the image data is decompressed by the host processor and
supplied to MoPEC for transfer directly
to the HCU. In this mode, the CDU and LBD are effectively bypassed, and the
decompressed data is provided
directly to the CFU and SFU to be passed on to the HCU. Because decompression
is performed outside MoPEC,


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and the HCU and subsequent hardware blocks are optimized for their jobs, the
MoPEC device can be clocked
relatively slowly, and there is no need for the MoPEC CPU to be particularly
powerful. As a guide, a clock speed of
to 20 MHz is suitable.

5 In the second mode, the image data is supplied to MoPEC in compressed form.
To begin with, this requires an
increase in MoPEC DRAM, to a minimum of about 256 kbytes (although double that
is preferable). In the second
mode, the CDU and LBD (and their respective buffers) are utilized to perform
hardware decompression of the
compressed contone and bilevel image data. Again, since these are hardware
units optimized to perform their jobs,
the system can be clocked relatively slowly, and there is still no need for a
particularly powerful MoPEC processor.
10 A disadvantage with this mode, however, is that the CDU and LBD, being
hardware, are somewhat inflexible. They
are optimized for particular decompression jobs, and in the preferred
embodiment, cannot be reconfigured to any
great extent to perform different decompression tasks.

In the third mode, the CDU and LBD are again bypassed, but MoPEC still
receives image data in compressed form.
Decompression is performed in software by the MoPEC CPU. Given that the CPU is
a general-purpose processor, it
must be relatively powerful to enable it to perform acceptably quick
decompression of the compressed contone and
bilevel image data. A higher clock speed will also be required, of the order
of 3 to 10 times the clock speed where
software decompression is not required. As with the second mode, at least 256
kbytes of DRAM are required on the
MoPEC device. The third mode has the advantage of being programmable with
respect to the type of
decompression being performed. However, the need for a more powerful processor
clocked at a higher speed means
that power consumption will be correspondingly higher than for the first two
modes.

It will be appreciated that enabling all of these modes to be selected in one
MoPEC device requires the worst case
features for all of the modes to be implemented. So, for example, at least 256
kbytes of DRAM, the capacity for
higher clock speeds, a relatively powerful processor and the ability to
selectively bypass the CDU and LBD must all
be implemented in MoPEC. Of course, one or more of the modes can be omitted
for any particular implementation,
with a corresponding removal of the limitations of the features demanded by
the availability of that mode.

In the preferred form, the MoPEC device is color space agnostic. Although it
can accept contone data as CMYX or
RGBX, where X is an optional 4th channel, it also can accept contone data in
any print color space. Additionally,
MoPEC provides a mechanism for arbitrary mapping of input channels to output
channels, including combining dots
for ink optimization and generation of channels based on any number of other
channels. However, inputs are
preferably CMY for contone input and K (pushed into CMY by MoPEC) for the bi-
level input.

In the preferred form, the MoPEC device is also resolution agnostic. It merely
provides a mapping between input
resolutions and output resolutions by means of scale factors. The preferred
resolution is 1600dpi, but MoPEC
actually has no knowledge of the physical resolution of the printhead to which
it supplies dot data.


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Subsystem Unit Unit Name Description
Acronym
DRAM DIU DRAM interface unit Provides interface for DRAM read and write
access for the various MoPEC units, CPU and
the USB block. The DIU provides arbitration
between competing units and controls DRAM
access.
DRAM Embedded DRAM 128 kbytes (or greater, depending upon
implementation) of embedded DRAM.
Subsystem Unit Unit Name Description
Acronym
CPU CPU Central Processing Unit CPU for system configuration and
control
MMU Memory Management Unit Limits access to certain memory address
areas in CPU user mode
RDU Real-time Debug Unit Facilitates the observation of the
contents of most of the CPU addressable
registers in MoPEC, in addition to some
pseudo-registers in real time
TIM General Timer ontains watchdog and general system
timers
LSS Low Speed Serial Interface Low level controller for interfacing with
QA chips
GPIO General Purpose IOs General 10 controller, with built-in
motor control unit, LED pulse units and
de-glitch circuitry
ROM Boot ROM 16 KBytes of System Boot ROM code
ICU Interrupt Controller Unit General Purpose interrupt controller with
configurable priority, and masking.
CPR Clock, Power and Reset block Central Unit for controlling and
generating the system clocks and resets
and powerdown mechanisms
PSS Power Save Storage Storage retained while system is
powered down
USB Universal Serial Bus Device USB device controller for interfacing
with the host USB.


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Subsystem Unit Unit Name Description
Acronym
Print Engine PCU PEP controller Provides external CPU with the means to
Pipeline read and write PEP Unit registers, and read
(PEP) and write DRAM in single 32-bit chunks.
CDU Contone Decoder Unit Expands JPEG compressed contone layer
and writes decompressed contone to DRAM
CFU Contone FIFO Unit Provides line buffering between CDU and
HCU
LBD Lossless Bi-level Decoder Expands compressed bi-level layer.
SFU Spot FIFO Unit Provides line buffering between LBD and
HCU
HCU Halftoner Compositor Unit Dithers contone layer and composites the
bi-level spot and position tag dots.
DNC Dead Nozzle Compensator Compensates for dead nozzles by color
redundancy and error diffusing dead nozzle
data into surrounding dots.
DWU Dotline Writer Unit Writes out dot data for a given printline to
the line store DRAM
LLU Line Loader Unit Reads the expanded page image from line
store, formatting the data appropriately for
the bi-lithic printhead.
PHI PrintHead Interface Responsible for sending dot data to the
printhead and for providing line
synchronization between multiple MoPECs.
Also provides test interface to printhead
such as temperature monitoring and Dead
Nozzle Identification.

SOFTWARE DOT GENERATION
Whilst speed and power consumption considerations make hardware acceleration
desirable, it is also possible for
some, most or all of the functions performed by the MoPEC integrated circuit
to be performed by a general purpose
processor programmed with suitable software routines. Whilst power consumption
will typically increase to obtain
similar performance with a general purpose processor (due to the higher
overheads associated with having a general
purpose processor perform highly specialized tasks such as decompression and
compositing), this solution also has
the advantage of easy customization and upgrading. For example, if a new or
updated JPEG standard becomes
widely used, it may be desirable to simply update the decompression algorithm
performed by a general purpose


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processor. The decision to move some or all of the MoPEC integrated circuit's
functionality into software needs to
be made commercially on a case by case basis.

QA CHAPS
The preferred form of the invention does not use QA chips to authenticate the
cartridge when it is inserted.
However, in alternative embodiments, the print cartridge has a QA chip 82 that
can be interrogated by a master QA
chip 80 installed in the mobile device (see Fig. 6). QA chips in this context
are designed to ensure the quality of the
ink supply so the printhead nozzles will not be damaged during prints, and the
quality of the software to ensure
printheads and mechanics are not damaged.
There are a number of ways that QA chips can be used with MoPEC. For example,
each MoPEC can have an
associated printer QA, which stores printer attributes such as maximum print
speed. An ink cartridge for use with
the system can also contain an ink QA chip, which stores cartridge information
such as the amount of ink remaining.
The cartridge can also have a QA chip configured to act as a ROM (effectively
as an EEPROM) that stores
printhead-specific information such as dead nozzle mapping and printhead
characteristics. The CPU in the MoPEC
device can optionally load and run program code from a QA Chip that
effectively acts as a serial EEPROM. Finally,
the CPU in the SoPEC device can run a logical QA chip (ie, a software QA
chip).

Usually, all QA chips in the system are physically identical, with only the
contents of flash memory differentiating
one from the other.

Each MoPEC device has an LSS system bus that can communicate with QA devices
for system authentication and
ink usage accounting. A large number of QA devices can be communicated with
via the bus.

Data passed between the QA chips is authenticated by way of digital
signatures. In the preferred embodiment,
HMAC-SHA1 authentication is used for data, and RSA is used for program code,
although other schemes could be
used instead.

The QA chips preferably include some or all of the possible protections
mechanisms that make the QA chip
relatively difficult to attack. Many of these features are associated with the
way in which secret information (in the
form of bit-patterns) is stored in non-volatile memory of the QA chip (which
in the preferred form is flash memory).
Others deal with hard-coded limitations in the way software is loaded from
flash memory. Yet others deal with the
hard-coded manner in which data in certain registers can be modified; for
example, registers containing data
representing remaining ink levels in a reservoir can only be decremented.
Any of a number of techniques can be used to make it more difficult for
potential hackers to extract key data (in the
form of bit-patterns) from non-volatile memory. For example:
= keys are stored in different places in memory across multiple instances of
the QA device (the software for
each device being customized with the knowledge of that location);
= one or more of the keys are stored as a key/inverse-key pair in the memory;
and/or


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= a second key is stored indirectly in the non-volatile memory in the form of
a result of applying a function to
the outcome of a first function. The first function is applied to a first key
(which is stored in the non-
volatile memory) and the outcome of applying a one-way function to the second
key. The by storing the
first key and result of the first function in the non-volatile memory, the
second key is stored only indirectly.
The one way function will usually be selected to be more cryptographically
secure than the first function.
Restrictions can be made on the way that communications are handled and
processed. For example:
= communications between the QA chip in the cartridge and the QA chip in the
mobile device can be made
relatively secure through the use of digital signatures (preferably using
variant keys, as described in various
applications and patents cross-referenced by assignee); and/or
= signed messages between the QA chips can include, as part of the payload, an
indication of the type of
instruction in the payload;

There are also physical mechanisms protecting each QA chip. For example, an
anti-tamper line formed in a layer of
the integrated circuit causes resetting of the integrated circuit and/or
erasure of memory contents in the event it is
tampered with. This prevents attempts to shave off covering layers of
semiconductor to access memory contents
using various scanning mechanisms.

Another feature is the use of relatively unique identities within a related
series of QA chips. For example, each QA
chip, or at least each QA used in a particular range of products, stores its
own identity. The identity is relatively
unique, which means that it is either completely unique (i.e. it only ever
appears on that one QA chip and is never
repeated on another QA chip), or it is rare enough that it is highly unlikely
an attacker learning the key of one
integrated circuit will be able to use it in compromising another randomly
selected integrated circuit.

All of these features are described in more detail in assignee's published
patent application USSN 10/754,536
(Docket No. PEA25US) filed on January 12, 2004, the contents of which are
incorporated herein by cross-reference.
PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEM
Figs. 19 to 22 show a piezoelectric drive system 126 for driving print media
past the printhead. As best shown in
Fig. 21, the drive system 126 includes a resonator 156 that includes a support
end 158, a through hole 160, a
cantilever 162 and a spring 164. The support 158 is attached to the spring
164, which in turn is attached to a
mounting point 166 on the cradle 124. A piezoelectric element 168 is disposed
within the through hole 160,
extending across the hole to link the support end 158 with the cantilever 162.
The element 168 is positioned
adjacent one end of the hole so that when it deforms, the cantilever 162
deflects from its quiescent position by a
minute amount.

A tip 170 of the cantilever 162 is urged into contact with a rim of a drive
wheel 172 at an angle of about 50 degrees.
In turn, the drive wheel 172 engages a rubber roller 176 at the end of the
drive shaft 178. The drive shaft 178
engages and drives the print media past the printhead (described below with
reference to Figs. 12 and 14).


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Drive wires (not shown) are attached to opposite sides of the piezoelectric
element 168 to enable supply of a drive
signal. The spring, piezo and cantilever assembly is a structure with a set of
resonant frequencies. A drive signal
excites the structure to one of the resonant modes of vibration and causes the
tip of the cantilever 162 to move in
such a way that the drive wheel 172 rotates. In simple terms, when
piezoelectric element expands, the tip 170 of the
cantilever pushes into firmer contact with the rim of the drive wheel. Because
the rim and the tip are relatively stiff,
the moving tip causes slight rotation of the drive wheel in the direction
shown. During the rest of the resonant
oscillation, the tip 170 loses contact with the rim and withdraws slightly
back towards the starting position. The
subsequent oscillation then pushes the tip 170 down against the rim again, at
a slightly different point, to push the
wheel through another small rotation. The oscillatory motion of the tip 170
repeats in rapid succession and the drive
wheel is moved in a series of small angular displacements. However, as the
resonant frequency is high (of the order
of kHz), the wheel 172, for all intents and purposes, has a constant angular
velocity.

In the embodiment shown, a drive signal at about 85kHz rotates the drive wheel
in the anti-clockwise direction (as
shown in Fig. 21).
Although the amount of movement per cycle is relatively small (of the order of
a few micrometres), the high rate at
which pulses are supplied means that a linear movement (i.e. movement of the
rim) of up to 300mm per second can
be achieved. A different mode of oscillation can be caused by increasing the
drive signal frequency to 95kHz,
which causes the drive wheel to rotate in the reverse direction. However, the
preferred embodiment does not take
advantage of the reversibility of the piezoelectric drive.

Precise details of the operation of the piezoelectric drive can be obtained
from the manufacturer, Elliptec AG of
Dortmund, Germany.

MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM
Figs. 23 to 27 show other embodiments of the print cartridge 148 and cradle
124 with DC motor drive systems for
feeding the medium 226 past the printhead 202. The print cartridge and cradle
of Fig. 23 uses a 6mm diameter DC
motor 242 with spur gears, while Fig. 24 shows an 8mm diameter DC motor and a
range of spur gear drive systems.
Figs. 26 and 27 also show 6mm and 8mm motors respectively, but use a worm gear
system to power the drive wheel
172. These embodiments show that motor and gear drive systems offer a wider
range of configurations and gearing
ratios to suit different devices, e.g. mobile phones, personal data assistants
etc.

Referring to Fig. 23, the longitudinal axis of the DC motor 242 is parallel
with the longitudinal extent of the
cartridge 148 and cradle 124. Spade terminals 244 extend from one end of the
motor for connection to the battery
power supply. At the other end of the motor 242 is a planetary gearbox 246
with a 4:1 reduction. The output shaft
of the gearbox is keyed to a drive gear 248. The drive gear is a spur gear
that meshes with and drive an intermediate
gear 250 on a stub axle mounted to the cradle 124. In turn, the intermediate
gear 250 drives the drive roller spur
gear 252 that is mounted for fixed rotation with the elastomeric drive roller
172.


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As described above in relation to the piezo drive embodiment, the elastomeric
drive roller 172 engages the rubber
roller at the end of the drive shaft 178 in order to drive the medium 226 past
the printhead.

In Fig. 24, the 8mm diameter DC motor 254 is again parallel to the length of
the cradle 124, but powered by a
magnetic encoder 256 with 1+8 digital lines per revolution. This allows the
print engine controller (PEC) to register
the number of revolutions, and fractions of revolutions, of the motor 254. The
PEC can use this to gauge the
position of the medium 226 relative to the printhead and adjust the operation
of the nozzles accordingly.

A planetary gearbox 246 is coupled to the output of the motor 254. A 15 tooth
drive gear 258 is keyed to the output
shaft of the gearbox 246. As with the 6mm diameter motor, the drive gear 258
drives the drive roller spur gear 252
via the intermediate gear 250. This in turn powers the media drive shaft 178
via the rubber roller 176 and the
elastomeric drive roller 172.

The arrangement shown in Fig. 25 is the same as that shown in Fig. 24 except
the output shaft of the gearbox 246
has a 20 tooth drive gear 260. By changing the gear ratios, the print speed
(i.e. the speed of the drive shaftl78) can
be varied. This, in turn, affects the torque of the drive shaft 178 and
therefore the force with which the card 226
moves along the media feed path.

PRINT CARTRIDGE
The print cartridge 148 is best shown in Figs. 28 and 29, and takes the form
of an elongate, generally rectangular
box. The cartridge is based around a moulded housing 180 that includes three
elongate slots 182, 184 and 186
configured to hold respective ink-bearing structures 188, 190, and 192. Each
ink-bearing structure is typically a
block of sponge-like material or laminated fibrous sheets. For example, these
structures can be foam, a fibre and
perforated membrane laminate, a foam and perforated membrane laminate, a
folded perforated membrane, or sponge
wrapped in perforated membrane. The ink bearing structures 188, 190 and 192
contain substantial void regions that
contain ink, and are configured to prevent the ink moving around when the
cartridge (or mobile telecommunications
device in which it is installed) is shaken or otherwise moved. The amount of
ink in each reservoir is not critical, but
a typical volume per color would be of the order of 0.5 to 1.0 mL.

The porous material also has a capillary action that establishes a negative
pressure at the in ejection nozzles
(described in detail below). During periods of inactivity, the ink is retained
in the nozzle chambers by the surface
tension of the ink meniscus that forms across the nozzle. If the meniscus
bulges outwardly, it can `pin' itself to the
nozzle rim to hold the ink in the chamber. However, if it contacts paper dust
or other contaminants on the nozzle
rim, the meniscus can be unpinned from the rim and ink will leak out of the
printhead through the nozzle.
To address this, many ink cartridges are designed so that the hydrostatic
pressure of the ink in the chambers is less
than atmospheric pressure. This causes the meniscus at the nozzles to be
concave or drawn inwards. This stops the
meniscus from touching paper dust on the nozzle rim and removes the slightly
positive pressure in the chamber that
would drive the ink to leak out.


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A housing lid 194 fits onto the top of the print cartridge to define ink
reservoirs in conjunction with the ink slots
182, 184 and 186. The lid can be glued, ultra-sonically welded, or otherwise
form a seal with the upper edges of the
ink slots to prevent the inks from moving between reservoirs or exiting the
print cartridge. Ink holes 174 allow the
reservoirs to be filled with ink during manufacture. Microchannel vents 140
define tortuous paths along the lid 196
between the ink holes 174 and the breather holes 154. These vents allow
pressure equalisation within the reservoirs
when the cartridge 148 is in use while the tortuous path prevents ink leakage
when the mobile phone 100 is moved
through different orientations. A label 196 covers the vents 140, and includes
a tear-off portion 198 that is removed
before use to expose breather holes 154 to vent the slots 182, 184 and 186 to
atmosphere.

A series of outlets (not shown) in the bottom of each of the slots 182, 184
and 186, lead to ink ducts 262 formed in
the housing 180. The ducts are covered by a flexible sealing film 264 that
directs ink to a printhead IC 202. One
edge of the printhead IC 202 is bonded to the conductors on a flexible TAB
film 200. The bonds are covered and
protected by an encapsulant strip 204. Contacts 266 are formed on the TAB film
200 to enable power and data to be
supplied to the printhead IC 202 via the conductors on the TAB film. The
printhead IC 202 is mounted to the
underside of the housing 180 by the polymer sealing film 264. The film is
laser drilled so that ink in the ducts 262
can flow to the printhead IC 202. The sealing and ink delivery aspects of the
film as discussed in greater detail
below.

A capper 206 is attached to the chassis 180 by way of slots 208 that engage
with corresponding moulded pins 210
on the housing. In its capped position, the capper 206 encloses and protects
exposed ink in the nozzles (described
below) of the printhead 202. A pair of co-moulded elastomeric seals 240 on
either side of the printhead IC 202
reduces its exposure to dust and air that can cause drying and clogging of the
nozzles.

A metal cover 224 snaps into place during assembly to cover the capper 206 and
hold it in position. The metal
cover is generally U-shaped in cross section, and includes entry and exit
slots 214 and 152 to allow media to enter
and leave the print cartridge. Tongues 216 at either end of the metal cover
224 includes holes 218 that engages with
complementary moulded pawls 220 in the lid 194. A pair of capper leaf springs
238 are pressed from the bottom of
the U-shape to bias the capper 206 against the printhead 202. A tamper
resistant label 222 is applied to prevent
casual interference with the print cartridge 148.
As discussed above, the media drive shaft 178 extends across the width of the
housing 180 and is retained for
rotation by corresponding holes 226 in the housing. The elastomeric drive
wheel 176 is mounted to one end of the
drive shaft 178 for engagement with the linear drive mechanism 126 when the
print cartridge 148 is inserted into the
mobile telecommunications device prior to use.
ALTERNATIVE PRINT CARTRIDGES
An alternative cartridge 290 is shown in Figs. 30 to 36. This cartridge design
shares a number of features with that
shown in Figs. 28 and 29, and corresponding components are designated with the
same reference numerals.


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The primary difference of the alternative cartridge is that the negative
pressure in the reservoirs 288 (see Fig. 33) is
provided by biasing a flexible membrane wall towards increasing the ink
storage volume. As discussed above, the
negative pressure is necessary to guard against ink leakage from the nozzles.
As best shown in Fig. 31 and 32, the
negative pressure reservoirs 288 are arranged in a series across the print
width of the cartridge 290. A preformed
membrane 294 is attached to corresponding formations 294 in housing 180 to
define the three reservoirs 288. The
membrane 292 includes apertures 296 communicating with the respective
reservoirs, each aperture 296 being fitted
with a closed cell neoprene or self-sealing silicon bung 298. To fill the
reservoirs, a hollow needle (not shown)
penetrates the bung 298 to inject the ink. When the needle is withdrawn, the
bung 298 reseals the reservoir. It may
be desirable to introduce two needles for refilling, one of the needles being
used to allow air from within the
reservoir to exit as it is replaced by ink.

Referring to Figs. 34, 35 and 36, each bung 298 includes a cap formation 300
that sits proud of the corresponding
reservoir 288, to engage a spring 302 that extends across the print width of
the cartridge. In the embodiment shown,
the spring 302 includes collars 304 spaced along its length for engaging the
respective formations 300, and
serpentine portions 306 each side of the respective apertures 304 to provide
resilience. At each end of the spring
302, a portion is bent to form a short finger 308 that engages a complementary
notch 310 formed in the housing 180.
A lid 194 encloses the membrane 292 and includes spring supports 312 for
locating and supporting corresponding
sections of the spring 302. Apertures 314 in the lid expose the cap formations
300 for filling.
The ink distribution system is different in the alternative cartridge because
of the different way the reservoirs 288
are set out with respect to the print width. In particular, the alternative
cartridge includes two ink distribution layers
that distribute the inks from the respective reservoirs along the print width
of the cartridge and to the respective rows
of print nozzles. As best shown in Fig. 35, each of the reservoirs have two
ink outlets 316. The ink outlets 316 feed
ink to ink distribution channels 324 in bottom of the housing 180. There are
three channels 324; one for the cyan,
magenta and yellow ink respectively. Each channel 324 extends the length of
the printhead IC 202 as the different
color in each reservoir 288 needs to be delivered across the entire printing
width. The distribution channels 324 are
overlaid by an ink duct film layer 318. This layer 318 has holes in its top
surface connecting a series of ducts 320 in
its lower surface. The ducts 320 are sealed by the sealing film 264. Laser
drilled holes 322 through the sealing film
direct the ink from the ducts to the reverse side of the printhead IC 202.

Another cartridge design is shown in Figs. 37 to 39. This cartridge is very
similar to that shown Figs. 28 and 29
with the main differences residing in the ink retaining structures 188, 190
and 192. The ink retaining structures are
compressed foam divided into sections by partial cuts 368 extending the
majority of the way through the thickness
of the structures. Ink baffles 366 depend from the underside of the cartridge
lid 194 and slot into the partial cuts 368
to provide solid barriers between adjacent sections of the ink retaining
structures 188, 190 and 192.

The baffles 366 resist the ink pooling at one end of the cartridge if it
happens to be held in a substantially vertical
orientation for extended periods of time. If the ink pools at one end of the
cartridge, the other end can prematurely
run out of ink during use. While there is still some communication between
adjacent sections (the cross section


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below each of the partial cuts 368), the capillary action of the porous
structures and the relatively small area of the
communicating section retards the ink draining to the lower end. The rate that
the ink drains to the lower end is at
least slow enough to keep ink in all sections of the ink retaining structure
in the cartridge is left in an upright
orientation over night.
Completely sealing adjacent sections from each other reduces the amount of ink
that is used before the cartridge
needs to be replaced. Without any ink flow between adjacent sections, one
color will deplete from one of the
sections before the others because ink usage along the length of the printhead
IC 202 is rarely uniform. To assist the
ink from one section to flow to the nozzles fed by a depleted section, a wick
364 at the bottom of each of the slots
182, 184 and 186 keeps ink over the ink outlets (not shown) in the housing
180. The outlets communicate with a
series of ink delivery ducts formed in the underside of the housing 180. As
best shown in Fig. 39, the ink delivery
ducts 262 direct the ink to a central ink delivery section 370 where it can be
fed to the back of the printhead IC 202.
Between each of the ink delivery ducts 262 lead are ink balance ducts 372. The
balance ducts 372 put each of the
ink outlets in fluid communication with its adjacent outlets. Depletion of ink
in one section is addressed by drawing
ink from adjacent sections through the balance ducts 372. The ducts 262 and
372 must be small enough so as to
always retain ink regardless of whether the cartridge is in an upright
orientation.

The ducts 262 and 372 are sealed by a flexible sealing film 264 adhered to the
underside of the housing 180. The
printhead IC 202 is adhered to the other side of the sealing film 264. The
printhead IC 202 has ink inlets for its
nozzles (described below) on its reverse side (the side adhered to the film
264). The printhead IC 202 is adhered to
the film 264 so that its inlets are in registration with an array of laser
drilled holes in the film. The laser drilled holes
connect the printhead IC 202 ink inlets with the ink deliver points spaced
along the ink delivery section 370 of the
housing 180. The sealing and ink delivery aspects of the film as discussed in
greater detail below.

One edge of the printhead IC 202 is bonded to the conductors on a flexible TAB
film 200. The bonds are covered
and protected by an encapsulant strip 204. Contacts 266 are formed on the TAB
film 200 to supply power to the
printhead IC 202 via the power/ground contacts 382 (c.f. the power/data
connector 330 in other cartridges).
PRINTHEAD MECHANICAL
In the preferred form, a Memjet printer includes a monolithic pagewidth
printhead. The printhead is a three-color
1600 dpi monolithic chip with an active print length of 2.165" (55.0 mm). The
printhead chip is about 800 microns
wide and about 200 microns thick.

Power and ground are supplied to the printhead chip via two copper busbars
approximately 200 microns thick,
which are electrically connected to contact points along the chip with
conductive adhesive. One end of the chip has
several data pads that are wire bonded or ball bonded out to a small flex PCB
and then encapsulated, as described in
more detail elsewhere.

In alterative embodiments, the printhead can be constructed using two or more
printhead chips, as described in
relation to the SoPEC-based bilithic printhead arrangement described USSN
10/754536 (Docket No. PEA25US)


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filed on January 12, 2004, the contents of which are incorporated herein by
cross-reference. In yet other
embodiments, the printhead can be formed from one or more monolithic
printheads comprising linking printhead
modules as described USSN 10/754536 (Docket No. PEA25US) filed on January 12,
2004, the contents of which
are incorporated herein by cross-reference.
In the preferred form, the printhead is designed to at least partially self-
destruct in some way to prevent
unauthorized refilling with ink that might be of questionable quality. Self-
destruction can be performed in any
suitable way, but the preferred mechanism is to include at least one fusible
link within the printhead that is
selectively blown when it is determined that the ink has been consumed or a
predetermined number of prints has
been performed.

Alternatively or additionally, the printhead can be designed to enable at
least partial re-use of some or all of its
components as part of a remanufacturing process.

Fusible links on the printhead integrated circuit (or on a separate integrated
circuit in the cartridge) can also be used
to store other information that the manufacturer would prefer not to be
modified by end-users. A good example of
such information is ink-remaining data. By tracking ink usage and selectively
blowing fusible links, the cartridge
can maintain an unalterable record of ink usage. For example, ten fusible
links can be provided, with one of the
fusible links being blown each time it is determined that a further 10% of the
total remaining ink has been used. A
set of links can be provided for each ink or for the inks in aggregate.
Alternatively or additionally, a fusible link can
be blown in response to a predetermined number of prints being performed.

Fusible links can also be provided in the cartridge and selectively blown
during or after manufacture of the cartridge
to encode an identifier (unique, relatively unique, or otherwise) in the
cartridge.
The fusible links can be associated with one or more shift register elements
in the same way as data is loaded for
printing (as described in more detail below). Indeed, the required shift
register elements can form part of the same
chain of register elements that are loaded with dot data for printing. In this
way, the MoPEC chip is able to control
blowing of fusible links simply by changing data that is inserted into the
stream of data loaded during printing.
Alternatively or additionally, the data for blowing one or more fusible links
can be loaded during a separate
operation to dot-data loading (ie, dot data is loaded as all zeros). Yet
another alternative is for the fusible links to be
provided with their own shift register which is loaded independently of the
dot data shift register.

Figs. 40 and 41 show basic circuit diagrams of a 10-fuse link and a single
fuse cell respectively. Fig. 40 shows a
shift register 373 that can be loaded with values to be programmed into the 1-
bit fuse cells 375, 377 and 379. Each
shift register latch 381, 383 and 385 connects to a 1-bit fuse cell
respectively, providing the program value to its
corresponding cell. The fuses are programmed by setting the fuse program
enable signal 387 to 1. The fuse cell
values 391, 393 and 395 are loaded into a 10-bit register 389. This value 389
can be accessed by the printhead IC
control logic, for example to inhibit printing when the fuse value is all
ones. Alternatively or additionally, the value
397 can be read serially by MoPEC, to see the state of the fuses 375, 377 and
379 after MoPEC is powered up.


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A possible fuse cell 375 is shown in Fig. 41. Before being blown, the fuse
element structure itself has a electrical
resistance 405, which is substantially lower than the value of the pullup
resistor 407. This pulls down the node A,
which is buffered to provide the fuse value output 391, initially a zero. A
fuse is blown when fuse_program_enable
387 and fuse_program_value 399 are both 1. This causes the PFET 409 connecting
node A to Vpos is turn on, and
current flows that causes the fuse element to go open circuit, i.e. resistor
405 becomes infinite. Now the fuse value
output 391 will read back as a one .

SEALING THE PRINTHEAD
As briefly mentioned above, the printhead IC 202 is mounted to the underside
of the housing 180 by the polymer
sealing film 264 (see Fig. 29). This film may be a thermoplastic film such as
a PET or Polysulphone film, or it may
be in the form of a thermoset film, such as those manufactured by AL
technologies and Rogers Corporation. The
polymer sealing film 264 is a laminate with adhesive layers on both sides of a
central film, and laminated onto the
underside of the moulded housing 180. A plurality of holes (not shown) are
laser drilled through the sealing film
264 to coincide with ink delivery points in the ink ducts 262 (or in the case
of the alternative cartridge, the ink ducts
320 in the film layer 318) so that the printhead IC 202 is in fluid
communication with the ink ducts 262 and
therefore the ink retaining structures 188, 190 and 192.

The thickness of the polymer sealing film 264 is critical to the effectiveness
of the ink seal it provides. The film
seals the ink ducts 262 on the housing 180 (or the ink ducts 320 in the film
layer 318) as well as the ink conduits
(not shown) on the reverse side of the printhead IC 202. However, as the film
264 seals across the ducts 262, it can
also bulge into one of conduits on the reverse side of the printhead IC 202.
The section of film bulging into the
conduit, may run across several of the ink ducts 262 in the printhead IC 202.
The sagging may cause a gap that
breaches the seal and allows ink to leak from the printhead IC 202 and or
between the conduits on its reverse side.
To guard against this, the polymer sealing film 264 should be thick enough to
account for any bulging into the ink
ducts 262 (or the ink ducts 320 in the film layer 318) while maintaining the
seal on the back of the printhead IC 202.
The minimum thickness of the polymer sealing film 264 will depend on:
= the width of the conduit into which it sags;
= the thickness of the adhesive layers in the film's laminate structure;
= the `stiffness' of the adhesive layer as the printhead IC 202 is being
pushed into it; and,
= the modulus of the central film material of the laminate.

A polymer sealing film 264 thickness of 25 microns is adequate for the
printhead IC and cartridge assembly shown.
However, increasing the thickness to 50, 100 or even 200 microns will
correspondingly increase the reliability of the
seal provided.

PRINTHEAD CMOS
Turning now to Figs. 42 to 47, a preferred embodiment of the printhead 420
(comprising printhead IC 425) will be
described.


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Fig. 42 shows an overview of printhead IC 425 and its connections to the MoPEC
device 166. Printhead IC 425
includes a nozzle core array 401 containing the repeated logic to fire each
nozzle, and nozzle control logic 402 to
generate the timing signals to fire the nozzles. The nozzle control logic 402
receives data from the MoPEC chip 166
via a high-speed link. In the preferred form, a single MoPEC chip 166 feeds
the two printhead ICs 425 and 426 with
print data.

The nozzle control logic is configured to send serial data to the nozzle array
core for printing, via a link 407, which
for printhead 425 is the electrical connector 428. Status and other
operational information about the nozzle array
core 401 is communicated back to the nozzle control logic via another link
408, which is also provided on the
electrical connector 428.

The nozzle array core 401 is shown in more detail in Figures 43 and 44. In
Figure 43, it will be seen that the nozzle
array core comprises an array of nozzle columns 501. The array includes a
fire/select shift register 502 and three
color channels, each of which is represented by a corresponding dot shift
register 503.

As shown in Figure 44, the fire/select shift register 502 includes.a forward
path fire shift register 600, a reverse path
fire shift register 601 and a select shift register 602. Each dot shift
register 503 includes an odd dot shift register 603
and an even dot shift register 604. The odd and even dot shift registers 603
and 604 are connected at one end such
that data is clocked through the odd shift register 603 in one direction, then
through the even shift register 604 in the
reverse direction. The output of all but the final even dot shift register is
fed to one input of a multiplexer 605. This
input of the multiplexer is selected by a signal (corescan) during post-
production testing. In normal operation, the
corescan signal selects dot data input Dot[x] supplied to the other input of
the multiplexer 605. This causes Dot[x]
for each color to be supplied to the respective dot shift registers 503.
A single column N will now be described with reference to Figure 44. In the
embodiment shown, the column N
includes six data values, comprising an odd data value held by an element 606
of the odd shift register 603, and an
even data value held by an element 607 of the even shift register 604, for
each of the three dot shift registers 503.
Column N also includes an odd fire value 608 from the forward fire shift
register 600 and an even fire value 609
from the reverse fire shift register 601, which are supplied as inputs to a
multiplexer 610. The output of the
multiplexer 610 is controlled by the select value 611 in the select shift
register 602. When the select value is zero,
the odd fire value is output, and when the select value is one, the even fire
value is output.

The values from the shift register elements 606 and 607 are provided as inputs
to respective odd and even dot
latches 612 and 613 respectively.

Each of dot latch 612 and 613 and their respective associated shift register
elements form a unit cell 614, which is
shown in more detail in Figure 45. The dot latch 612 is a D-type flip-flop
that accepts the output of the shift register
element 606. The data input dto the shift register element 606 is provided
from the output of a previous element in
the odd dot shift register (unless the element under consideration is the
first element in the shift register, in which


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case its input is the Dot[x] value). Data is clocked from the output of flip-
flop 606 into latch 612 upon receipt of a
negative pulse provided on LsyncL.

The output of latch 612 is provided as one of the inputs to a three-input AND
gate 65. Other inputs to the AND gate
615 are the Fr signal (from the output of multiplexer 610) and a pulse profile
signal Pr. The firing time of a nozzle is
controlled by the pulse profile signal Pr, and can be, for example, lengthened
to take into account a low voltage
condition that arises due to low battery (in a battery-powered embodiment).
This is to ensure that a relatively
consistent amount of ink is efficiently ejected from each nozzle as it is
fired. In the embodiment described, the
profile signal Pr is the same for each dot shift register, which provides a
balance between complexity, cost and
performance. However, in other embodiments, the Pr signal can be applied
globally (ie, is the same for all nozzles),
or can be individually tailored to each unit cell or even to each nozzle.

Once the data is loaded into the latch 612, the fire enable Fr and pulse
profile Pr signals are applied to the AND gate
615, combining to the trigger the nozzle to eject a dot of ink for each latch
612 that contains a logic 1.
The signals for each nozzle channel are summarized in the following table:
Name Direction Description

d Input Input dot pattern to shift register bit
q Output Output dot pattern from shift register bit
SrClk Input Shift register clock in - d is captured on rising edge of this
clock
LsyncL Input Fire enable - needs to be asserted for nozzle to fire
Pr Input Profile - needs to be asserted for nozzle to fire

As shown in Figure 45, the fire signals Fr are routed on a diagonal, to enable
firing of one color in the current
column, the next color in the following column, and so on. This averages the
current demand by spreading it over
the three nozzle columns in time-delayed fashion.

The dot latches and the latches forming the various shift registers are fully
static in this embodiment, and are
CMOS-based. The design and construction of latches is well known to those
skilled in the art of integrated circuit
engineering and design, and so will not be described in detail in this
document.

The combined printhead ICs define a printhead having 13824 nozzles per color.
The circuitry supporting each
nozzle is the same, but the pairing of nozzles happens due to physical
positioning of the MEMS nozzles; odd and
even nozzles are not actually on the same horizontal line, as shown in Figure
46.

NOZZLE DESIGN - MECHANICAL ACTUATOR


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A preferred nozzle design (comprising nozzle and corresponding actuator) for
use in the printhead chip 216 will
now be described with reference to Figures 21.1-46 to 21.1-55. Figure 47 shows
an array of the nozzles 801 formed
on a silicon substrate 8015. All the nozzles 810 in the printhead chip 216 are
the same as each other, but are
grouped together into rows, each row being fed a particular ink color. It will
be appreciated that the particular
number/resolution of the nozzles, the number of rows of the nozzles, their
position and offset relative to each other,
and the specific combination of inks and fixatives output by a particular
cartridge will vary from embodiment to
embodiment.

It will be noted that in the embodiment illustrated, rows of the nozzles 801
are staggered with respect to each other,
allowing closer spacing of ink dots during printing than would be possible
with a single row of nozzles.

Each nozzle arrangement 801 is the product of an integrated circuit
fabrication technique. In particular, the nozzle
arrangement 801 defines a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS).

For clarity and ease of description, the construction and operation of a
single nozzle arrangement 801 will be
described with reference to Figures 48 to 57.

The ink jet printhead chip 12 includes a silicon wafer substrate 801. 0.35
Micron 1 P4M 12 volt CMOS
microprocessing circuitry is positioned on the silicon wafer substrate 8015.
A silicon dioxide (or alternatively glass) layer 8017 is positioned on the
wafer substrate 8015. The silicon dioxide
layer 8017 defines CMOS dielectric layers. CMOS top-level metal defines a pair
of aligned aluminium electrode
contact layers 8030 positioned on the silicon dioxide layer 8017. Both the
silicon wafer substrate 8015 and the
silicon dioxide layer 8017 are etched to define an ink inlet channel 8014
having a generally circular cross section (in
plan). An aluminium diffusion barrier 8028 of CMOS metal 1, CMOS metal 2/3 and
CMOS top level metal is
positioned in the silicon dioxide layer 8017 about the ink inlet channel 8014.
The diffusion barrier 8028 serves to
inhibit the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through CMOS oxide layers of the drive
circuitry layer 8017.

A passivation layer in the form of a layer of silicon nitride 8031 is
positioned over the aluminium contact layers
8030 and the silicon dioxide layer 8017. Each portion of the passivation layer
8031 positioned over the contact
layers 8030 has an opening 8032 defined therein to provide access to the
contacts 8030.

The nozzle arrangement 801 includes a nozzle chamber 8029 defined by an
annular nozzle wall 8033, which
terminates at an upper end in a nozzle roof 8034 and a radially inner nozzle
rim 804 that is circular in plan. The ink
inlet channel 8014 is in fluid communication with the nozzle chamber 8029. At
a lower end of the nozzle wall,
there is disposed a moving rim 8010, that includes a moving seal lip 8040. An
encircling wall 8038 surrounds the
movable nozzle, and includes a stationary seal lip 8039 that, when the nozzle
is at rest as shown in Figure 50, is
adjacent the moving rim 8010. A fluidic seal 8011 is formed due to the surface
tension of ink trapped between the
stationary seal lip 8039 and the moving seal lip 8040. This prevents leakage
of ink from the chamber whilst
providing a low resistance coupling between the encircling wall 8038 and the
nozzle wall 8033.


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As best shown in Figure 57, a plurality of radially extending recesses 8035 is
defined in the roof 8034 about the
nozzle rim 804. The recesses 8035 serve to contain radial ink flow as a result
of ink escaping past the nozzle rim
804.
The nozzle wall 8033 forms part of a lever arrangement that is mounted to a
carrier 8036 having a generally U-
shaped profile with a base 8037 attached to the layer 8031 of silicon nitride.

The lever arrangement also includes a lever arm 8018 that extends from the
nozzle walls and incorporates a lateral
stiffening beam 8022. The lever arm 8018 is attached to a pair of passive
beams 806, formed from titanium nitride
(TiN) and positioned on either side of the nozzle arrangement, as best shown
in Figures 50 and 51. The other ends
of the passive beams 806 are attached to the carrier 8036.

The lever arm 8018 is also attached to an actuator beam 807, which is formed
from TiN. It will be noted that this
attachment to the actuator beam is made at a point a small but critical
distance higher than the attachments to the
passive beam 806.

As best shown in Figures 51 and 56, the actuator beam 807 is substantially U-
shaped in plan, defining a current path
between the electrode 809 and an opposite electrode 8041. Each of the
electrodes 809 and 8041 are electrically
connected to respective points in the contact layer 8030. As well as being
electrically coupled via the contacts 809,
the actuator beam is also mechanically anchored to anchor 808. The anchor 808
is configured to constrain motion of
the actuator beam 807 to the left of Figures 21.1-52 to 54 when the nozzle
arrangement is in operation.

The TiN in the actuator beam 807 is conductive, but has a high enough
electrical resistance that it undergoes self-
heating when a current is passed between the electrodes 809 and 8041. No
current flows through the passive beams
806, so they do not expand.

In use, the device at rest is filled with ink 8013 that defines a meniscus 803
under the influence of surface tension.
The ink is retained in the chamber 8029 by the meniscus, and will not
generally leak out in the absence of some
other physical influence.

As shown in Figure 50, to fire ink from the nozzle, a current is passed
between the contacts 809 and 8041, passing
through the actuator beam 807. The self-heating of the beam 807 due to its
resistance causes the beam to expand.
The dimensions and design of the actuator beam 807 mean that the majority of
the expansion is in a horizontal
direction with respect to Figures 50 to 53. The expansion is constrained to
the left by the anchor 808, so the end of
the actuator beam 807 adjacent the lever arm 8018 is impelled to the right.

The relative horizontal inflexibility of the passive beams 806 prevents them
from allowing much horizontal
movement the lever arm 8018. However, the relative displacement of the
attachment points of the passive beams
and actuator beam respectively to the lever arm causes a twisting movement
that causes the lever arm 8018 to move


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generally downwards. The movement is effectively a pivoting or hinging motion.
However, the absence of a true
pivot point means that the rotation is about a pivot region defined by bending
of the passive beams 806.

The downward movement (and slight rotation) of the lever arm 8018 is amplified
by the distance of the nozzle wall
8033 from the passive beams 806. The downward movement of the nozzle walls and
roof causes a pressure increase
within the chamber 29, causing the meniscus to bulge as shown in Figure 49. It
will be noted that the surface
tension of the ink means the fluid seal 11 is stretched by this motion without
allowing ink to leak out.

As shown in Figure 50, at the appropriate time, the drive current is stopped
and the actuator beam 807 quickly cools
and contracts. The contraction causes the lever arm to commence its return to
the quiescent position, which in turn
causes a reduction in pressure in the chamber 8029. The interplay of the
momentum of the bulging ink and its
inherent surface tension, and the negative pressure caused by the upward
movement of the nozzle chamber 8029
causes thinning, and ultimately snapping, of the bulging meniscus to define an
ink drop 802 that continues upwards
until it contacts an adjacent print medium.
Immediately after the drop 802 detaches, the meniscus forms the concave shape
shown in Figure 50. Surface
tension causes the pressure in the chamber 8029 to remain relatively low until
ink has been sucked upwards through
the inlet 8014, which returns the nozzle arrangement and the ink to the
quiescent situation shown in Figure 50.

As best shown in Figure 52, the nozzle arrangement also incorporates a test
mechanism that can be used both post-
manufacture and periodically after the printhead is installed. The test
mechanism includes a pair of contacts 8020
that are connected to test circuitry (not shown). A bridging contact 8019 is
provided on a finger 8043 that extends
from the lever arm 8018. Because the bridging contact 8019 is on the opposite
side of the passive beams 806,
actuation of the nozzle causes the priding contact to move upwardly, into
contact with the contacts 8020. Test
circuitry can be used to confirm that actuation causes this closing of the
circuit formed by the contacts 8019 and
8020. If the circuit closed appropriately, it can generally be assumed that
the nozzle is operative.

NOZZLE DESIGN - THERMAL ACTUATOR
An alternative nozzle design utilises a thermal inkjet mechanism for expelling
ink from each nozzle. The thermal
nozzles are set out similarly to their mechanical equivalents, and are
supplied by similar control signals by similar
CMOS circuitry, albeit with different pulse profiles if required by any
differences in drive characteristics need to be
accounted for.

With reference to Figures 58 to 62, the nozzle of a printhead according to an
embodiment of the invention comprises
a nozzle plate 902 with nozzles 903 therein, the nozzles having nozzle rims
904, a nd apertures 905 extending
through the nozzle plate. The nozzle plate 902 is plasma etched from a silicon
nitride structure which is deposited,
by way of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), over a sacrificial material which
is subsequently etched.

The printhead also includes, with respect to each nozzle 903, side walls 906
on which the nozzle plate is supported,
a chamber 907 defined by the walls and the nozzle plate 902, a multi-layer
substrate 908 and an inlet passage 909


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extending through the multi-layer substrate to the far side (not shown) of the
substrate. A looped, elongate heater
element 910 is suspended within the chamber 907, so that the element is in the
form of a suspended beam. The
printhead as shown is a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure, which
is formed by a lithographic
process which is described in more detail below.
When the printhead is in use, ink 911 from a reservoir (not shown) enters the
chamber 907 via the inlet passage 909,
so that the chamber fills to the level as shown in Figure 58. Thereafter, the
heater element 910 is heated for
somewhat less than 1 micro second, so that the heating is in the form of a
thermal pulse. It will be appreciated that
the heater element 910 is in thermal contact with the ink 911 in the chamber
907 so that when the element is heated,
this causes the generation of vapor bubbles 912 in the ink. Accordingly, the
ink 911 constitutes a bubble forming
liquid. Figure 58 shows the formation of a bubble 912 approximately 1
microsecond after generation of the thermal
pulse, that is, when the bubble has just nucleated on the heater elements 910.
It will be appreciated that, as the heat
is applied in the form of a pulse, all the energy necessary to generate the
bubble 12 is to be supplied within that short
time.
In operation, voltage is applied across electrodes (not shown) to cause
current to flow through the elements 910. The
electrodes 915 are much thicker than the element 910 so that most of the
electrical resistance is provided by the
element. Thus, nearly all of the power consumed in operating the heater 914 is
dissipated via the element 910, in
creating the thermal pulse referred to above.
When the element 910 is heated as described above, the bubble 912 forms along
the length of the element, this
bubble appearing, in the cross-sectional view of Figure 58, as four bubble
portions, one for each of the element
portions shown in cross section.

The bubble 912, once generated, causes an increase in pressure within the
chamber 97, which in turn causes the
ejection of a drop 916 of the ink 911 through the nozzle 903. The rim 904
assists in directing the drop 916 as it is
ejected, so as to minimize the chance of drop misdirection.

The reason that there is only one nozzle 903 and chamber 907 per inlet passage
909 is so that the pressure wave
generated within the chamber, on heating of the element 910 and forming of a
bubble 912, does not affect adjacent
chambers and their corresponding nozzles.

The advantages of the heater element 910 being suspended rather than being
embedded in any solid material, is
discussed below.
Figures 59 and 60 show the unit cell 901 at two successive later stages of
operation of the printhead. It can be seen
that the bubble 912 generates further, and hence grows, with the resultant
advancement of ink 911 through the
nozzle 903. The shape of the bubble 912 as it grows, as shown in Figure 60, is
determined by a combination of the
inertial dynamics and the surface tension of the ink 911. The surface tension
tends to minimize the surface area of
the bubble 912 so that, by the time a certain amount of liquid has evaporated,
the bubble is essentially disk-shaped.


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The increase in pressure within the chamber 907 not only pushes ink 911 out
through the nozzle 903, but also
pushes some ink back through the inlet passage 909. However, the inlet passage
909 is approximately 200 to 300
microns in length, and is only approximately 16 microns in diameter. Hence
there is a substantial viscous drag. As
a result, the predominant effect of the pressure rise in the chamber 907 is to
force ink out through the nozzle 903 as
an ejected drop 916, rather than back through the inlet passage 909.

Turning now to Figure 61, the printhead is shown at a still further successive
stage of operation, in which the ink
drop 916 that is being ejected is shown during its "necking phase" before the
drop breaks off. At this stage, the
bubble 912 has already reached its maximum size and has then begun to collapse
towards the point of collapse 917,
as reflected in more detail in Figure 62.

The collapsing of the bubble 912 towards the point of collapse 917 causes some
ink 911 to be drawn from within the
nozzle 903 (from the sides 918 of the drop), and some to be drawn from the
inlet passage 909, towards the point of
collapse. Most of the ink 911 drawn in this manner is drawn from the nozzle
903, forming an annular neck 919 at
the base of the drop 916 prior to its breaking off.

The drop 916 requires a certain amount of momentum to overcome surface tension
forces, in order to break off. As
ink 911 is drawn from the nozzle 903 by the collapse of the bubble 912, the
diameter of the neck 919 reduces
thereby reducing the amount of total surface tension holding the drop, so that
the momentum of the drop as it is
ejected out of the nozzle is sufficient to allow the drop to break off.

When the drop 916 breaks off, cavitation forces are caused as reflected by the
arrows 920, as the bubble 912
collapses to the point of collapse 917. It will be noted that there are no
solid surfaces in the vicinity of the point of
collapse 917 on which the cavitation can have an effect.

CRADLE
The various cartridges described above are used in the same way, since the
mobile device itself cannot tell which ink
supply system is in use. Hence, the cradle will be described with reference to
the cartridge 148 only.
Referring to Fig. 63, the cartridge 148 is inserted axially into the mobile
phone 100 via the access cover 282 and into
engagement with the cradle 124. As previously shown in Figs. 19 and 21, the
cradle 124 is an elongate U-shaped
moulding defining a channel that is dimensioned to closely correspond to the
dimensions of the print cartridge 148.
Referring now to Fig. 64, the cartridge 148 slides along the rail 328 upon
insertion into the mobile phone 100. The
edge of the lid moulding 194 fits under the rail 328 for positional tolerance
control. As shown in Figs. 19 to 21 the
contacts 266 on the cartridge TAB film 200 are urged against the data/power
connector 330 in the cradle. The other
side of the data/power connector 330 contacts the cradle flex PCB 332. This
PCB connects the cartridge and the
MoPEC chip to the power and the host electronics (not shown) of the mobile
phone, to provide power and dot data
to the printhead to enable it to print. The interaction between the MoPEC chip
and the host electronics of the mobile


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telecommunications device is described in the Netpage and Mobile
Telecommunications Device Overview section
above.

MEDIA FEED
Figs. 12 to 14 show the medium being fed through the mobile telecommunications
device and printed by the
printhead. Fig. 12 shows the blank medium 226, in this case a card, being fed
into the left side of the mobile phone
100. Fig. 13 is section view taken along A-A of Fig. 12. It shows the card 226
entering the mobile
telecommunications device through a card insertion slot 228 and into the media
feed path leading to the print
cartridge 148 and print cradle 124. The rear cover moulding 106 has guide ribs
that taper the width of the media
feed path into a duct slightly thicker than the card 226. In Fig. 13 the card
226 has not yet entered the print cartridge
148 through the slot 214 in the metal cover 224. The metal cover 224 has a
series of spring fingers 230 (described
in more detail below) formed along one edge of the entry slot 214. These
fingers 230 are biased against the drive
shaft 178 so that when the card 226 enters the slot 214, as shown in Fig. 14,
the fingers guide it to the drive shaft
178. The nip between the drive shaft 178 and the fingers 230 engages the card
226 and it is quickly drawn between
them. The fingers 230 press the card 226 against the drive shaft 178 to drive
it past the printhead 202 by friction.
The drive shaft 178 has a rubber coating to enhance its grip on the medium
226. Media feed during printing is
described in a later section.

It is preferred that the drive mechanism be selected to print the print medium
in about 2 to 4 seconds. Faster speeds
require relatively higher drive currents and impose restrictions on peak
battery output, whilst slower speeds may be
unacceptable to consumers. However, faster or slower speeds can certainly be
catered for where there is
commercial demand.
DECAPPING
The decapping of the printhead 202 is shown in Figs. 65 to 74. Fig. 65 shows
print cartridge 148 immediately
before the card 226 is fed into the entry slot 214. The capper 206 is biased
into the capped position by the capper
leaf springs 238. The capper's elastomeric seal 240 protects the printhead
from paper dust and other contaminants
while also stoppping the ink in the nozzles from drying out when the printhead
is not in use.

Referring to Figs. 65 and 68, the card 226 has been fed into the print
cartridge 148 via the entry slot 214. The spring
fingers 230 urge the card against the drive shaft 178 as it driven past the
printhead. Immediately downstream of the
drive shaft 178, the leading edge of the card 226 engages the inclined front
surface of the capper 206 and pushes it
to the uncapped position against the bias of the capper leaf springs 238. The
movement of the capper is initially
rotational, as the linear movement of the card causes the capper 206 to rotate
about the pins 210 that sit in its slots
208 (see Fig. 29). However, as shown in Figs. 69 to 71, the capper is
constrained such that further movement of
the card begins to cause linear movement of the capper directly down and away
from the printhead chip 202, against
the biasing action of spring 238. Ejection of ink from the printhead IC 202
onto the card commences as the leading
edge of the card reaches the printhead.


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As best shown in Fig. 71, the card 226 continues along the media path until it
engages the capper lock actuating
arms 232. This actuates the capper lock to hold the capper in the uncapped
position until printing is complete. This
is described in greater detail below.

CAPPING
As shown in Figs. 72 to 74, the capper remains in the uncapped position until
the card 226 disengages from the
actuation arms 232. At this point the capper 206 is unlocked and returns to
its capped position by the leaf spring
230.

CAPPER LOCKING AND UNLOCKING
Referring to Figs. 75 to 79, the card 226 slides over the elastomeric seal 240
as it is driven past the printhead 202.
The leading edge of the card 226 then engages the pair of capper locking
mechanisms 212 at either side of the media
feed path. The capper locking mechanisms 212 are rotated by the card 226 so
that its latch surfaces 234 engage lock
engagement faces 236 of the capper 206 to hold it in the uncapped position
until the card is removed from the print
cartridge 148.

Figs. 75 and 78 show the locking mechanisms 212 in their unlocked condition
and the capper 206 in the capped
position. The actuation arms 232 of each capper lock mechanism 212 protrude
into the media path. The sides of the
capper 206 prevent the actuation arms from rotating out of the media feed
path. Referring to Figs. 76, 77A, 77B
and 79, the leading edge of the card 226 engages the arms 232 of the capper
lock mechanisms 212 protruding into
the media path from either side. When the leading edge has reached the
actuation arms 232, the card 226 has
already pushed the capper 206 to the uncapped position so the locking
mechanisms 212 are now free to rotate. As
the card pushes past the arms 232, the lock mechanisms 212 rotate such that
their respective chamfered latch
surfaces 234 slidingly engage the angled lock engagement face 238 on either
side of the capper 206. The sliding
engagement of between these faces pushes the capper 206 clear of the card 226
so that it no longer touches the
elastomeric seals 240. This reduces the drag retarding the media feed. The
sides of the card 226 sliding against the
actuation arms 232 prevent the locking mechanisms 212 from rotating so the
capper 206 is locked in the uncapped
position by the latch surfaces 234 pressing against the lock engagement face
238.

When the printed card 226 is retrieved by the user (described in more detail
below), the actuation arms 232 are
released and free to rotate. The capper leaf springs 238 return the capper 206
to the capped position, and in so
doing, the latch surfaces 234 slide over the lock engagement faces 236 so that
the actuation arms 232 rotate back out
into the media feed path.

ALTERNATIVE CAPPING MECHANISM
An alternative capping mechanism is shown in Figures 81 to 84 in which the
initial retraction of the capper away
from the printhead chip takes place before the card is pinch between the
roller and the spring fingers. In this
embodiment, the cartridge includes a crankshaft 272 mounted parallel to the
drive shaft. The crankshaft is
connected to a first crank 274 and a second crank 276, which are angularly
spaced from each other.


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As the card is inserted by the user and enters the cartridge, its leading edge
comes into contact with the first crank
274. Pushing the card further into the cartridge causes the first crank 274 to
convert the card's linear motion into
rotation of the crankshaft 272. This, in turn, causes the second crank 276 to
pull the capper 206 arcuately away from
the printhead chip, as shown in Figures 81 to 84. By the time the card is
pinched between the drive shaft 178 and
the spring fingers 230, the capper 206 is already retracted away from the
printhead chip so as to allow the card
complete freedom to move past the printhead. Preferably, the locking mechanism
described in relation to the earlier
capping mechanism is incorporated, to ensure the capper is kept retracted
until the card clears the printhead chip.

It will be appreciated that the crankshaft 272 can be positioned further along
the card's feed path, to the point where
some or all of the rotation of the crankshaft takes place as a result of the
drive shaft driving the card. However, this
has the effect of lengthening the overall feed path and moving the drive shaft
further from the outlet slot, and so is
not the preferred option.

CARTRIDGE WITH MARKING NIB
Figs. 85 to 87 show a version of the cartridge/cradle assembly with a marking
nib 384 extending from one end of the
cartridge 148 and a Netpage optics module 350 is integrated into the cradle
124. As best shown in Fig. 87, the
marking nib 384 is a ball point pen with a coarse screw thread 388 for
engagement with the internal thread of twist
knob 382. The twist knob is retained on the tubular detail 386 on the
cartridge lid 194 by snapping over the end
flange. Rotating the twist knob 382 extends the nib 384 for use as a pen or
retracts it to avoid inadvertently marking
clothing and so on.

In this embodiment, the switch is simply omitted and the device operates
continuously. To reduce power
consumption, the optics module 350 and IR LED 344 only operates when placed
into a capture mode. Alternatively,
the switch can take the form of a pressure sensor, such as a piezo-electric or
semiconductor-based transducer. In
one form, a multi-level or continuous pressure sensor is utilized, which
enables capture of the actual force of the nib
against the writing surface during writing. This information can be included
with the position information and ID
that comprises the digital ink generated by the device. However, this is an
optional capability.

OPTICAL PRINT DATA TRANSMISSION
In this embodiment, shown in Figures 88 to 90, print data from the MoPEC chip
326 is not sent to the printhead IC
202 by the TAB film 200 as it is in the other cartridge designs. Instead, the
data is sent via a separate flex film 374
to a data LED 376. As best shown in Figs. 89 and 90, the printhead IC 202 has
been extended to accommodate a
photosensor 380 for receiving the data signal from the data LED 376. An
aperture 378 is cut into the metal cover
224 so that the data LED 376 can illuminate the photosensor 380. Transmitting
the print data separately from the
power removes a lot of noise from the data signal. Back EMF from the many and
frequent actuations of each nozzle
produces a high frequency noise that can partially obscure the data signal.
Furthermore, the nature of the print data
signal is well suited to optical transmission.

PRINT MEDIA AND PRINTING


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A Netpage printer normally prints the tags which make up the surface coding on
demand, i.e. at the same time as it
prints graphic page content. As an alternative, in a Netpage printer not
capable of printing tags such as the preferred
embodiment, pre-tagged but otherwise blank Netpages can be used. The printer,
instead of being capable of tag
printing, typically incorporates a Netpage tag sensor. The printer senses the
tags and hence the region ID of a blank
either prior to, during, or after the printing of the graphic page content
onto the blank. It communicates the region ID
to the Netpage server, and the server associates the page content and the
region ID in the usual way.

A particular Netpage surface coding scheme allocates a minimum number of bits
to the representation of spatial
coordinates within a surface region. If a particular media size is
significantly smaller than the maximum size
representable in the minimum number of bits, then the Netpage code space may
be inefficiently utilised. It can
therefore be of interest to allocate different sub-areas of a region to a
collection of blanks. Although this makes the
associations maintained by the Netpage server more complex, and makes
subsequent routing of interactions more
complex, it leads to more efficient code space utilisation. In the limit case
the surface coding may utilise a single
region with a single coordinate space, i.e. without explicit region IDs.


If regions are sub-divided in this way, then the Netpage printer uses the tag
sensor to determine not only the region
ID but also the surface coding location of a known physical position on the
print medium, i.e. relative to two edges
of the medium. From the surface coding location and its corresponding physical
position on the medium, and the
known (or determined) size of the medium, it then determines the spatial
extent of the medium in the region's
coordinate space, and communicates both the region ID and the spatial extent
to the server. The server associates the
page content with the specified sub-area of the region.

A number of mechanisms can be used to read tag data from a blank. A
conventional Netpage tag sensor
incorporating a two-dimensional image sensor can be used to capture an image
of the tagged surface of the blank at
any convenient point in the printer's paper path. As an alternative, a linear
image sensor can be used to capture
successive line images of the tagged surface of the blank during transport.
The line images can be used to create a
two-dimensional image which is processed in the usual way. As a further
alternative, region ID data and other
salient data can be encoded linearly on the blank, and a simple photodetector
and ADC can be used to acquire
samples of the linear encoding during transport.


One important advantage of using a two-dimensional image sensor is that tag
sensing can occur before motorised
transport of the print medium commences. Le. if the print medium is manually
inserted by the user, then tag sensing
can occur during insertion. This has the further advantage that if the tag
data is validated by the device, then the
print medium can be rejected and possibly ejected before printing commences.
For example, the print medium may
have been pre-printed with advertising or other graphic content on the reverse
side from the intended printing side.
The device can use the tag data to detect incorrect media insertion, i.e.
upside-down or back-to-front. The device can
also prevent accidental overprinting of an already-printed medium. And it can
detect the attempted use of an invalid


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print medium and refuse printing, e.g. to protect print quality. The device
can also derive print medium
characteristics from the tag data, to allow it to perform optimal print
preparation.

If a linear image sensor is used, or if a photodetector is used, then image
sensing must occur during motorised
transport of the print medium to ensure accurate imaging. Unless there are at
least two points of contact between the
transport mechanism and the print medium in the printing path, separated by a
minimum distance equal to the tag
data acquisition distance, tag data cannot be extracted before printing
commences, and the validation advantages
discussed above do not obtain. In the case of a linear image sensor, the tag
data acquisition distance equals the
diameter of the normal tag imaging field of view. In the case of a
photodetector, the tag data acquisition distance is
as long as the required linear encoding.

If the tag sensor is operable during the entire printing phase at a
sufficiently high sampling rate, then it can also be
used to perform accurate motion sensing, with the motion data being used to
provide a line synchronisation signal to
the print engine. This can be used to eliminate the effects of jitter in the
transport mechanism.

Figs. 91 to 97 show one embodiment of the encoded medium and the media sensing
and printing system within the
mobile telecommunications device. While the encoding of the cards is briefly
discussed here, it is described in
detail in the Coded Media sub-section of this specification. Likewise, the
optical sensing of the encoded data is
described elsewhere in the specification and a comprehensive understanding of
the M-Print media and printing
system requires the specification to be read in its entirety.

Referring to Fig. 91, the `back-side' of one of the cards 226 is shown. The
back-side of the card has two coded data
tracks: a `clock track' 434 and a `data track' 436 running along the
longitudinal sides of the cards. The cards are
encoded with data indicating, inter alia:
= the orientation of the card;
= the media type and authenticity;
= the longitudinal size;
= the pre-printed side;
= detection of prior printing on the card; and,
= the position of the card relative to the printhead IC.
Ideally, the encoded data is printed in IR ink so that it is invisible and
does not encroach on the space available for
printing visible images.

In a basic form, the M-Print cards 226 are only encoded with a data track and
clocking (as a separate clock track or a
self- clocking data track). However, in the more sophisticated embodiment
shown in the figures, the cards 226 have
a pre-printed Netpage tag pattern 438 covering the majority of the back-side.
The front side may also have a pre-
printed tag pattern. It is preferred in these embodiments that the data track
encodes first information that is at least


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indicative of second information encoded in the tags. Most preferably, the
first information is simply the document
identity that is encoded in each of the tags.

The clock track 434 allows the MoPEC 326 (see Fig. 92) to determine, by its
presence, that the front of the card 226
is facing the printhead 202, and allows the printer to sense the motion of the
card 226 during printing. The clock
track 434 also provides a clock for the densely coded data track 436.

The data track 436 provides the Netpage identifier and optionally associated
digital signatures (as described
elsewhere in the specification) which allows Mopec 326 to reject fraudulent or
un-authorised media 226, and to
report the Netpage identifier of the front-side Netpage tag pattern to a
Netpage server.

Fig. 92 shows a block diagram of an M-Print system that uses media encoded
with separate clock and data tracks.
The clock and data tracks are read by separate optical encoders. The system
may optionally have an explicit edge
detector 474 which is discussed in more detail below in relation to Fig. 95.
Fig. 93 shows a simplified circuit for an optical encoder which may be used as
the clock track or data track optical
encoder. It incorporates a Schmitt trigger 466 to provide the MoPEC 326 with
an essentially binary signal
representative of the marks and spaces encountered by the encoder in the clock
or data track. An IR LED 472 is
configured to illuminate a mark-sized area of the card 226 and a
phototransistor 468 is configured to capture the
light 470 reflected by the card. The LED 472 has a peak wavelength matched to
the peak absorption wavelength of
the infrared ink used to print the media coding.

As an alternative, the optical encoders can sense the direction of media
movement by configuring them to be
`quadrature encoders'. A quadrature encoder contains a pair of optical
encoders spatially positioned to read the
clock track 90 degrees out of phase. Its in-phase and quadrature outputs allow
the MoPEC 326 to identify not just
the motion of the clock track 434 but also the direction of the motion. A
quadrature encoder is generally not
required, since the media transport direction is known a priori because the
printer controller also controls the
transport motor. However, the use of a quadrature encoder can help decouple a
bi-directional motion sensing
mechanism from the motion control mechanism.
Fig. 94 shows a block diagram of the MoPEC 326. It incorporates a digital
phase lock loop (DPLL) 444 to track the
clock inherent in the clock track 434 (see Fig. 91), a line sync generator 448
to generate the line sync signal 476
from the clock 446, and a data decoder 450 to decode the data in the data
track 436. De-framing, error detection and
error correction may be performed by software running on MoPEC's general-
purpose processor 452, or it may be
performed by dedicated hardware in MoPEC.

The data decoder 450 uses the clock 446 recovered by the DPLL 444 to sample
the signal from the data track optical
encoder 442. It may either sample the continuous signal from the data track
optical encoder 442, or it may actually
trigger the LED of the data track optical encoder 442 for the duration of the
sample period, thereby reducing the
total power consumption of the LED.


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The DPLL 444 may be a PLL, or it may simply measure and filter the period
between successive clock pulses.

The line sync generator 456 consists of a numerically-controlled oscillator
which generates line sync pulses 476 at a
rate which is a multiple of the rate of the clock 446 recovered from the clock
track 434.

As shown in Fig. 92, the print engine may optionally incorporate an explicit
edge detector 474 to provide
longitudinal registration of the card 226 with the operation of the printhead
202. In this case, as shown in Fig. 95, it
generates a page sync signal 478 to signal the start of printing after
counting a fixed number of line syncs 476 after
edge detection. Longitudinal registration may also be achieved by other card-
in detection mechanisms ranging from
opto-sensors, de-capping mechanical switches, drive shaft/tension spring
contact switch and motor load detection.
Optionally, the printer can rely on the media coding itself to obtain
longitudinal registration. For example, it may
rely on acquisition of a pilot sequence on the data track 436 to obtain
registration. In this case, as shown in Fig. 96,
it generates a page sync signal 478 to signal the start of printing after
counting a fixed number of line syncs 476 after
pilot detection. The pilot detector 460 consists of a shift register and
combinatorial logic to recognise the pilot
sequence 480 provided by the data decoder 450, and generate the pilot sync
signal 482. Relying on the media
coding itself can provide superior information for registering printed content
with the Netpage tag pattern 438 (see
Fig. 91).
As shown in Fig. 97, the data track optical encoder 442 is positioned adjacent
to the first clock data encoder 440, so
that the data track 436 (see Fig. 91) can be decoded as early as possible and
using the recovered clock signal 446.
The clock must be acquired before printing can commence, so a first optical
encoder 440 is positioned before the
printhead 202 in the media feed path. However, as the clock needs to be
tracked throughout the print, a second
clock optical encoder 464 is positioned coincident with or downstream of the
printhead 202. This is described in
more detail below.

Fig. 73 shows the printed card 226'being withdrawn from the print cartridge
148. It will be appreciated that the
printed card 226 needs to be manually withdrawn by the user. Once the trailing
edge of the card 226 has passed
between the drive shaft 178 and the spring fingers 238, it is no longer driven
along the media feed path. However,
as the printhead 202 is less than 2mm from the drive shaft 178, the momentum
of the card 226 projects the trailing
edge of past the printhead 202.

While the momentum of the card is sufficient to carry the trailing edge past
the printhead, it is not enough to fling it
out of the exit slot 150 (Fig. 14). Instead, the card 226 is lightly gripped
by the opposed lock actuator arms 232 as it
protrudes from the exit slot 150 in the side of the mobile phone 100. This
retains the card 226 so it does not simply
fall from exit slot 150, but rather allows users to manually remove the
printed card 226 from the mobile phone 100
at their convenience. This is important to the practicality of the mobile
telecommunications device because the card
226 is fed into one side of the mobile telecommunications device and retrieved
from the other, so users will typically
want to swap the hand that holds the mobile telecommunications device when
collecting the printed card. By lightly


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retaining the printed card, users do not need to swap hands and be ready to
collect the card before completion of the
print job (approximately 1-2 secs).

Alternatively, the velocity of the card as it leaves the roller can be made
high enough that the card exits the outlet
slot 123 under its own inertia.

DUAL CLOCK SENSOR SYNCHRONIZATION
For full bleed printing, the decoder needs to generate a line sync signal for
the entire longitudinal length of the card.
Unless the card has a detachable strip (described elsewhere in the
specification), the print engine will need two clock
track sensors; one either side of printhead. Initially the line sync signal is
generated from the clock signal from the
pre-printhead sensor and then, before the trailing edge of the card passes the
pre-printhead sensor, the line sync
signal needs to be generated by the post-printhead sensor. In order to switch
from the first clock signal to the
second, the second needs to be synchronized with the first to avoid any
discontinuity in the line sync signal (which
cause artefacts in the print).
Referring to Fig. 99, a pair of DPLL's 443 and 444 track the clock inherent in
the clock track, via respective first
and second clock track optical encoders 440 and 464. During the initial phase
of the print only the first encoder 440
will be seeing the clock track and only the first PLL 443 will be locked. The
card is printed as it passes the
printhead and then the second clock track optical encoder 464 sees the clock
track. At this stage, both encoders will
be seeing the clock track and both DPLL's will be locked. During the final
phase of the print only the second
encoder will be seeing the clock track and only the second DPLL 443 will be
locked.

During the initial phase the output from the first DPLL 440 must be used to
generate the line sync signal 476, but
before the end of the middle phase the decoder must start using the output
from the second DPLL 444 to generate
the line sync signal 476. Since it is not generally practical to space the
encoders an integer number of clock periods
apart, the output from the second DPLL 444 must be phase-aligned with the
output of the first DPLL 443 before the
transition occurs.

For the purposes of managing the transition, there are four clock tracking
phases of interest. During the first phase,
when only the first DPLL 443 is locked, the clock from the first DPLL 443 is
selected via a multiplexer 462 and fed
to the line sync generator 448. During the second phase, which starts when the
second DPLL 444 locks, the phase
difference between the two DPLLs is computed 441 and latched into a phase
difference register 445. During the
third phase, which starts a fixed time after the start of the second phase,
the signal from the second DPLL 444, is fed
through a delay 447 set by the latched phase difference in the latch register
445. During the fourth phase, which
starts a fixed time after the start of the third phase, the delayed clock from
the second DPLL 447 is selected via the
multiplexer 462 and fed to the line sync generator 448.

Fig. 101 shows the signals which control the clock tracking phases. The lock
signals 449 and 451 are generated
using lock detection circuits in the DPLL's 443 and 444. Alternatively, PLL
lock is assumed according to
approximate knowledge of the position of the card relative to the two encoders
440 and 464. The two phase control


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signals 453 and 455 are triggered by the lock signals 449 and 451 and
controlled by timers.

Note that in practice, rather than explicitly delaying the second PLL's clock,
the delayed clock can be generated
directly by a digital oscillator which takes into account the phase
difference.
Two DRIVE SHAFT VERSION
Projecting the card 226 past the printhead 202 by momentum, permits a compact
single drive shaft design.
However, the deceleration of the card 226 once it disengages from the drive
shaft 178 makes the generation of an
accurate line sync signal 476 for the trailing edge much more difficult. If
the compactness of the device is not
overly critical, a second drive shaft after the printhead can keep the speed
of the card constant until printing is
complete.

Figs. 110 and 114 show a dual drive shaft embodiment. Referring firstly to
Fig. 110, the print cartridge 148 has the
first drive shaft 178 and drive roller 176 and as with the previous
embodiments, the cartridge 148 is carried by the
cradle 124. However, the cradle 124 carries a second drive shaft 486, drive
roller 492, and miniature spikewheels
488 on a sprung shaft 489. The second drive shaft 486 uses the spikewheels 488
instead of a media guide similar to
the spring fingers 230 of first drive shaft 178, to avoid smudging any wet
ink. Figs. 111 to 113 show the cartridge
installed in the cradle. A central drive roller 490 mounted at the end of the
cradle, abuts both first and second drive
rollers 176 and 492 simultaneously. This ensures a synchronized drive speed.
The central drive roller 490 can be
driven by the piezo electric or electric motor drive systems discussed above.

Section A-A shown in Fig. 114 best shows the media feed path through the
cartridge/cradle assembly. When the
trailing edge of the card 226 disengages from the first drive shaft 178, the
second drive shaft 486 continues to draw
it past the printhead 202 at essentially the same speed. The line sync signal
generated using the clock track is
constant and therefore it is less difficult for the MoPEC chip to
longitudinally register the printing with the trailing
edge. Upon completion of the printing, the MoPEC chip can stop the central
drive roller 490 so that the card is held
in the nip between the second drive shaft 486 and the spikewheeks 488 for user
retrieval. Alternatively, it can be fed
back in the reverse direction for user retrieval from the inlet slot.

It will be appreciated, of course, that in some embodiments there will be no
provision for a clock track and/or coded
data such as a linear track or Netpage tags. Where no (implicit or explicit)
clock track is provided, other
mechanisms such as optical, magnetic or electrical feedback, including
feedback from one or more transducers
associated with one or more rollers or other mechanisms can be used to
determine the position and speed of the card
before and/or during printing. Where no form of coded data is provided, the
printer simply prints onto any form of
print medium that is inserted and is capable of being printed on. Both options
open a variety of issues related to
quality control of printed output, including media jamming, ink bleeding, and
undue mechanical stress and wear on
the printer components.

MEDIA CODING
The card 226 shown in Fig. 91 has coded data in the form of the clock track
434, the data track 436 and the Netpag


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tag pattern 438. This coded data can serve a variety of functions and these
are described below. However, the
functions listed below are not exhaustive and the coded media (together with
the appropriate mobile
telecommunications device) can implement many other functions as well.
Similarly, it is not necessary for all of
these features to be incorporated into the coded data on the media. Any one or
more can be combined to suit the
application or applications for which a particular print medium and/or system
is designed.
Side
The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, prior to commencing
printing, which side of the card is
facing the printhead, i.e. the front or the back. This allows the printer to
reject the card if it is inserted back-to-front,
in case the card has been pre-printed with graphics on the back (e.g.
advertising), or in case the front and the back
have different surface treatments (e.g. to protect the graphics pre-printed on
the back and/or to facilitate high-quality
printing on the front). It also allows the printer to print side-dependent
content (e.g. a photo on the front and
corresponding photo details on the back).

Orientation
The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, prior to commencing
printing, the orientation of the card in
relation to the printhead. This allows the printhead to print graphics rotated
to match the rotation of pre-printed
graphics on the back. It also allows the printer to reject the card if it is
inserted with the incorrect orientation (with
respect to pre-printed graphics on the back). Orientation can be determined by
detecting an explicit orientation
indicator, or by using the known orientation of information printed for
another purpose, such as Netpage tags or
even pre-printed user information or advertising.

Media T, eyn /Size
The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, prior to commencing
printing, the type of the card. This
allows the printer to prepare print data or select a print mode specific to
the media type, for example, color
conversion using a color profile specific to the media type, or droplet size
modulation according to the expected
absorbance of the card. The card can be coded to allow the printer to
determine, prior to commencing printing, the
longitudinal size of the card. This allows the printer to print graphics
formatted for the size of the card, for example,
a panoramic crop of a photo to match a panoramic card.
Prior Printing
The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, prior to commencing
printing, if the side of the card facing
the printhead is pre-printed. The printer can then reject the card, prior to
commencing printing, if it is inserted with
the pre-printed side facing the printhead. This prevents over-printing. It
also allows the printer to prepare, prior to
commencing printing, content which fits into a known blank area on an
otherwise pre-printed side (for example,
photo details on the back of a photo, printed onto a card with pre-printed
advertising on the back, but with a blank
area for the photo details).

The card can be coded to allow the printer to detect, prior to commencing
printing, whether the side facing the
printhead has already been printed on demand (as opposed to pre-printed). This
allows the printer to reject the card,


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prior to commencing printing, if the side facing the printhead has already
been printed on demand, rather than
overprinting the already-printed graphics.

The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, ideally prior to
commencing printing, if it is an authorised
card. This allows the printer to reject, ideally prior to commencing printing,
an un-authorised card, as the quality of
the card will then be unknown, and the quality of the print cannot be
guaranteed.

Position
The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, prior to commencing
printing, the absolute longitudinal
position of the card in relation to the printhead. This allows the printer to
print graphics in registration with the card.
This can also be achieved by other means, such as by directly detecting the
leading edge of the card.

The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, prior to commencing
printing, the absolute lateral position
of the card in relation to the printhead. This allows the printer to print
graphics in registration with the card. This
can also be achieved by other means, such as by providing a snug paper path,
and/or by detecting the side edge(s) of
the card.

The card can be coded to allow the printer to track, during printing, the
longitudinal position of the card in relation
to the printhead, or the longitudinal speed of the card in relation to the
printhead. This allows the printer to print
graphics in registration with the card. This can also be achieved by other
means, such as by coding and tracking a
moving part in the transport mechanism.

The card can be coded to allow the printer to track, during printing, the
lateral position of the card in relation to the
printhead, or the lateral speed of the card in relation to the printhead. This
allows the printer to print graphics in
registration with the card. This can also be achieved by other means, such as
by providing a snug paper path, and/or
by detecting the side edge(s) of the card.

Invisibility
The coding can be disposed on or in the card so as to render it substantially
invisible to an unaided human eye. This
prevents the coding from detracting from printed graphics.

Fault Tolerance
The coding can be sufficiently fault-tolerant to allow the printer to acquire
and decode the coding in the presence of
an expected amount of surface contamination or damage. This prevents an
expected amount of surface
contamination or damage from causing the printer to reject the card or from
causing the printer to produce a sub-
standard print.

CARD AND PRINTER ALTERNATIVES
In light of the broad ranging functionality that a suitable M-Print printer
with compatible cards can provide, several
design alternatives for the printer, the cards and the coding are outlined
below. Again, this list is not intended to be


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exhaustive, but instead is merely illustrative of some possible variations to
the embodiments shown elsewhere in this
specification.

Self-Clocking Data Track
As an alternative to using separate clock and data tracks, the data track can
be self-clocking and the clock can be
recovered from the data track for other purposes such as line sync generation.
Figure 98 shows the layout of the
same coding as described in relation to the card 226 shown in Fig. 91, but
using a self-clocking data track 500. The
self-clocking data track 500 can use a Manchester phase encoding, or another
self-clocking scheme such as return-
to-zero (RZ). Encoding of the data is described in greater detail in the
"Linear Encoding" sub-section below.
Figure 99 shows a block diagram of the corresponding MoPEC chip, where the
DPLL 444 operates on the self
clocking data track 500 rather than a separate clock track.

The self-clocking data track 500 eliminates the need for separate clock and
data optical encoders, and reduces the
impact that separate clock and data tracks have on the area of Netpage
interactivity. The disadvantage of a self-
clocking data track is that it encodes data at half the rate of an explicitly-
clocked data track.

In subsequent media coding variations which include a separate clock and data
track, a self-clocking data track 500
can also be used, even when not explicitly mentioned.
Reading Phase Before Printin Phase
The minimal media coding is designed to be read during printing rather than
prior to printing. Information encoded
in the data track 436 is generally not available until after printing is
complete. For example, the printer typically
cannot use the Netpage identifier and digital signature to validate the card
226 before printing.
The printer can gain access to data track information prior to printing by
transporting the card 226 in a forward
direction past the data track optical encoder 442, decoding some or all of the
data track 436, and then transporting
the card back to its starting position. This can also provide the printer with
more space to recognize a robust page
sync indicator in the data track 436, as discussed above in relation to the
card shown in Fig. 91. The information in
the data track can then be usefully expanded to serve some or all of the other
functions in the Media Coding
subsection.
Explicit Side and Orientation Indicators
The minimal media coding does not explicitly encode the side of the card 226.
The printer determines from the
presence of the clock track 434 that the front of the card is facing the
printhead. The minimal media coding does not
make the orientation of the card accessible to the printer prior to printing,
unless the printer implements a reading
phase as described above. Instead, the minimal encoding assumes that it is
advantageous for the user to be able to
present the card in either orientation (but not upside-down).

Rather than allow printing in both orientations, the printer can reject the
card 226 if presented in the wrong


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orientation. To allow this, the media coding must include an orientation
indicator accessible to the printer prior to
printing. As shown in Fig. 102, the benefit of this is that a smaller area of
the card is dedicated to the clock 434 and
data tracks 436, and a larger area is therefore available for Netpage
interactivity.

Instead of relying on the absence of a clock track on the front of the card to
indicate side, the media coding can
instead include explicit side indicators on the front side as well. The
following table gives an example of an 8-bit
code which can be used to fault-tolerantly encode the side and orientation
indicator:

Codeword Side Orientation
00000000 Front Normal
00011111 Rotated
11100011 Back Normal
11111100 Rotated

The code has a minimum distance of five, so it can correct two errors. Longer
and more robust codes are obviously
possible.

The indicator 502 can be included in the data track immediately after the
pilot. The side & orientation indicator 502
can also be combined with the pilot by designing a code of suitable length
whose four codewords are maximally
separated from each other as well as from preamble-prefixed shifts of
themselves.

Like the data track 436, the side & orientation indicator 502 can be
explicitly clocked by the clock track 434, or self-
clocking.

Rather than being clocked at the same rate as the remainder of the data track
436, the side & orientation indicators
502 can be gross markers which can be recognised given only rough longitudinal
registration. For example, the two
bits required to encode the side and orientation can be pulse-position
modulated (PPM) using gross marks (e.g.
0.5mm long) for each pulse.

The following table defines some possible PPM schemes. In the table, a zero
indicates a gross space and a one
indicates a gross mark.

2PPM 4PPM Side Orientation
0101 0001 Front Normal
0110 0010 Rotated


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1001 0100 Back Normal
1010 1000 Rotated
Data Track on Both Sides
Rather than relying on all possible future printers having optical encoders
mounted to face the back of the card 226,
the media coding can instead include clock 434 and data tracks 436 on the
front as well.
Card with Detachable Strip
The arrangement shown in Figs. 91 to 97 uses two clock track optical decoders
440 and 464, one to ensure that the
clock is acquired before printing commences, and the other to ensure clock
tracking continues till the end of the
print. As an alternative, the card 226 can be extended with a tear-off strip
504, as shown in Fig. 103, with the clock
track 434 extending onto the strip.

The tear-off strip 504 is manufactured as part of the card 226, and remains
joined to the card by a perforation until
detached by the user, as shown in Fig. 104. The perforation is fine enough to
leave an edge which is smooth to the
touch.
By extending the length of the card via a strip attached to the card's
trailing edge, a single clock track linear encoder
464 located upstream of the printhead 202 (see Fig. 97) is sufficient to
support clock acquisition before printing
starts as well as clock tracking throughout the entire print.

A second important benefit of the strip 504 is that a single drive shaft 178
can drive the card past the printhead
throughout the print, i.e. without requiring a second drive shaft 486, or
without expecting the card to "fly" un-driven
for a final short distance using only its momentum.

To ensure correct recognition of the card 226 after the tear-off strip 504 is
removed, the media coding can include a
second side & orientation indicator 508 which is exposed when the tear-off
strip 504 is removed. This is shown in
Fig. 103.

The tear-off strip 504 may create a source of litter. To counteract this, each
tear-off strip can act as a lottery ticket
when presented to a retailer which sells M-Print media. The retailer can check
a presented strip using any of the
many Netpage -enabled devices described in the assignee's cross-referenced
Netpage applications and patents.
Card with Square Comers
Whether the card 226 has a detachable strip 504 or not, a card shape with
square rather than rounded comers may be
preferable. Photo printing is arguably the most compelling application of M-
Print. Both photos and business cards
usually have square corners. Furthermore, the presence of a tear-off strip 504
creates an additional motivation to use
square rather than round corners. Figs. 106 and 107 show a card 226 with
square corners 510 and a tear-off strip
504.


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Lateral Data Track
Rather than transporting the card 226 forward twice to effect a reading phase
before printing phase (as described
above), the media coding can incorporate a lateral rather than a longitudinal
data track.
As shown in Fig. 108, a lateral data track 514, whether explicitly clocked 512
or self-clocked, can be read by a
linear image sensor. Relevant techniques and devices are described in the
Applicant's co-pending applications
USSN 11/084,796 (Docket No. NOSOOIUS), filed on March 21, 2005. The lateral
data track 514 is ideally placed
along the leading edge 516 of the card, so it can be fully decoded prior to
printing. It can be placed on the tear-off
strip 504, thus eliminating the impact of the data track 514 on the Netpage
tag pattern 438 on the card proper (that is,
the retained portion of the card 226). In this case, the tear-off strip 504
needs to be on the leading edge 516 of the
card, rather than the trailing edge 518. This in turn dictates that the clock
track optical encoder 464 is positioned
downstream of the printhead 202 rather than upstream (see Fig. 97). The card
proper still has self-clocking side &
orientation indicators 502 and a single clock track 434 on each side, but no
data track. The lateral data track 514 can
provide the basis for accurate lateral registration, in particular to provide
accurate lateral registration between the
Netpage tag pattern 438 and the printed visual content.

A lateral track can also be added to non-tear-off versions of the card.

The linear image sensor extends laterally across the media feed path in front
of the printhead with respect to the
media feed direction. The image sensor is a linear array of active pixel
sensors, each sensor reading the coded data
within a sample area on the card. The sample area corresponds to the `Mnem
area' described in detail in the
Applicant's co-pending US Patent 6,870,966 (Docket No. NPSOO1US) filed on 23
May 2000, the contents of which
are incorporated herein be cross reference. Figure 109 shows a detailed
physical view of a Memjet printhead IC
with an integral image sensor. For simplicity the figure only shows a single
row of 1600dpi nozzles 600, mounted
adjacent associated actuators and drive circuitry shown generally at 601. Note
that because the 32-micron width of
each nozzle unit cell exceeds the 16-micron dot pitch required for 1600dpi
printing, each row of nozzles is
composed of two staggered half-rows 602, 603. The sampling rate N is 2.5 in
the arrangement shown.

Although a sample area may utilize a single printed dot to represent a single
encoded bit, it may also utilize more
than one printed dot to represent a single encoded bit. For example, a sample
area may utilize a 2x2 array of printed
dots to represent a single bit. Thus if the printer resolution is 1600dpi, the
sample area resolution is only 800dpi. In
certain applications, reducing the print resolution of a sample area may
provide more robust performance, such as in
the presence of particular sources of surface degradation or damage.

If the area resolution is lower than the printer resolution, then the ratio of
the pixel count to the nozzle count can be
reduced accordingly, and larger pixel sensors can be employed. For example, in
the case of the Memjet printhead
shown in Fig. 109, a 12.8 micron pixel sensor can be utilized in place of two
6.4 micron pixel sensors.

Automatic printing


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In one form, the mobile device is configured to automatically commence
printing once the print medium is inserted
into the feed path. A mechanical or optical sensor (or combination thereof)
can be used to determine when this has
happened.

The device can print automatically in a number of ways. In one example, the
device automatically prints the current
document or file presently in use by the user. This will, in the majority of
cases, be the document or application
presently being viewed on the device's display. For example, if the user is
reading an email or SMS shown on the
display, inserting a print medium will cause the email or SMS to be printed.

Alternatively, the user can instruct the mobile device to print a document or
file and subsequently insert the print
medium. The mobile device will then cause automatic printing of the next print
job in the queue. Optionally, the
device can ask for confirmation of the job to be printed, particularly if an
excessive amount of time has passed since
the job was placed in the queue.

Preferably, the printing mode is selectable by the user, thereby enabling
automatic printing to be activated (print
immediately without confirmation), partially activated (wait for confirmation)
or deactivated (wait for explicit
instruction from user to print).

POSSIBLE M-PRINT CONFIGURATIONS.
From the above alternatives, there are a number of possibilities for the
physical configuration of the components in
an M-Print printer. Each possibility has inherent advantages and disadvantages
which can be assessed when
choosing a configuration for a particular M-Print application. A selection of
the possible configurations and their
associated advantages is set out below with reference to the schematic
representations shown in Figs. 115 to 120.
These figures position the components with reference to the media feed path
and the following M-Print parameters:
Tracking Tail Fly Period (TTFP): a period of time during which MoPEC does not
receive card tracking information
from the coding.

Drive Tail Fly Period (DTFP): the period of time between the disengagement of
the card from the drive shaft and it
coming to rest within the media path.

Drive Settling Period (DSP): the period of time between the initial engagement
of the card with the drive shaft and
the card accelerating to it's steady state speed.

Tracking Settling Period (TSP): the period of time that the optical encoder
requires to lock onto the markings of the
clock track.

Media Coding Dead Zone (MCDZ): the portion of the data track that is visible
to the data encoder while the card is
not being driven. Reading data from the MCDZ can be unpredictable.


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Ink Drying Time (IDT): the minimum period of time after a drop of ink is
printed to the card, that the printed dot
can be contacted without degrading print quality.

Encoder-Drive-Printhead: As shown in Fig. 115, positioning the encoder 440
before the drive shaft 178, which in
turn is before the printhead 202 minimizes the distance between the printhead
and drive. This configuration also
uses minimum components. This allows a compact design.

Drive-Encoder-Printhead: Referring to Fig. 116, positioning the drive shaft
178, the encoder 440 and the printhead
202 sequentially along the media path simplifies leading edge detection.
Encoder-Drive-Printhead-Drive: The configuration shown in Fig. 117 is the same
as that of Fig. 115 with the
addition of the second drive shaft 486. This removes DTFP and simplifies
handling of TTFP.
Encoder-Drive-Printhead-Drive: The configuration shown in Fig. 118 is the same
as that of Fig. 116 with the
addition of the second drive shaft 486. This removes DTFP, MCDZ and simplifies
handling of TTFP.
Encoder-Drive-Printhead-Encoder: The configuration shown in Fig. 119 is the
same as that of Fig. 115 with the
addition of the second encoder 464. This removes TTFP and simplifies handling
of DTFP.

Drive-Encoder-Printhead-Encoder: The configuration shown in Fig. 120 is the
same as that of Fig. 116 with the
addition of the second encoder 464. This removes TTFP, MCDZ and simplifies
handling of DTFP plus leading
edge detection.

It should be noted that maximizing DSP and TSP, minimizing TTFP and DTFP, and
avoiding MCDZ and IDT, are
general design objectives for these configurations.

LINEAR ENCODING
Kip is the assignee's internal name for a template for a class of robust one-
dimensional optical encoding schemes for
storing small quantities of digital data on physical surfaces. It optionally
incorporates error correction to cope with
real-world surface degradation.

A particular encoding scheme is defined by specializing the Kip template
described below. Parameters include the
data capacity, the clocking scheme, the physical scale, and the level of
redundancy. A Kip reader is typically also
specialized for a particular encoding scheme.
A Kip encoding is designed to be read via a simple optical detector during
transport of the encoded medium past the
detector. The encoding therefore typically runs parallel to the transport
direction of the medium. For example, a Kip
encoding may be read from a print medium during printing. In the preferred
embodiment, Kip encoded data is
provided along at least one (and preferably two or more) of the longitudinal
edges of the print media to be printed in
a mobile device, as described above. In the preferred form, the Kip encoded
data is printed in infrared ink,


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rendering it invisible or at least difficult to see with the unaided eye.

A Kip encoding is typically printed onto a surface, but may be disposed on or
in a surface by other means.
SUMMARY OF KIP PARAMETERS
The following tables summarize the parameters required to specialize Kip. The
parameters should be understood in
the context of the entire document.

The following table summarizes framing parameters:

parameter units description

Ldaia bits Length of bitstream data.
The following table summarizes clocking parameters:

parameter units description

belOek { 0,11 Flag indicating whether the clock is implicit (0) or
explicit (1).

Cclocksync clock Length of clock synchronization interval required
periods before data.

The following table summarizes physical parameters:
Parameter Units Description

Iclock mm Length of clock period.
'mark mm Length of mark.

'preamble mm Length of preamble. Equals or exceeds decoder's
uncertainty in longitudinal position of strip.
Wmintrack mm Minimum width of track.

Wmisreg mm Maximum lateral misregistration of strip with respect to
reader.

a radians Maximum rotation of strip with respect to reader.


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The following table summarizes error correction parameters:
Parameter Units Description

m bits Size of Reed-Solomon symbol.

k symbols Size of Reed-Solomon codeword data.

t symbols Error-correcting capacity of Reed-Solomon code.
KIP ENCODING
A Kip encoding encodes a single bitstream of data, and includes a number of
discrete and independent layers, as
illustrated in Figure 121. The framing layer frames the bitstream to allow
synchronization and simple error
detection. The modulation and clocking layer encodes the bits of the frame
along with clocking information to
allow bit recovery. The physical layer represents the modulated and clocked
frame using optically-readable marks.
An optional error correction layer encodes the bitstream to allow error
correction. An application can choose to use
the error correction layer or implement its own.

A Kip encoding is designed to allow serial decoding and hence has an implied
time dimension. By convention in
this document the time axis points to the right. However, a particular Kip
encoding may be physically represented
at any orientation that suits the application.

FRAMING
A Kip frame consists of a preamble, a pilot, the bitstream data itself, and a
cyclic redundancy check (CRC) word, as
illustrated in Figure 122.

The preamble consists of a sequence of zeros of length Lpreamble The preamble
is long enough to allow the
application to start the Kip decoder somewhere within the preamble, i.e. it is
long enough for the application to
know a priori the location of at least part of the preamble. The length of the
preamble sequence in bits is therefore

derived from an application-specific preamble length 'preamble (see EQ8).

The pilot consists of a unique pattern that allows the decoder to synchronize
with the frame. The pilot pattern is
designed to maximize its binary Hamming distance from arbitrary shifts of
itself prefixed by preamble bits. This
allows the decoder to utilize a maximum-likelihood decoder to recognize the
pilot, even in the presence of bit errors.
The preamble and pilot together guarantee that any bit sequence the decoder
detects before it detects the pilot is
maximally separated from the pilot.


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The pilot sequence is 1110 1011 0110 0010. Its length Lpilot is 16. Its
minimum distance from preamble-prefixed
shifts of itself is 9. It can therefore be recognized reliably in the presence
of up to 4 bit errors.

The length Ldala of the bitstream is known a priori by the application and is
therefore a parameter. It is not encoded
in the frame. The bitstream is encoded most-significant bit first, i.e.
leftmost.

The CRC (cyclic redundancy code) is a CCITT CRC-16 (known to those skilled in
the art, and so not described in
detail here) calculated on the bitstream data, and allows the decoder to
determine if the bitstream has been corrupted.
The length LCRC of the CRC is 16. The CRC is calculated on the bitstream from
left to right. The bitstream is
padded with zero bits during calculation of the CRC to make its length an
integer multiple of 8 bits. The padding is
not encoded in the frame.

The length of a frame in bits is:

(EQ 1) Lframe = Lpreamble + Lpilot + Ldata + LCRC

(EQ 2) Lframe = Lpreamble + Ldata + 32
Modulation and Clocking
The Kip encoding modulates the frame bit sequence to produce a sequence of
abstract marks and spaces. These are
realized physically by the physical layer.

The Kip encoding supports both explicit and implicit clocking. When the frame
is explicitly clocked, the encoding
includes a separate clock sequence encoded in parallel with the frame, as
illustrated in Fig. 123. The bits of the
frame are then encoded using a conventional non-return-to-zero (NRZ) encoding.
A zero bit is represented by a
space, and a one bit is represented by a mark.

The clock itself consists of a sequence of alternating marks and spaces. The
center of a clock mark is aligned with
the center of a bit in the frame. The frame encodes two bits per clock period,
i.e. the bitrate of the frame is twice the
rate of the clock.

The clock starts a number of clock periods Cclocksync before the start of the
frame to allow the decoder to acquire
clock synchronization before the start of the frame. The size of Cclocksync
depends on the characteristics of the PLL
used by the decoder, and is therefore a reader-specific parameter.

When the encoding is explicitly clocked, the corresponding decoder
incorporates an additional optical sensor to
sense the clock.

When the frame is implicitly clocked, the bits of the frame are encoded using
a Manchester phase encoding. A zero


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bit is represented by space-mark transition, and a one bit is represented by
mark-space transition, with both
transitions defined left-to-right. The Manchester phase encoding allows the
decoder to extract the clock signal from
the modulated frame.

In this case the preamble is extended by Cclocksync bits to allow the decoder
to acquire clock synchronization before
searching for the pilot.

Assuming the same marking frequency, the bit density of the explicitly-clocked
encoding is twice the bit density of
the implicitly-clocked encoding.
The choice between explicit and implicit clocking depends on the application.
Explicit clocking has the advantage
that it provides greater longitudinal data density than implicit clocking.
Implicit clocking has the advantage that it
only requires a single optical sensor, while explicit clocking requires two
optical sensors.

The parameter bclock indicates whether the clock is implicit (bclock = 0) or
explicit (bclock = 1 )
The length, in clock periods, of the modulated and clocked Kip frame is:

(EQ 3) Cframe = Cclocksync + Lframe /(l + bclock)
PHYSICAL REPRESENTATION
The Kip encoding represents the modulated and clocked frame physically as a
strip that has both a longitudinal
extent (i.e. in the coding direction) and a lateral extent.

A Kip strip always contains a data track. It also contains a clock track if it
is explicitly clocked rather than
implicitly clocked.

The clock period 'clock within a Kip strip is nominally fixed, although a
particular decoder will typically be able to
cope with a certain amount of jitter and drift. Jitter and drift may also be
introduced by the transport mechanism in a
reader. The amount of jitter and drift supported by a decoder is decoder
specific.

A suitable clock period depends on the characteristics of the medium and the
marking mechanism, as well as on the
characteristics of the reader. It is therefore an application-specific
parameter.

Abstract marks and spaces have corresponding physical representations which
give rise to distinct intensities when
sampled by a matched optical sensor, allowing the decoder to distinguish marks
and spaces. The spectral
characteristics of the optical sensor, and hence the corresponding spectral
characteristics of the physical marks and
spaces, are application specific.

The transition time between a mark and a space is nominally zero, but is
allowed to be up to 5% of the clock period.


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An abstract mark is typically represented by a physical mark printed using an
ink with particular absorption
characteristics, such as an infrared-absorptive ink, and an abstract space is
typically represented by the absence of
such a physical mark, i.e. by the absorption characteristics of the substrate,
such as broadband reflective (white)
paper. However, Kip does not prescribe this.

The length 'mark of a mark and length 'space of a space are nominally the
same. Suitable marks and spaces depend
on the characteristics of the medium and the marking mechanism, as well as on
the characteristics of the reader.
Their lengths are therefore application-specific parameters.

The length of a mark and the length of a space may differ by up to a factor of
((2 + (.h - 1))/(2 - (f2 - 1))) to
accommodate printing of marks at up to half the maximum dot resolution of a
particular printer, as illustrated in
Figure 125. The factor may vary between unity and the limit according to
vertical position, as illustrated in the
figure.

The sum of the length of a mark and the length of a space equals the clock
period:
(EQ 4) 'clock _ 'mark + 'space

The overall length of the strip is:
(EQ 5) 'strip _ 'clock x Cframe

The minimum width Wmintrack of a data track (or clock track) within a strip
depends on the reader. It is therefore an
application-specific parameter.

The required width Wirack of a data track (or clock track) within a strip is
determined by the maximum allowable

lateral misregistration wmisreg and maximum allowable rotation a of the strip
with respect to the transport path past
the corresponding optical sensor:

(EQ 6) Wtrack = wmintrack + W misreg + 'strip tan ot

The maximum lateral misregistration and rotation depend on the characteristics
of the medium and the marking
mechanism, as well as on the characteristics of the reader. They are therefore
application-specific parameters.
The width of a strip is:

(EQ 7) Wstrip = (1 + bclock) X Wtrack

The length of the preamble sequence in bits is derived from a parameter which
specifies the length of the preamble:
L = rlpreamblel x I + b
preamble I ( clock)
(EQ 8) 'clock


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ERROR CORRECTION
The Kip encoding optionally includes error correcting coding (ECC) information
to allow the decoder to correct
bitstream data corrupted by surface damage or dirt. Reed-Solomon redundancy
data is appended to the frame to
produce an extended frame, as illustrated in Fig. 126.

A Kip Reed-Solomon code is characterized by its symbol size m (in bits), data
size k (in symbols), and error-
correcting capacity t (in symbols), as described below. A Reed-Solomon code is
chosen according to the size Ldata
of the bitstream data and the expected bit error rate. The parameters of the
code are therefore application-specific.
Redundancy data is calculated on the concatenation of the bitstream data and
the CRC. This allows the CRC to be
corrected as well.

The bitstream data and the CRC are padded with zero bits during calculation of
the redundancy data to make their
length an integer multiple of the symbol size m . The padding is not encoded
in the extended frame.

A decoder verifies the CRC before performing Reed-Solomon error correction. If
the CRC is valid, then error
correction may potentially be skipped. If the CRC is invalid, then the decoder
performs error correction. It then
verifies the CRC again to check that error correction succeeded.
The length of a Reed-Solomon codeword in bits is:
(EQ 9) Lcodeword - (21 + k) X m

The number of Reed-Solomon codewords is:
S c (Ldata + LCRC) - 1 + I
(EQ 10) Lcodeword

The length of the redundancy data is:
(EQ 11) LECC = s x (2t x m)

The length of an extended frame in bits is:
(EQ 12) Lextendedframe = Lframe + LECC

REED-SOLOMON CODING


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M
A 2 -ary Reed-Solomon code (n, k) is characterized by its symbol size m (in
bits), codeword size n (in symbols),
and data size k (in symbols), where:

(EQ13) n = 2m-1

The error-correcting capacity of the code is t symbols, where:
I n-k l
(EQ 14) L 2 J

To minimize the redundancy overhead of a given error-correcting capacity, the
number of redundancy symbols
n - k is chosen to be even, i.e. so that:

(EQ 15) 2t = n - k

Reed-Solomon codes are well known and understood in the art of data storage,
and so are not described in great
detail here.

Data symbols d' and redundancy symbols ri of the code are indexed from left to
right according to the power of
their corresponding polynomial terms, as illustrated in Fig. 127. Note that
data bits are indexed in the opposite
direction, i.e. from right to left.
The data capacity of a given code may be reduced by puncturing the code, i.e.
by systematically removing a subset
of data symbols. Missing symbols can then be treated as erasures during
decoding. In this case:

(EQ16) n = k+2t<2m-1

Longer codes and codes with greater error-correcting capacities are
computationally more expensive to decode than
shorter codes or codes with smaller error-correcting capacities. Where
application constraints limit the complexity
of the code and the required data capacity exceeds the capacity of the chosen
code, multiple codewords can be used
to encode the data. To maximize the codewords' resilience to burst errors, the
codewords are interleaved.

To maximize the utility of the Kip encoding, the bitstream is encoded
contiguously and in order within the frame.
To reconcile the requirement for interleaving and the requirement for
contiguity and order, the bitstream is de-
interleaved for the purpose of computing the Reed-Solomon redundancy data, and
is then re-interleaved before
being encoded in the frame. This maintains the order and contiguity of the
bitstream, and produces a separate
contiguous block of interleaved redundancy data which is placed at the end of
the extended frame. The Kip
interleaving scheme is defined in detail below.

Kip Reed-Solomon codes have the primitive polynomials given in the following
table:


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Symbol size
(m) Primitive polynomial
3 1011
4 10011
100101
6 1000011
7 10000011
8 101110001
9 1000010001
10000001001
11 100000000101
12 1000001010011
13 10000000011011
14 100000001010011

The entries in the table indicate the coefficients of the primitive polynomial
with the highest-order coefficient on the
5 left. Thus the primitive polynomial for m = 4 is:

(EQ 17) p(x) = x4+x+1

Kip Reed-Solomon codes have the following generator polynomials:
21
g(x) = (x +a) (x + a2)... (x + a2t) = fl (x + (x`)
10 (EQ 18) i = 1

For the purposes of interleaving, the source data D is partitioned into a
sequence of m -bit symbols and padded on
the right with zero bits to yield a sequence of u symbols, consisting of an
integer multiple s of k symbols, where S
is the number of codewords:

(EQ19) u = sxk

(EQ 20) D = {D0, ... , Dõ _ 1 }


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Each symbol in this sequence is then mapped to a corresponding (1 U') symbol
dw,' of an interleaved codeword W :
(EQ 21) dw,i = D(ixs)+w

The resultant interleaved data symbols are illustrated in Figure 128. Note
that this is an in situ mapping of the source
data to codewords, not a re-arrangement of the source data.

The symbols of each codeword are de-interleaved prior to encoding the
codeword, and the resultant redundancy
symbols are re-interleaved to form the redundancy block. The resultant
interleaved redundancy symbols are
illustrated in Figure 129.

GENERAL NETPAGE DESCRIPTION
Netpage interactivity can be used to provide printed user interfaces to
various phone functions and applications,
such as enabling particular operational modes of the mobile telecommunications
device or interacting with a
calculator application, as well as providing general "keypad", "keyboard" and
"tablet" input to the mobile
telecommunications device. Such interfaces can be pre-printed and bundled with
a phone, purchased separately (as
a way of customizing phone operation, similar to ringtones and themes) or
printed on demand where the phone
incorporates a printer.

A printed Netpage business card provides a good example of how a variety of
functions can be usefully combined in
a single interface, including:
= loading contact details into an address book
= displaying a Web page
= displaying an image
= dialing a contact number
= bringing up an e-mail, SMS or MMS form
= loading location info into a navigation system
= activating a promotion or special offer

Any of these functions can be made single-use only.

A business card may be printed by the mobile telecommunications device user
for presentation to someone else, or
may be printed from a Web page relating to a business for the mobile
telecommunications device user's own use. It
may also be pre-printed.

As described below, the primary benefit of incorporating a Netpage pointer or
pen in another device is synergy. A


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Netpage pointer or pen incorporated in a mobile phone, smartphone or
telecommunications-enabled PDA, for
example, allows the device to act as both a Netpage pointer and as a relay
between the pointer and the mobile phone
network and hence a Netpage server. When the pointer is used to interact with
a page, the target application of the
interaction can display information on the phone display and initiate further
interaction with the user via the phone
touchscreen. The pointer is most usefully configured so that its "nib" is in a
comer of the phone body, allowing the
user to easily manipulate the phone to designate a tagged surface.

The phone can incorporate a marking nib and optionally a continuous force
sensor to provide full Netpage pen
functionality.
An exemplary Netpage interaction will now be described to show how a sensing
device in the form of a Netpage
enabled mobile device interacts with the coded data on a print medium in the
form of a card. Whilst in the preferred
form the print medium is a card generated by the mobile device or another
mobile device, it can also be a
commercially pre-printed card that is purchased or otherwise provided as part
of a commercial transaction. The
print medium can also be a page of a book, magazine, newspaper or brochure,
for example.

The mobile device senses a tag using an area image sensor and detects tag
data. The mobile device uses the sensed
data tag to generate interaction data, which is sent via a mobile
telecommunications network to a document server.
The document server uses the ID to access the document description, and
interpret the interaction. In appropriate
circumstances, the document server sends a corresponding message to an
application server, which can then perform
a corresponding action.

Typically Netpage pen and Netpage -enabled mobile device users register with a
registration server, which
associates the user with an identifier stored in the respective Netpage pen or
Netpage enabled mobile device. By
providing the sensing device identifier as part of the interaction data, this
allows users to be identified, allowing
transactions or the like to be performed.

Netpage documents are generated by having an ID server generate an ID which is
transferred to the document
server. The document server determines a document description and then records
an association between the
document description and the ID, to allow subsequent retrieval of the document
description using the ID.

The ID is then used to generate the tag data, as will be described in more
detail below, before the document is
printed by a suitable printer, using the page description and the tag map.

Each tag is represented by a pattern which contains two kinds of elements. The
first kind of element is a target.
Targets allow a tag to be located in an image of a coded surface, and allow
the perspective distortion of the tag to be
inferred. The second kind of element is a macrodot. Each macrodot encodes the
value of a bit by its presence or
absence.

The pattern is represented on the coded surface in such a way as to allow it
to be acquired by an optical imaging


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system, and in particular by an optical system with a narrowband response in
the near-infrared. The pattern is
typically printed onto the surface using a narrowband near-infrared ink.

In the preferred embodiment, the region typically corresponds to the entire
surface of an M-Print card, and the
region ID corresponds to the unique M-Print card ID. For clarity in the
following discussion we refer to items and
IDs, with the understanding that the ID corresponds to the region ID.

The surface coding is designed so that an acquisition field of view large
enough to guarantee acquisition of an entire
tag is large enough to guarantee acquisition of the ID of the region
containing the tag. Acquisition of the tag itself
guarantees acquisition of the tag's two-dimensional position within the
region, as well as other tag-specific data.
The surface coding therefore allows a sensing device to acquire a region ID
and a tag position during a purely local
interaction with a coded surface, e.g. during a "click" or tap on a coded
surface with a pen.

EXAMPLE TAG STRUCTURE
A wide range of different tag structures (as described in the assignee's
various cross-referenced Netpage
applications) can be used. The preferred tag will now be described in detail.

Figure 130 shows the structure of a complete tag 1400. Each of the four black
circles 1402 is a target. The tag 1400,
and the overall pattern, has four-fold rotational symmetry at the physical
level. Each square region 1404 represents
a symbol, and each symbol represents four bits of information.

Figure 131 shows the structure of a symbol. It contains four macrodots 1406,
each of which represents the value of
one bit by its presence (one) or absence (zero). The macrodot spacing is
specified by the parameter s throughout
this document. It has a nominal value of 143 m, based on 9 dots printed at a
pitch of 1600 dots per inch. However,
it is allowed to vary by 10% according to the capabilities of the device used
to produce the pattern.

Figure 132 shows an array of nine adjacent symbols. The macrodot spacing is
uniform both within and between
symbols.

Figure 133 shows the ordering of the bits within a symbol. Bit zero (b0) is
the least significant within a symbol; bit
three (b3) is the most significant. Note that this ordering is relative to the
orientation of the symbol. The orientation
of a particular symbol within the tag 1400 is indicated by the orientation of
the label of the symbol in the tag
diagrams. In general, the orientation of all symbols within a particular
segment of the tag have the same orientation,
consistent with the bottom of the symbol being closest to the centre of the
tag.
Only the macrodots 1406 are part of the representation of a symbol in the
pattern. The square outline 1404 of a
symbol is used in this document to more clearly elucidate the structure of a
tag 1400. Figure 134, by way of
illustration, shows the actual pattern of a tag 1400 with every bit set. Note
that, in practice, every bit of a tag 1400
can never be set.


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A macrodot 1406 is nominally circular with a nominal diameter of (5/9)s.
However, it is allowed to vary in size by
10% according to the capabilities of the device used to produce the pattern.

A target 1402 is nominally circular with a nominal diameter of (1719)s.
However, it is allowed to vary in size by
10% according to the capabilities of the device used to produce the pattern.

The tag pattern is allowed to vary in scale by up to 10% according to the
capabilities of the device used to produce
the pattern. Any deviation from the nominal scale is recorded in the tag data
to allow accurate generation of position
samples.
Each symbol shown in the tag structure in Figure 130 has a unique label. Each
label consists an alphabetic prefix
and a numeric suffix.

Tag Group
Tags are arranged into tag groups. Each tag group contains four tags arranged
in a square. Each tag therefore has one
of four possible tag types according to its location within the tag group
square. The tag types are labelled 00, 10, 01
and 11, as shown in Figure 135.

Figure 136 shows how tag groups are repeated in a continuous tiling of tags.
The tiling guarantees the any set of four
adjacent tags contains one tag of each type.

Codewords
The tag contains four complete codewords. Each codeword is of a punctured 24-
ary (8,5) Reed-Solomon code. Two
of the codewords are unique to the tag. These are referred to as local and are
labelled A and B. The tag therefore
encodes up to 40 bits of information unique to the tag.

The remaining two codewords are unique to a tag type, but common to all tags
of the same type within a contiguous
tiling of tags. These are referred to as global and are labelled C and D,
subscripted by tag type. A tag group therefore
encodes up to 160 bits of information common to all tag groups within a
contiguous tiling of tags. The layout of the
four codewords is shown in Figure 137.

Reed-Solomon Encoding
Codewords are encoded using a punctured 24-ary (8,5) Reed-Solomon code. A 24-
ary (8,5) Reed-Solomon code
encodes 20 data bits (i.e. five 4-bit symbols) and 12 redundancy bits (i.e.
three 4-bit symbols) in each codeword. Its
error-detecting capacity is three symbols. Its error-correcting capacity is
one symbol. More information about Reed-
Solomon encoding in the Netpage context is provide in USSN 10/815,647 (Docket
No. HYGOOIUS), filed on April
2, 2004, the contents of which are herein incorporated by cross-reference.

NETPAGE IN A MOBILE ENVIRONMENT


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Figure 138 provides an overview of the architecture of the Netpage system,
incorporating local and remote
applications and local and remote Netpage servers. The generic Netpage system
is described extensively in many of
the assignee's patents and co-pending applications, (such as USSN 09/722,174
(Docket No. NPA08I US), and so is
not described in detail here. However, a number of extensions and alterations
to the generic Netpage system are
used as part of implementing various Netpage -based functions into a mobile
device. This applies both to Netpage -
related sensing of coded data on a print medium being printed (or about to be
printed) and to a Netpage -enabled
mobile device with or without a printer.

Referring to Figure 138, a Netpage microserver 790 running on the mobile phone
1 provides a constrained set of
Netpage functions oriented towards interpreting clicks rather than
interpreting general digital ink. When the
microserver 790 accepts a click event from the pointer driver 718 it
interprets it in the usual Netpage way. This
includes retrieving the page description associated with the click impression
ID, and hit testing the click location
against interactive elements in a page description. This may result in the
microserver identifying a command
element and sending the command to the application specified by the command
element. This functionality is
described in many of the earlier Netpage applications cross-referenced above.

The target application may be a local application 792 or a remote application
700 accessible via the network 788.
The microserver 790 may deliver a command to a running application or may
cause the application to be launched if
not already running.
If the microserver 790 receives a click for an unknown impression ID, then it
uses the impression ID to identify a
network-based Netpage server 798 capable of handling the click, and forwards
the click to that server for
interpretation. The Netpage server 798 may be on a private intranet accessible
to the mobile telecommunications
device, or may be on the public Internet.
For a known impression ID the microserver 790 may interact directly with a
remote application 700 rather than via
the Netpage server 798.

In the event that the mobile device includes a printer 4, an optional printing
server 796 is provided. The printing
server 796 runs on the mobile phone 1 and accepts printing requests from
remote applications and Netpage servers.
When the printing server accepts a printing request from an untrusted
application, it may require the application to
present a single-use printing token previously issued by the mobile
telecommunications device.

A display server 704 running on the mobile telecommunications device accepts
display requests from remote
applications and Netpage servers. When the display server 704 accepts a
display request from an untrusted
application, it may require the application to present a single-use display
token previously issued by the mobile
telecommunications device. The display server 704 controls the mobile
telecommunications device display 750.
As illustrated in Figure 139, the mobile telecommunications device may act as
a relay for a Netpage stylus, pen, or
other Netpage input device 708. If the microserver 790 receives digital ink
for an unknown impression ID, then it


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uses the impression ID to identify a network-based Netpage server 798 capable
of handling the digital ink, and
forwards the digital ink to that server for interpretation.

Although not required to, the microserver 790 can be configured to have some
capability for interpreting digital ink.
For example, it may be capable of interpreting digital ink associated with
checkboxes and drawings fields only, or it
may be capable of performing rudimentary character recognition, or it may be
capable of performing character
recognition with the help of a remote server.

The microserver can also be configured to enable routing of digital ink
captured via a Netpage "tablet" to the mobile
telecommunications device operating system. A Netpage tablet may be a separate
surface, pre-printed or printed on
demand, or it may be an overlay or underlay on the mobile telecommunications
device display.

The Netpage pointer incorporates the same image sensor and image processing
ASIC (referred to as "Jupiter", and
described in detail below) developed for and used by the Netpage pen. Jupiter
responds to a contact switch by
activating an illumination LED and capturing an image of a tagged surface. It
then notifies the mobile
telecommunications device processor of the "click". The Netpage pointer
incorporates a similar optical design to
the Netpage pen, but ideally with a smaller form factor. The smaller form
factor is achieved with a more
sophisticated multi-lens design, as described below.

Obtaining Media Information Directly from Netpage Tags
Media information can be obtained directly from the Netpage tags. It has the
advantage that no data track is
required, or only a minimal data track is required, since the Netpage
identifier and digital signatures in particular can
be obtained from the Netpage tag pattern.

The Netpage tag sensor is capable of reading a tag pattern from a snapshot
image. This has the advantage that the
image can be captured as the card enters the paper path, before it engages the
transport mechanism, and even before
the printer controller is activated, if necessary.

A Netpage tag sensor capable of reading tags as the media enters or passes
through the media feed path is described
in detail in the Netpage Clicker sub-section below (see Fig.s 140 and 141).

Conversely, the advantage of reading the tag pattern during transport (either
during a reading phase or during the
printing phase), is that the printer can obtain exact information about the
lateral and longitudinal registration
between the Netpage tag pattern and the visual content printed by the printer.
Whilst a single captured image of a
tag can be used to determine registration in either or both directions, it is
preferred to determine the registration
based on at least two captured images. The images can be captured sequentially
by a single sensor, or two sensors
can capture them simultaneously or sequentially. Various averaging approaches
can be taken to determine a more
accurate position in either or both direction from two or more captured images
than would be available by replying
on a single image.


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If the tag pattern can be rotated with respect to the printhead, either due to
the manufacturing tolerances of the card
itself or tolerances in the paper path, it is advantageous to read the tag
pattern to determine the rotation. The printer
can then report the rotation to the Netpage server, which can record it and
use it when it eventually interprets digital
ink captured via the card. Whilst a single captured image of a tag can be used
to determine the rotation, it is
preferred to determine the rotation based on at least two captured images. The
images can be captured sequentially
by a single sensor, or two sensors can capture them simultaneously or
sequentially. Various averaging approaches
can be taken to determine a more accurate rotation from two or more captured
images than would be available by
replying on a single image.

NETPAGE OPTIONS
The following media coding options relate to the Netpage tags. Netpage is
described in more detail in a later
section.

Netpage Tag Orientation
The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine, possibly prior to
commencing printing, the orientation of
Netpage tags on the card in relation to the printhead. This allows the printer
to rotate page graphics to match the
orientation of the Netpage tags on the card, prior to commencing printing. It
also allows the printer to report the
orientation of the Netpage tags on the card for recording by a Netpage server.

Netpage Tag Position
If lateral and longitudinal registration and motion tracking, as discussed
above, is achieved by means other than via
the media coding, then any misregistration between the media coding itself and
the printed content, either due to
manufacturing tolerances in the card itself or due to paper path tolerances in
the printer, can manifest themselves as
a lateral and/or longitudinal registration error between the Netpage tags and
the printed content. This in turn can
lead to a degraded user experience. For example, if the zone of a hyperlink
may fail to register accurately with the
visual representation of the hyperlink.

As discussed above in relation to card position, the media coding can provide
the basis for accurate lateral and
longitudinal registration and motion tracking of the media coding itself, and
the printer can report this registration to
the Netpage server alongside the Netpage identifier. The Netpage server can
record this registration information as
a two-dimensional offset which corrects for any deviation between the nominal
and actual registration, and correct
any digital ink captured via the card accordingly, before interpretation.

Netpage Identity
The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine the unique 96-bit
Netpage identifier of the card. This allows
the printer to report the Netpage identifier of the card for recording by a
Netpage server (which associates the
printed graphics and input description with the identity).

The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine the unique Netpage
identifier of the card from either side of
the card. This allows printer designers the flexibility of reading the Netpage
identifier from the most convenient


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side of the card.

The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine if it is an authorised
Netpage card. This allows the printer to
not perform the Netpage association step for an un-authorised card,
effectively disabling its Netpage interactivity.
This prevents a forged card from preventing the use of a valid card with the
same Netpage identifier.

The card can be coded to allow the printer to determine both the Netpage
identifier and a unique digital signature
associated with the Netpage identifier. This allows the printer to prevent
forgery using a digital signature
verification mechanism already in place for the purpose of controlling
interactions with Netpage media.
Netpage Interactivity
Substantially all the front side of the card can be coded with Netpage tags to
allow a Netpage sensing device to
interact with the card subsequent to printing. This allows the printer to
print interactive Netpage content without
having to include a tag printing capability. If the back side of the card is
blank and printable, then substantially the
entire back side of the card can be coded with Netpage tags to allow a Netpage
sensing device to interact with the
card subsequent to printing. This allows the printer to print interactive
Netpage content without having to include a
tag printing capability.

The back side of the card can be coded with Netpage tags to allow a Netpage
sensing device to interact with the
card. This allows interactive Netpage content to be pre-printed on the back of
the card.

CRYPTOGRAPHY
Background
Blank media designed for use with the preferred embodiment are pre-coded to
satisfy a number of requirements,
supporting motion sensing and Netpage interactivity, and protecting against
forgery.

The following section describes authentication mechanisms that can be used to
detect and reject forged or un-coded
blank media. Forged or un-coded media are hereafter referred to as invalid
media.

The need for protection against invalid media derives from a number of
requirements. Only genuine media are
guaranteed to maximize print quality, since color management is closely tied
to actual media characteristics.
Rejecting invalid media therefore ensures that print quality is maximized.
Conversely, print quality guarantees
cannot be made for invalid media.

Netpage interactivity is a fundamental property of print media in the
preferred embodiment. Rejecting invalid
media ensures that Netpage interactivity is properly enabled, i.e. that a
valid and unique Netpage tag pattern is
always present.

Media identification and authentication can also be used to control media
expiry, e.g. for quality control purposes.


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A medium, once printed, can act as a secure token which provides the holder of
the medium with privileged access
to information associated with the medium. For example, the medium may bear a
printout of a photo, and the
medium may then act as a token that gives the holder access to a digital image
corresponding to the photo.
This mechanisms described in this document can also be used to authenticate
media as secure tokens.
Media Identifier and Digital Signatures
In the preferred embodiment, media coding includes a unique media identifier
and two digital signatures associated
with the media identifier. The digital signatures are described in detail
below. The media identifier and the digital
signatures are encoded in both the Netpage tag pattern, as described below,
and in the data track, if present.

The short digital signature is a digital signature associated with the media
identifier in a way known only to an
authentication server. For example, the short signature may be a random number
explicitly recorded by the
authentication server, indexed by the media identifier. The short digital
signature must therefore be authenticated by
the server.

The long digital signature is a public-key digital signature of the media
identifier. The media identifier is optionally
padded with a random number before being signed. The public-key digital
signature can be authenticated without
reference to the authentication server, so long as the authenticator is in
possession of the publicly-available public
key associated with the media identifier. The padding can be authenticated
with reference to the server, if desired.
The short and long signatures may also be used in combination.

When a blank pre-coded medium is duplicated exactly, it results in a copy
which cannot be identified as a forgery
per se. However, by tracking the production, movement and/or usage of media
identifiers, the authentication server
can detect multiple uses of the same media identifier and reject such uses as
probably fraudulent. Since a forger is
unable to guess valid digital signatures for novel (i.e. un-seen) media
identifiers, rejection of duplicates does not
penalize users of valid media.
Authentication during Printing
An M-Print printing device is configured to obtain the media identifier and
one or both of the digital signatures
before, during or after completion of printing. The M-Print device obtains
this information from the Netpage tag
pattern and/or the data track, if present.
The M-Print device can use the information to authenticate the medium. It can
authenticate the media identifier and
short signature by querying the authentication server, or it can authenticate
the media identifier and long signature
locally if it is already in possession of the appropriate public key. It can
obtain a public key associated with a range
of media identifiers the first time it encounters a media identifier in the
range, and can then cache the public key
locally for future use, indexed by range. It can flush the cache at any time
to regain space, e.g. on a least-recently-


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used or least-frequently-used basis. It can obtain the public key from the
authentication server itself or from any
other trusted source.

If the M-Print device is unable to authenticate the medium before or during
printing, then it can abort printing to
prevent use of the medium. If it is only able to authenticate the medium after
printing, then it can still provide the
user with feedback indicating that the medium is a forgery.

If the M-Print device fails to obtain coded information from the medium at
all, then it can abort printing and/or
signal to the user that the medium is invalid.
If the source of printed content is network-based, and the M-Print device
itself is not trusted, then the server which is
providing the printed content can predicate delivery of that content on media
authentication. I.e. the medium itself
can act as a secure token for enabling printing.

Authentication during Netpage Interaction
A Netpage pointing device (such as an M-Print device incorporating a Netpage
pointer), when tapped on (or
swiped over) a Netpage -enabled medium such as a printed M-Print medium, is
configured to obtain the media
identifier and one or both of the digital signatures from the Netpage tag
pattern.

The device is thereby able to authenticate the medium, using the mechanisms
described earlier, should it need to do
so.

More importantly, it is able to prove to a Netpage server that it is being
used to interact with a valid medium by
providing the server with a copy of the media identifier and one or both of
the digital signatures (or fragments
thereof). The server is thereby able to authenticate the medium, and is
therefore able to reject attempted interactions
with an invalid medium. For example, it is able to reject an attempt to
download the digital image associated with a
printed photo, preventing fraudulent access to photo images based on merely
guessing valid media identifiers.

A medium, once printed, can act as a secure token which provides the holder of
the medium with privileged access
to information associated with the medium. For example, the medium may bear a
printout of a photo, and the
medium may then act as a token that gives the holder access to a digital image
corresponding to the photo.

This mechanisms described in this document can also be used to authenticate
media as secure tokens.
Security in M-Print in Mobile Netpage Contexts
As described above, authentication relies on verifying the correspondence
between data and a signature of that data.
The greater the difficulty in forging a signature, the greater the
trustworthiness of signature-based authentication.
The Netpage ID is unique and therefore provides a basis for a signature. If
online authentication access is assumed,
then the signature may simply be a random number associated with the ID in an
authentication database accessible


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to the trusted online authenticator. The random number may be generated by any
suitable method, such as via a
deterministic (pseudo-random) algorithm, or via a stochastic physical process.
A keyed hash or encrypted hash may
be preferable to a random number since it requires no additional space in the
authentication database. However, a
random signature of the same length as a keyed signature is more secure than
the keyed signature since it is not
susceptible to key attacks. Equivalently, a shorter random signature confers
the same security as a longer keyed
signature.

In the limit case no signature is actually required, since the mere presence
of the ID in the database indicates
authenticity. However, the use of a signature limits a forger to forging items
he has actually sighted.
To prevent forgery of a signature for an unsighted ID, the signature must be
large enough to make exhaustive search
via repeated accesses to the online authenticator intractable. If the
signature is generated using a key rather than
randomly, then its length must also be large enough to prevent the forger from
deducing the key from known ID-
signature pairs. Signatures of a few hundred bits are considered secure,
whether generated using private or secret
keys.

While it may be practical to include a reasonably secure random signature in a
tag (or local tag group), particularly
if the length of the ID is reduced to provide more space for the signature, it
may be impractical to include a secure
ID-derived signature in a tag. To support a secure ID-derived signature, we
can instead distribute fragments of the
signature across multiple tags. If each fragment can be verified in isolation
against the ID, then the goal of
supporting authentication without increasing the sensing device field of view
is achieved. The security of the
signature can still derive from the full length of the signature rather than
from the length of a fragment, since a
forger cannot predict which fragment a user will randomly choose to verify. A
trusted authenticator can always
perform fragment verification since they have access to the key and/or the
full stored signature, so fragment
verification is always possible when online access to a trusted authenticator
is available.

Fragment verification requires that we prevent brute force attacks on
individual fragments, otherwise a forger can
determine the entire signature by attacking each fragment in turn. A brute
force attack can be prevented by throttling
the authenticator on a per-ID basis. However, if fragments are short, then
extreme throttling is required. As an
alternative to throttling the authenticator, the authenticator can instead
enforce a limit on the number of verification
requests it is willing to respond to for a given fragment number. Even if the
limit is made quite small, it is unlikely
that a normal user will exhaust it for a given fragment, since there will be
many fragments available and the actual
fragment chosen by the user can vary. Even a limit of one can be practical.
More generally, the limit should be
proportional to the size of the fragment, i.e. the smaller the fragment the
smaller the limit. Thus the experience of the
user would be somewhat invariant of fragment size. Both throttling and
enforcing fragment verification limits imply
serialisation of requests to the authenticator. A fragment verification limit
need only be imposed once verification
fails, i.e. an unlimited number of successful verifications can occur before
the first failure. Enforcing fragment
verification limits further requires the authenticator to maintain a per-
fragment count of satisfied verification
requests.


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A brute force attack can also be prevented by concatenating the fragment with
a random signature encoded in the
tag. While the random signature can be thought of as protecting the fragment,
the fragment can also be thought of as
simply increasing the length of the random signature and hence increasing its
security. A fragment verification limit
can make verification subject to a denial of service attack, where an attacker
deliberately exceeds the limit with
invalid verification request in order to prevent further verification of the
ID in question. This can be prevented by
only enforcing the fragment verification limit for a fragment when the
accompanying random signature is correct.
Fragment verification may be made more secure by requiring the verification of
a minimum number of fragments
simultaneously.
Fragment verification requires fragment identification. Fragments may be
explicitly numbered, or may more
economically be identified by the two-dimensional coordinate of their tag,
modulo the repetition of the signature
across a continuous tiling of tags.

The limited length of the ID itself introduces a further vulnerability.
Ideally it should be at least a few hundred bits.
In the Netpage surface coding scheme it is 96 bits or less. To overcome this,
the ID may be padded. For this to be
effective the padding must be variable, i.e. it must vary from one ID to the
next. Ideally the padding is simply a
random number, and must then be stored in the authentication database indexed
by ID. If the padding is
deterministically generated from the ID then it is worthless.
Offline authentication of secret-key signatures requires the use of a trusted
offline authentication device. The QA
chip (which is the subject of a number of US patents, including 6,566,858
(Docket No. AUTH02US); 6,331,946
(Docket No. AUTH04US); 6,246,970 (Docket No. AUTH05US); 6,442,525 (Docket No.
AUTH06US), all filed on
June 8, 1998 provides the basis for such a device, although of limited
capacity. The QA chip can be programmed to
verify a signature using a secret key securely held in its internal memory. In
this scenario, however, it is impractical
to support per-ID padding, and it is impractical even to support more than a
very few secret keys. Furthermore, a
QA chip programmed in this manner is susceptible to a chosen-message attack.
These constraints limit the
applicability of a QA-chip-based trusted offline authentication device to
niche applications.

In general, despite the claimed security of any particular trusted offline
authentication device, creators of secure
items are likely to be reluctant to entrust their secret signature keys to
such devices, and this is again likely to limit
the applicability of such devices to niche applications (although such niche
applications are still important).

By contrast, offline authentication of public-key signatures (i.e. generated
using the corresponding private keys) is
highly practical. An offline authentication device utilising public keys can
trivially hold any number of public keys,
and may be designed to retrieve additional public keys on demand, via a
transient online connection, when it
encounters an ID for which it knows it has no corresponding public signature
key. Untrusted offline authentication
is likely to be attractive to most creators of secure items, since they are
able to retain exclusive control of their
private signature keys.


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A disadvantage of offline authentication of a public-key signature is that the
entire signature must be acquired from
the coding, which is at odds with the general desire to support authentication
with a minimal field of view. A
corresponding advantage of offline authentication of a public-key signature is
that access to the ID padding is no
longer required, since decryption of the signature using the public signature
key generates both the ID and its
padding, and the padding can then be ignored. A forger can not take advantage
of the fact that the padding is
ignored during offline authentication, since the padding is not ignored during
online authentication.

Acquisition of an entire distributed signature is not particularly onerous.
Any random or linear swipe of a hand-held
sensing device across a coded surface allows it to quickly acquire all of the
fragments of the signature. The sensing
device can easily be programmed to signal the user when it has acquired a full
set of fragments and has completed
authentication. The device may be programmed to only perform authentication
when the tags indicate the presence
of a signature.

The need for swiping is of less concern in the context of authenticating a
print medium prior to or during printing
with the preferred embodiment of a mobile device incorporating a printer. In
the preferred form, the print medium
is inserted into a media feed path for printing. Either during this insertion,
or subsequently while the print medium
is being moved by the device's drive mechanism, a sensing device can read a
series of tags sufficient to obtain all
the required signature fragments.

Although the use of authentication has been described with reference to
Netpage tags, similar principles can be
applied to the linear encoding scheme (or any other encoding scheme) used to
encode data on pre-printed print
media.

Note that a public-key signature may be authenticated online via any of its
fragments in the same way as any
signature, whether generated randomly or using a secret key. The trusted
online authenticator may generate the
signature on demand using the private key and ID padding, or may store the
signature explicitly in the authentication
database. The latter approach obviates the need to store the ID padding.
Note also that signature-based authentication may be used in place of fragment-
based authentication even when
online access to a trusted authenticator is available.
Table 13 provides a summary of which signature schemes are workable using the
coded data structures in the
preferred encoding scheme. It will be appreciated that these limitations do
not apply to all encoding schemes that
can be used with the invention.

Encoding Acquisition Signature Online Offline
in tags from tags generation authentication authentication

Local full random ok Impractical to store per ID
information


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secret key Signature too short to be Undesirable to store secret keys
secure

private key Signature too short to be
secure
Distribute fragment(s) random ok impracticalb
d

secret key ok impractical'
private key ok impracticalb
full random ok impracticalb

secret key ok impractical`
private key ok ok

Key:
a: It is impractical to store per-ID information in the offline authentication
device
b: The signature is too short to be secure.
c: It is undesirable to store secret keys in the offline authentication
device.
Cryptographic Algorithms
When the public-key signature is authenticated offline, the user's
authentication device typically does not have
access to the padding used when the signature was originally generated. The
signature verification step must
therefore decrypt the signature to allow the authentication device to compare
the ID in the signature with the ID
acquired from the tags. This precludes the use of algorithms which don't
perform the signature verification step by
decrypting the signature, such as the standard Digital Signature Algorithm
U.S. Department of Commerce/National
Institute of Standards and Technology, Digital Signature Standard (DSS), FIPS
186-2, 27 January 2000.

RSA encryption is described in:
= Rivest, R.L., A.Shamir, and L.Adleman, "A Method for Obtaining Digital
Signatures and Public-Key
Cryptosystems", Communications of the ACM, Vol.21, No.2, February 1978, pp.120-
126
= Rivest, R.L., A.Shamir, and L.M.Adleman, "Cryptographic communications
system and method", U.S.
Patent 4,405,829, issued 20 September 1983
= RSA. Laboratories, PKCS #1 v2.0: RSA Encryption Standard, October 1, 1998

RSA provides a suitable public-key digital signature algorithm that decrypts
the signature. RSA provides the basis
for the ANSI X9.31 digital signature standard American National Standards
Institute, ANSI X9.31-1998, Digital
Signatures Using Reversible Public Key Cryptography for the Financial Services
Industry (rDSA), September 8,


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1998. If no padding is used, then any public-key signature algorithm can be
used.

In the preferred Netpage surface coding scheme the ID is 96 bits long or less.
It is padded to 160 bits prior to being
signed.
The padding is ideally generated using a truly random process, such as a
quantum process, or by distilling
randomness from random events. For more information on these issues, see
Schneier, B., Applied Cryptography,
Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons 1996.

In the preferred Netpage surface coding scheme the random signature, or
secret, is 36 bits long or less. It is also
ideally generated using a truly random process. If a longer random signature
is required, then the length of the ID in
the surface coding can be reduced to provide additional space for the
signature.

Authentication
Each object ID has a signature. Limited space within the preferred tag
structure makes it impractical to include a full
cryptographic signature in a tag so signature fragments are distributed across
multiple tags. A smaller random
signature, or secret, can be included in a tag.

To avoid any vulnerability due to the limited length of the object ID, the
object ID is padded, ideally with a random
number. The padding is stored in an authentication database indexed by object
ID. The authentication database may
be managed by the manufacturer, or it may be managed by a third-party trusted
authenticator.

Each tag contains a signature fragment and each fragment (or a subset of
fragments) can be verified, in isolation,
against the object ID. The security of the signature still derives from the
full length of the signature rather than from
the length of the fragment, since a forger cannot predict which fragment a
user will randomly choose to verify.

Fragment verification requires fragment identification. Fragments may be
explicitly numbered, or may by identified
by the two-dimensional coordinate of their tag, modulo the repetition of the
signature across continuous tiling of
tags.
Note that a trusted authenticator can always perform fragment verification, so
fragment verification is always
possible when on-line access to a trusted authenticator is available.

Off-line Public-Key-Based Authentication
An off-line authentication device utilises public-key signatures. The
authentication device holds a number of public
keys. The device may, optionally, retrieve additional public keys on demand,
via a transient on-line connection
when it encounters an object ID for which it has no corresponding public key
signature.

For off-line authentication, the entire signature is needed. The
authentication device is swiped over the tagged
surface and a number of tags are read. From this, the object ID is acquired,
as well as a number of signature


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fragments and their positions. The signature is then generated from these
signature fragments. The public key is
looked up, from the scanning device using the object ID. The signature is then
decrypted using the public key, to
give an object ID and padding. If the object ID obtained from the signature
matches the object ID in the tag then the
object is considered authentic.

The off-line authentication method can also be used on-line, with the trusted
authenticator playing the role of
authenticator.

On-line Public-Key-Based Authentication
An on-line authentication device uses a trusted authenticator to verify the
authenticity of an object. For on-line
authentication a single tag can be all that is required to perform
authentication. The authentication device scans the
object and acquires one or more tags. From this, the object ID is acquired, as
well as at least one signature fragment
and its position. The fragment number is generated from the fragment position.
The appropriate trusted authenticator
is looked up by the object ID. The object ID, signature fragment, and fragment
number are sent to the trusted
authenticator.

The trusted authenticator receives the data and retrieves the signature from
the authentication database by object ID.
This signature is compared with the supplied fragment, and the authentication
result is reported to the user.

On-line Secret-Based Authentication
Alternatively or additionally, if a random signature or secret is included in
each tag (or tag group), then this can be
verified with reference to a copy of the secret accessible to a trusted
authenticator. Database setup then includes
allocating a secret for each object, and storing it in the authentication
database, indexed by object ID.

The authentication device scans the object and acquires one or more tags. From
this, the object ID is acquired, as
well as the secret. The appropriate trusted authenticator is looked up by the
object ID. The object ID and secret are
sent to the trusted authenticator.

The trusted authenticator receives the data and retrieves the secret from the
authentication database by object ID.
This secret is compared with the supplied secret, and the authentication
result is reported to the user.
Secret-based authentication can be used in conjunction with on-line fragment-
based authentication is discussed in
more detail above.

NETPAGE CLICKER
An alternative embodiment of the invention is shown in Figures 140 and 141, in
which the mobile device includes a
Netpage clicker module 162. This embodiment includes a printer and uses a dual
optical pathway arrangement to
sense coded data from media outside the mobile device as well as coded data
pre-printed on media as it passes
through the device for printing.


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The Netpage clicker in the preferred embodiment forms part of a dual optical
path Netpage sensing device. The first
path is used in the Netpage clicker, and the second operates to read coded
data from the card as it enters the mobile
telecommunications device for printing. As described below, the coded data on
the card is read to ensure that the
card is of the correct type and quality to enable printing.
The Netpage clicker includes a non-marking nib 340 that exits the top of the
mobile telecommunications device.
The nib 340 is slidably mounted to be selectively moveable between a retracted
position, and an extended position
by manual operation of a slider 342. The slider 342 is biased outwardly from
the mobile telecommunications
device, and includes a ratchet mechanism (not shown) for retaining the nib 340
in the extended position. To retract
the nib 340, the user depresses the slider 342, which disengages the ratchet
mechanism and enables the nib 340 to
return to the retracted position. One end of the nib abuts a switch (not
shown), which is operatively connected to
circuitry on the PCB.

Working from one end of the first optical path to the other, a first infrared
LED 344 is mounted to direct infrared
light out of the mobile device via an aperture to illuminate an adjacent
surface (not shown). Light reflected from the
surface passes through an infrared filter 348, which improves the signal to
noise ratio of the reflected light by
removing most non-infrared ambient light. The reflected light is focused via a
pair of lenses 350 and then strikes a
plate beam splitter 352. It will be appreciated that the beam splitter 352 can
include one or more thin-film optical
coatings to improve its performance.
A substantial portion of the light is deflected downwardly by the plate
splitter and lands on an image sensor 346 that
is mounted on the PCB. The image sensor 346 in the preferred embodiment takes
the form of the Jupiter image
sensor and processor described in detail below. It will be appreciated that a
variety of commercially available CCD
and CMOS image sensors would also be suitable.
The particular position of the nib, and orientation and position of the first
optical path within the casing enables a
user to interact with Netpage interactive documents as described elsewhere in
the detailed description. These
Netpage documents can include media printed by the mobile device itself, as
well as other media such as preprinted
pages in books, magazines, newspapers and the like.
The second optical path starts with a second infrared LED 354, which is
mounted to shine light onto a surface of a
card 226 when it is inserted in the mobile telecommunications device for
printing. The light is reflected from the
card 226, and is turned along the optical path by a first turning mirror 356
and a second turning mirror 358. The
light then passes through an aperture 359 and the beam splitter 352 and lands
on the image sensor 346.
The mobile device is configured such that both LEDs 344 and 354 turned off
when a card is not being printed and
the nib is not being used to sense coded data on an external surface. However,
once the nib is extended and pressed
onto a surface with sufficient force to close the switch, the LED 344 is
illuminated and the image sensor 346
commences capturing images.


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Although a non-marking nib has been described, a marking nib, such as a
ballpoint or felt-tip pen, can also be used.
Where a marking nib is used, it is particularly preferable to provide the
retraction mechanism to allow the nib to
selectively be withdrawn into the casing. Alternatively, the nib can be fixed
(ie, no retraction mechanism is
provided).
In other embodiments, the switch is simply omitted (and the device operates
continuously, preferably only when
placed into a capture mode) or replaced with some other form of pressure
sensor, such as a piezo-electric or
semiconductor-based transducer. In one form, a multi-level or continuous
pressure sensor is utilized, which enables
capture of the actual force of the nib against the writing surface during
writing. This information can be included
with the position information that comprises the digital ink generated by the
device, which can be used in a manner
described in detail in many of the assignee's cross-referenced Netpage -
related applications. However, this is an
optional capability.

It will be appreciated that in other embodiments a simple Netpage sensing
device can also be included in a mobile
device that does not incorporate a printer. Figures 85 to 87 shows an example
of such a clicker, albeit in the context
of a mobile device having a printer. It will be appreciated that in the
embodiment of Figures 85 to 87, the Netpage
clicker is entirely concerned with sensing coded data from external Netpage
documents.

In other embodiments, one or more of the turning mirrors can be replaced with
one or more prisms that rely on
boundary reflection or silvered (or half silvered) surfaces to change the
course of light through the first or second
optical paths. It is also possible to omit either of the first or second
optical paths, with corresponding removal of the
capabilities offered by those paths.

IMAGE SENSOR AND ASSOCIATED PROCESSING CIRCUITRY
In the preferred embodiment, the Netpage sensor is a monolithic integrated
circuit that includes an image sensor,
analog to digital converter (ADC), image processor and interface, which are
configured to operate within a system
including a host processor. The applicants have codenamed the monolithic
integrated circuit "Jupiter". The image
sensor and ADC are codenamed "Ganymede" and the image processor and interface
are codenamed "Callisto".

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the image sensor is incorporated
in a Jupiter image sensor as described
in co-pending application USSN 10/778,056 (Docket No. NPSO47US), filed on
February 17, 2004, the contents of
which are incorporated herein by cross-reference.

Various alternative pixel designs suitable for incorporation in the Jupiter
image sensor are described in PCT
application PCT/AU/02/01573 entitled "Active Pixel Sensor", filed 22 November
2002; and PCT application
PCT/AU02/01572 entitled "Sensing Device with Ambient Light Minimisation",
filed 22 November 2002; the
contents of which are incorporated herein by cross reference.

It should appreciated that the aggregation of particular components into
functional or codenamed blocks is not
necessarily an indication that such physical or even logical aggregation in
hardware is necessary for the functioning


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of the present invention. Rather, the grouping of particular units into
functional blocks is a matter of design
convenience in the particular preferred embodiment that is described. The
intended scope of the present invention
embodied in the detailed description should be read as broadly as a reasonable
interpretation of the appended claims
allows.
IMAGE SENSOR
Jupiter comprises an image sensor array, ADC (Analog to Digital Conversion)
function, timing and control logic,
digital interface to an external microcontroller, and implementation of some
of the computational steps of machine
vision algorithms.
Figure 142 shows a system-level diagram of the Jupiter monolithic integrated
circuit 1601 and its relationship with a
host processor 1602. Jupiter 1601 has two main functional blocks: Ganymede
1604 and Callisto 1606. As
described below, Ganymede comprises a sensor array 1612, ADC 1614, timing and
control logic 1616, clock
multiplier PLL 1618, and bias control 1619. Callisto comprises the image
processing, image buffer memory, and
serial interface to a host processor. A parallel interface 1608 links Ganymede
4 with Callisto 6, and a serial
interface 1610 links Callisto 1606 with the host processor 2.

The internal interfaces in Jupiter are used for communication among the
different internal modules.
GANYMEDE IMAGE SENSOR
Features
= Sensor array
= 8-bit digitisation of the sensor array output
= Ddigital image output to Callisto
= Clock multiplying PLL

As shown in Figure 143, Ganymede 1604 comprises a sensor array 1612, an ADC
block 1614, a control and timing
block 1616 and a clock-multiplying phase lock loop (PLL) 1618 for providing an
internal clock signal. The sensor
array 1612 comprises pixels 1620, a row decoder 1622, and a column decoder/MUX
1624. The ADC block 1614
includes an 8-bit ADC 26 and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) 1628. The
control and timing block 1616
controls the sensor array 1612, the ADC 1614, and the PLL 1618, and provides
an interface to Callisto 1606.
CALLISTO
Callisto is an image processor 1625 designed to interface directly to a
monochrome image sensor via a parallel data
interface, optionally perform some image processing and pass captured images
to an external device via a serial data
interface.

Features
= Parallel interface to image sensor


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= Frame store buffer to decouple parallel image sensor interface and external
serial interface
= Double buffering of frame store data to eliminate buffer loading overhead
= Low pass filtering and sub-sampling of captured image
= Local dynamic range expansion of sub-sampled image
= Thresholding of the sub-sampled, range-expanded image
= Read-out of pixels within a defined region of the captured image, for both
processed and unprocessed images
= Calculation of sub-pixel values
= Configurable image sensor timing interface
= Configurable image sensor size
= Configurable image sensor window
= Power management: auto sleep and wakeup modes
= External serial interface for image output and device management
= External register interface for register management on external devices
Environment
Callisto interfaces to both an image sensor, via a parallel interface, and to
an external device, such as a
microprocessor, via a serial data interface. Captured image data is passed to
Callisto across the parallel data
interface from the image sensor. Processed image data is passed to the
external device via the serial interface.
Callisto's registers are also set via the external serial interface.
Function
The Callisto image processing core accepts image data from an image sensor and
passes that data, either processed
or unprocessed, to an external device using a serial data interface. The rate
at which data is passed to that external
device is decoupled from whatever data read-out rates are imposed by the image
sensor.
The image sensor data rate and the image data rate over the serial interface
are decoupled by using an internal RAM-
based frame store. Image data from the sensor is written into the frame store
at a rate to satisfy image sensor read-
out requirements. Once in the frame store, data can be read out and
transmitted over the serial interface at whatever
rate is required by the device at the other end of that interface.
Callisto can optionally perform some image processing on the image stored in
its frame store, as dictated by user
configuration. The user may choose to bypass image processing and obtain
access to the unprocessed image. Sub-
sampled images are stored in a buffer but fully processed images are not
persistently stored in Callisto; fully
processed images are immediately transmitted across the serial interface.
Callisto provides several image process
related functions:
= Sub-sampling
= Local dynamic range expansion
= Thresholding
= Calculation of sub-pixel values


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= Read-out of a defined rectangle from the processed and unprocessed image

Sub-sampling, local dynamic range expansion and thresholding are typically
used in conjunction with dynamic
range expansion performed on sub-sampled images, and thresholding performed on
sub-sampled, range-expanded
images. Dynamic range expansion and thresholding are performed together, as a
single operation, and can only be
performed on sub-sampled images. Sub-sampling, however, may be performed
without dynamic range expansion
and thresholding. Retrieval of sub-pixel values and image region read-out are
standalone functions.
ALTERNATIVE TAG SENSOR ARRANGEMENTS
A number of specific alternative optics systems for implementing sensing of
Netpage tags using the mobile device
will now be described with reference to Figures 144 to 150.
Basic Two Dimensional Tag Image Sensor: Figure 144 shows the basic
configuration of a two-dimensional tag
sensor for sensing tags on a pre-tagged print medium prior to printing. A tag
sensor ordinarily includes an image
sensor 664, a focusing lens 666, an aperture 668 to ensure adequate depth of
field, an infrared filter 670 to eliminate
ambient light, and an infrared illumination source 669 that is strobed in
synchrony with image capture. In the figure,
the tag sensor is shown imaging the surface of a pre-tagged blank 670 to the
left. The infrared filter is not included
in the configuration, on the assumption that ambient light can be adequately
excluded from the print path. Image
capture can be triggered by the detection of a print medium in the print path.
Dual-Purpose 2D Tag Image Sensor: If the Netpage printer is incorporated in a
device which already includes a
Netpage tag sensor, such as a pen, PDA or mobile device such as a phone, then
it can be convenient to multiplex the
operation of the tag sensor between sensing tagged surfaces designated by the
user, and tagged blanks presented to
the printer. In the following discussion these two imaging modes are referred
to as external and internal imaging
respectively.

Figure 145 shows one possible configuration of a multiplexed tag sensor, with
dual optical paths and a single image
sensor 664. The tag sensor is shown imaging an external tagged surface 671,
and the surface of a pre-tagged blank
print medium 672.

The internal optical path includes a first mirror 673 to allow it to point in
the opposite direction to the external
optical path, and a second mirror 674 (shown in plan) to allow it to image the
print medium 672. In the Fig. 145, the
second mirror 674 reflects the optical axis at a right angle to the print
medium, i.e. the mirror is nominally mounted
at 45 degrees to the surface of the print medium, as shown in Figure 144.

Each optical path incorporates its own aperture and lens arrangements 675. The
focal length of each lens can be
selected according to the length of its corresponding optical path. A larger
aperture can potentially be utilised in the
internal optical path than in the external optical path, since shallower depth
of field is acceptable.

Each optical path has its own infrared illumination source. When the first
illumination source 677 is strobed in
synchrony with exposure of the image sensor 664, the image sensor captures an
image of the tagged surface 671
designated by the user. When the second illumination source 676 is strobed the
image sensor captures an image of


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the pre-tagged blank print medium 672. External image capture can be triggered
by a user-initiated "pen down" or
"click" event. Internal image capture can be triggered by the detection of a
print medium in the print path.

Since both optical paths impinge on the image sensor at an angle, some loss of
focus may occur unless corrected by
the lenses. The induced perspective distortion is automatically handled by the
image processing and decoding
algorithm.

Multiplexed tag sensor with beamsplitter: Figure 146 shows a variation of the
multiplexed tag sensor of Figure 145,
with a beam-splitter 678 for splitting the optical path. Although the beam-
splitter 678 is shown downstream of the
aperture 675, it can be placed upstream of the focusing lens if the two
optical paths have substantially different
lengths.

Multiplexed tag sensor with beamsplitter and inline illumination: Figure 147
shows a variation of the multiplexed
tag sensor of Figure 146, with the infrared illumination projected inline with
the imaging path via the beam-splitter
678. The IR filter 679 ideally has an anti-reflective coating to minimise
reflection of the outgoing illumination.
Alternatively, the IR filter 679 can be placed upstream of the beamsplitter to
avoid the problem of reflection
altogether.

With a shared light source, selectively switching on one or the other light
source can no longer be used to select one
or the other imaging path. Instead, a shutter 680 is introduced into the
external imaging path for this purpose.
Provided the print path is non-reflective in the absence of a print medium,
there is no need to introduce a shutter into
the internal imaging path.

The external imaging shutter 680 can be electronically controlled or
mechanically controlled. A mechanical shutter
can be sprung so that it is naturally open, and the print path can include a
lever which engages with the print
medium and is mechanically coupled to the shutter to close it when the medium
is present. Conversely, the shutter
can be sprung so that it is naturally closed, and the "nib" which the user
presses to a tagged surface to initiate
external imaging can be mechanically coupled to the shutter to open it when
the nib is pressed to the surface. An
electromechanical shutter can consist of a pivoting barrier or mirror
mechanically coupled to an electromagnet. An
electronic shutter can consist of a liquid-crystal device which can be
electronically switched between transparent
and opaque states, or a digital micromirror device which can be switched
between reflecting and deflecting states.
Although illustrated as a pivoting barrier in Figure 147, when the shutter
utilises a mirror rather than a barrier, it is
mounted in a normally reflecting position in the optical path.

If there is insufficient headroom above the print medium to accommodate the
full field of view cone, then the two
mirrors can be used to collimate and then re-expand the field of view cone.
The first mirror can be concave in the
direction normal to the surface of the print medium in order to collimate the
field of view cone, and the second
mirror can be convex in the same direction to re-expand it. The second IR
illumination source can similarly have a
lens that collimates the illumination cone in the same direction. The second
mirror can also be tilted at less than 45
degrees to the surface of the print medium, and the first mirror can be
similarly tilted to effect field-flattening, as


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illustrated in Figure 148.

Tilted mirror to reduce headroom: The effect of ambient light entering the tag
sensor via the external optical path
during imaging of the print medium is a function of exposure time, the
response of the IR filter, and the
configuration of the external optical path in relation to its host device. For
example, if the external optical path exits
the top of the host device, then it may encounter a bright light source, such
as the sun, in its field of view.

If ambient light is a problem, then the external optical path can be shuttered
during imaging of the print medium.
This can be achieved as described above. Alternatively, a pivoting mirror can
be used to multiplex the optical path
between external and internal imaging, as shown in Figures 149 and 150.

Multiplexed tag sensor with pivoting mirror, in external imaging mode: Figure
149 shows the tag sensor with a
pivoting mirror 681 positioned for external imaging, while Figure 150 shows
the tag sensor with the mirror
positioned for internal imaging.
The mirror can be electronically or mechanically controlled. A mechanical
mirror can be sprung so that it is
naturally in the external imaging position, and the print path can include a
lever that engages with the print medium
and is mechanically coupled to the mirror to pivot it to the internal imaging
position when a print medium is present.
Conversely, the mirror can be sprung so that it is naturally in the internal
imaging position, and the "nib" which the
user presses to a tagged surface to initiate external imaging can be
mechanically coupled to the mirror to pivot it to
the external imaging position when the nib is pressed to the surface. The
mirror can also be coupled to an
electromagnet, which is activated to effect internal or external imaging. An
electronic mirror can consist of a digital
micromirror device which can be switched between internal imaging and external
imaging reflecting states.
Multiplexed tag sensor with pivoting mirror, in internal imaging mode:
Although the figures show the same side of
the pivoting mirror being used for both internal and external imaging, if, as
discussed earlier, the pivoting mirror is
required to collimate the field of view cone during internal imaging, then
opposite sides of the pivoting mirror can
be used for the two imaging modes, with external imaging mirror surface being
planar and the internal imaging
mirror surface being concave in the direction normal to the surface of the
print medium.

Each of these configurations may utilise a monochrome CMOS image sensor with
an electronic shutter, or an
intrinsically-shuttered CCD image sensor.

ALTERNATIVE EMBODIMENT - PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT
The invention can also be embodied in a number of other form factors, one of
which is a PDA as shown in Figures
151 to 160. Whilst the increasing functionality of mobile phones means that
there is convergence between PDAs
and mobile phones, PDAs are still different enough, in general, from mobile
phones to define a different market and
a different set of requirements. For example, mobile phones are generally
small enough to be carried around in a
user's pocket and are used mainly for voice communication and short text
messages. PDA-style functionality (such
as contact and appointment management) may be provided, but small screen size
(due to small form factor) and
limited control interface options (again due to size issues) makes them less
convenient than a full-size PDA with


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large screen and (often) touch-screen input functionality.

The present invention can be embodied in a PDA 300. The PDA 300 shares a
number of features and components
with the mobile phone described above, and shared elements are indicated with
like reference numerals. A notable
difference between the PDA 300 and the mobile phone I is that the print
cartridge 148 is positioned horizontally
near the top of the PDA (as best shown in Figs. 154 and 158), rather than
vertically along one side as in the mobile
phone. The cartridge 148 can be identical to that used in the mobile phone,
with the same media drive options.
Alternatively, it may have a wider print width to take advantage of the
additional width of the PDA (and the overall
space advantages offered by the PDA's size).
Referring to Fig. 160, the PDA 300 also differs from the mobile phone in that
it provides a replaceable cassette 302
that holds a stack 304 of the print media. The print media can be the same
size and shape as that described for use
with the mobile phone, or can be larger, smaller, of different width or
material, or have different coded data or
advertising material pre-printed on it. The present description will assume,
however, that the media is the same as
that described for use in the mobile phone embodiment.

As best shown in Figure 160, the cassette 302 comprises a bottom moulding 306,
a spring 308, the stack 304 of (in
the preferred embodiment) 20 sheets of the print media and a top moulding 310.
The bottom moulding 306 includes
clip formations 312 that snap into complementary apertures 314 formed in the
top moulding 310. The spring 308
includes fingers 316 that engage the floor of the bottom moulding 306 and a
support section 318 that engages the
media stack 304. The top moulding also includes an exit aperture 319 for
allowing printed media to exit for
printing.

The PDA has a larger display 138 than the mobile phone, and can use any
suitable display technology, such as
OLED or TFT. It is particularly preferred that the PDA incorporate a touch-
sensitive display (or display overlay)
that enables a user to interact with icons and other information displayed on
the display.

Referring to Figs. 155 and 156, the Netpage sensor in the PDA 300 is a
modified version of the arrangement
described in relation to Figure 145, and like numerals have been used to
designate corresponding features. The
particular arrangement allows the mirrors 673 and 674 shown in Figure 145 to
be removed. When reading tags from
the print media in the cassette, the images are captured from the print medium
at the top of the stack which is next to
be printed. Tags on each subsequent print medium are read as it is exposed by
the preceding print medium being
removed from the cartridge for printing.

NETPAGE CAMERA PHONE
Printing a photo as a Netpage and a camera incorporating a Netpage printer are
both claimed in WO 00/71353
(NPA035), Method and System for Printing a Photograph and WO 01/02905 (NPPO
19), Digital Camera with
Interactive Printer, the contents of which are incorporated herein by way of
cross-reference. When a photo is
captured and printed using a Netpage digital camera, the camera also stores
the photo image persistently on a
network server. The printed photo, which is Netpage tagged, can then be used
as a token to retrieve the photo


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image.

A camera-enabled smartphone can be viewed as a camera with an in-built
wireless network connection. When the
camera-enabled smartphone incorporates a Netpage printer, as described above,
it becomes a Netpage camera.
When the camera-enabled smartphone also incorporates a Netpage pointer or pen,
as described above, the pointer or
pen can be used to designate a printed Netpage photo to request a printed copy
of the photo. The phone retrieves the
original photo image from the network and prints a copy of it using its in-
built Netpage printer. This is done by
sending at least the identity of the printed document to a Netpage server.
This information alone may be enough to
allow the photo to be retrieved for display or printing. However, in the
preferred embodiment, the identity is sent
along with at least a position of the pen/clicker as determined

A mobile phone or smartphone Netpage camera can take the form of any of the
embodiments described above that
incorporate a printer and a mobile phone module including a camera.
UNIVERSAL PEN
Further embodiments of the invention incorporate a stylus that has an inkjet
printhead nib.

In a first embodiment shown in Figures 161 to 178, the mobile device includes
a retractable stylus 1000 that
includes an elongate body portion 1002. The body portion 1002 incorporates a
recess 1004 for holding a coil sprint
1006. A raised nub 1008 is formed on one side of the body portion 1002, and a
raised stop 1010 is formed on
another side of the body portion 1002.

A nib cap 1152 is attached to one end of the body portion 1002 and includes
ink galleries which communicate the
ink to a printhead 1120, which is bonded to the free end of the cap 1126. The
printhead is preferably an inkjet type
printhead and more preferably a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based
inkjet such as that described in
detail elsewhere in this specification. The preferred MEMS based inkjets expel
ink using mechanical actuators rather
than by heating of the ink, as currently used by most inkjet printers
currently available. As such MEMS based
inkjets have a lower power consumption compared to such printers, which makes
them attractive for use in portable
devices where available power is limited. Alternatively, a thermal inkjet
printer such as that also described
elsewhere in this specification can be used.

Whichever type of inkjet ejection technology is used, in the preferred form
the ink ejection devices (ie, nozzles) are
arranged into partial spirals 1370-1380, as best shown in Figures 183 and 184.
This spiral arrangement produces
more pleasing strokes than the linear arrangement disclosed in cross-
referenced patent USSN 10/309,185 (Docket
No. UPO8US), filed on December 4, 2002, since it generates ink dots which are
more evenly spaced and which more
fully cover the width of the stroke, no matter the orientation of the
printhead with respect to the direction of motion
of the pen. The linear arrangement is prone to produce strokes with visible
striations when the direction of motion
of the pen is substantially parallel to any of its radial lines of ink
ejection devices, whereas in the spiral arrangement
there are always lines of ink ejection devices perpendicular to the direction
of motion across the full width of the


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device.

Striations due to uneven density can be further suppressed if the direction of
motion is known, since ink ejection
devices located along portions of the spirals which are substantially parallel
to the direction of motion can be
prevented from ejecting ink. The spiral arrangement includes a greater number
of ink ejection devices in the same
area as the linear arrangement, leading to better silicon utilization and
greater stroke density, and includes, for two
of the inks, additional ink ejection devices close to the axis of the
printhead which allow still greater stroke density
for selected inks, such as black and cyan.

Although the preferred form of the invention uses these spirally arranged rows
of ink ejection devices, the stylus
printhead 1120 will be described with reference to a different embodiment
shown in Figures 169 to 178. These
detailed drawings of the inner working and assembly of the stylus are based on
a different embodiment of the
invention designed to work with four colors (CMYK) rather than the three
colors (CMY) used by the preferred
embodiment of the present invention. As mentioned earlier, the particular
number of colors, or the arrangement of
nozzles in the printhead, are merely matters of design choice.

Referring to Figures 168 to 178, the printhead 1120 is bonded to the end cap
1126 but mounted on a flexible printed
circuit board (PCB) 1144 which includes control and power contacts 1146.

A stylus nib 1118 is mounted on the end cap 1126 so as to be capable of a
small amount of axial movement. Axial
movement of the stylus nib 1118 is controlled by integral arms 1148 which
extend laterally and axially away from
the inner end of the stylus to bear against a land 1184 (see Figure 170). In
use, pressing the stylus against a substrate
causes the arms 1148 to bend and allows the stylus to retract. The stylus is
preferably formed by injection molding
of a thermoplastic material, most preferably acetyl. This movement is
typically a maximum of amount 0.5 mm and
provides some feedback to the user. In addition the flexibility of the stylus
nib accommodates a small amount of
roughness in the substrate surface. If desired the stylus nib may be fixed
with substantially no movement allowed.
A nib cap 1152 extends over the end cap 1126, printhead 1120, PCB 1144 and
stylus nib 1118 and an aperture 1154
is provided through which the free end 1156 of the stylus nib 1118 projects.
The aperture 1154 is oval in shape and
allows the printhead 1120 to expel ink though the aperture below the stylus
nib.
The nib cap 1152 is secured in place by one or more resilient snap action arms
1158 integrally formed adjacent its
edge.

Control circuitry for the inkjet actuators can be positioned in any suitable
combination of places within the device,
such as within the print engine controller and/or the printhead itself. The
on/off switch is preferably controlled so
that ink is only ejected when the stylus nib is pressed on a substrate.
Pressing the stylus against a substrate results in
a compressive force in the stylus nib. In this embodiment this results in
movement of the stylus and the on/off
switch may be activated by the movement, by sensing the compressive force or
by other means. Where the stylus is
substantially fixed, movement of the stylus nib relative to the rest of the
pen is not available.


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The stylus is easiest to use in a particular orientation, but in use this is
not particularly critical and the stylus is
configured so that the nib will not obstruct the path of ink from the
printhead to the paper at any orientation, as
shown in Figure 168.

Figure 168 shows the stylus nib resting against paper at three different
orientations, indicated by numbers 1164,
1166 & 1168. The path of ink from the printhead is indicated by line 1170.
Paper sheet 1164 represents an
orientation with the stylus nib above the printhead whilst paper sheet 1166
represents an orientation with the stylus
nib below the printhead. Paper sheet 1168 represents an orientation with the
stylus nib to the side of the printhead.
As seen, the stylus nib does not obstruct the path of the ink to the paper at
any orientation.
It will be appreciated that the print engine controller and/or other circuitry
associated with the stylus can be designed
to adjust one or more characteristics of the ink deposited by the printhead
1120. This may be the amount of ink
deposited, the width of the line produced, the color of the ink deposited (in
a color cartridge) or any other attribute.
Further information about this control is described in cross-referenced USSN
10/309,185 (Docket No.UPO8US),
filed on December 4, 2002.

The printhead 1120 is mounted on PCB 1144 and is received in a recess 1176 in
end cap 1126. Both the printhead
and the recess are non-circular to aid in correct orientation.

The stylus nib 1118 is mounted in a slot 1184 of nib cap 1152 and held in
place by surface 1190 of the end cap
1126. The cantilevered arms 1148 bear against land 1185 and bias the stylus
nib outwards. The front portion 1186 of
the stylus nib is circular in cross section but the back portion 1188 has a
flat surface 1191 which slides over surface
1190 of end cap 1126.

The stylus nib includes a slot 1181 which extends obliquely along the flat
surface 1191. In this embodiment of the
invention, the printhead 1120 includes a rotary capper 1183. The capper is
movable between first and second
operative positions. In the first position the ink ejection nozzles of the
printhead are covered and preferably sealed to
prevent drying of the ink in the printhead and ingress of foreign material or
both. In the second position the ink
ejection nozzles of the printhead are not covered and the printhead may
operate. The capper 1183 includes an arm
1185 which engages the slot 1181. Thus as the stylus nib moves in and out
relative to the printhead the capper 1183
is caused to rotate. When the stylus nib is under no load and is fully
extended the capper is in the first position and
when the stylus nib is depressed the capper is in the second position. The
capper 1183 may incorporate an on/off
switch for the printhead 1120, so the printhead can only operate where the
capper is in the second operative position.
The slot may have an oblique portion to open and close the capper and then a
portion extending axially where no
movement of the capper occurs with stylus nib movement.

The construction and arrangement of the printhead 1120 and capper 1183 are
shown in Figures 170 to 178 inclusive.
The printhead 1120 is an assembly of four layers 1302, 1304, 1306 and 1308 of
a semiconductor material. Layer
1306 is a layer of electrically active semiconductor elements, including MEMS
ink ejection devices 1310. Layer
1306 has been constructed using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques.
Layers 1302 and 1304 are


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electrically inactive in the printhead and provide passageways to supply the
ink to the ink ejection devices 1310
from the ink inlets 1182. The layer 1308 is also electrically inactive and
forms a guard with apertures 1320 above
each ink ejection device 1310 to allow ink to be ejected from the printhead.
The layers 1302, 1304 and 1308 need
not be the same material as the layer 1306 or even a semiconductor but by
using the same material one avoids
problems with material interfaces. Further, by using semiconductor material
for all components the entire assembly
may be manufactured using semiconductor fabrication techniques.

The printhead 1120 has three ink inlets 1182 and the ink ejection devices 1310
are arranged into twelve sets, each of
which extends roughly radially outwards from the center 1300 of the printhead.
Every fourth radial line of ink
ejection devices 1310 is connected to the same ink inlet. Ink ejection devices
connected to the same ink inlet
constitute a set of ink ejection devices. The ink ejection devices 1310 are
arranged on alternate sides of a radial line,
which results in closer radial spacing of their centers. The twelve "lines" of
ink ejection devices 13 10 are arranged
symmetrically about the center 1300 of the printhead, at a spacing of 30 . It
will be appreciated that the number of
"lines" of ink ejection devices 1310 may be more or less than twelve.
Similarly there may be more or less than four
ink inlets 1182. Preferably there are an equal number of lines for each ink
inlet 1182. If a single ink is used the ink
inlets need not feed equal numbers of "lines" of ink ejection devices. Also,
different colors may have different
numbers of nozzles. For example, black ink (where used) may have more nozzles
than the other colors.

The layer 1306 includes a tab 1311 on which there are provided a number of
sets of electrical control contacts 1312.
For clarity only four contacts are shown; it will be appreciated that there
may be more, depending on the number of
different color inks used and the degree of control desired over each
individual ink ejection device 1310 and other
requirements. The printhead is mounted on the PCB 1144 by bonding the tab onto
the PCB 1144. The electrical
contacts 1312 engage corresponding contacts (not shown) on the PCB 1144. The
layer 1306 includes control
circuitry for each ink ejection device to control the device when turned on.
However, generally, all higher level
control, such as what color inks to print and in what relative quantities, is
carried out externally of the printhead, and
preferably in the MoPEC integrated circuit. These higher level controls are
passed to the printhead 1120 via contacts
1312. There is preferably at least one set of contacts 1312 for each set of
ink ejection devices. However each line or
each individual ink ejection device may be addressable. At its simplest, each
set may be merely turned on or off by
the control signals.
As seen in Figures 177, in plan view the printhead 1120 has a substantially
octagonal profile with tabs 1314 and
1316 extending from opposite faces of the octagon. It will be noted that tab
1314 is formed of layers 1302, 1304
and 1306 only, whilst tab 1316 is formed of all four layers 1302, 1304, 1306
and 1308. This enables the PCB 1144
to be bonded to the layer 1306 without extending above the top of layer 1308.
The octagonal shape with tabs also
aids in locating the printhead in the recess 1176 in the end cap 1126.

The capper 1183 is also preferably formed of the same semiconductor material
as the print head and is mounted on
the printhead for rotation about the printhead's center 1300. As with the non-
electrically active layers, the capper
need not be the same material as the print head or even be a semiconductor.
The capper may be rotated between an
open position (see Figure 177) and a closed position (see Figure 178). The
open position is shown, with the closed


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position shown in dotted outline in Figures 173 and 176. The capper 1183 has
twelve radially extending apertures
1318. These apertures are sized and arranged so that in the open position all
of the ink ejection devices are free to
eject ink through the apertures. In the closed position the apertures 1318
overlie material between the lines of ink
ejection devices, and the material of the capper between the apertures 1318
overlies the apertures 1320 in the upper
layer 1308. Thus ink cannot escape from the printhead and foreign material
cannot enter into the apertures 1320 and
the ink ejection devices to possibly cause a blockage.

The apertures 1318 are preferably formed in the capper 1183 using standard
semiconductor etching methods. In the
embodiment shown, each aperture is equivalent to a series of overlapping
cylindrical bores, the diameter of which is
a function of radial distance from the capper's center 1300. Alternatively,
the apertures may be defined by two
radially extending lines at a small angle to each other. It will be
appreciated that the outside of the capper moves
more than the inside when rotated so the apertures need to increase in width
as the radial distance increases.

The capper is substantially planar with eight legs 1322 extending downwards
from the periphery of the lower
surface 1326. These legs are spaced equally about the circumference and engage
in corresponding slots 1328 formed
in the peripheral edge of the upper surface 1329 of the upper layer 1308. The
slots are rectangular with rounded
inner corners. The inner surface 1330 of the slots 1328 and the inner surface
of the legs may be arcuate and centered
on the printhead's center 1300 to aid in ensuring the capper rotates about the
central axis 1300. However this is not
essential. In the embodiment shown, each face of the octagon has a slot 1328
but this is not essential and, for
instance, only alternate faces may have a slot therein. The symmetry of the
legs 1322 and slots 1328 is also not
essential.

Rotation of the capper is caused by engaging arm 1185 in the angled slot 1181
in the stylus nib. Rotation of the
capper is ultimately limited by the legs 1322 and slots 1328. To prevent
damage to the capper, printhead or the
stylus nib, the arm 1185 has a narrowed portion 1334. In the event that the
stylus nib is pushed in too far, the arm
1185 flexes about the narrowed portion 1334. In addition, guard arms 1336 are
provided on either side of the arm
1185 and also serve to limit rotation. The recess 1176 into which the
printhead is inserted has an opening in which
the guard arms are located. If for some reason the capper is rotated too much,
the guard arms contact the side of the
opening and limit rotation before the legs 1322 contact the ends of the slots
1328.
It is desirable that the print head only actuate when the stylus nib is
pressed against a substrate. The stylus nib may
cause a simple on-off switch to close as it moves into the pen. Alternatively,
a force sensor may measure the amount
of force applied to the stylus nib. In this regard the cantilevered arms 1148
may be used directly as electrical force
sensors. Alternatively, a discrete force sensor may be acted upon by the inner
end of the stylus nib. Where a force
sensor is utilized, it may be used merely to turn the printhead on or off or
to (electronically) control the rate of ink
ejection with a higher force resulting in a higher ejection rate, for
instance. The force sensed may be used by a
controller to control other attributes, such as the line width. Rotation of
the capper may also cause an on/off switch
to change state.

The printhead has the different color ink ejection devices arranged radially
and this presents problems in supplying


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ink to the ejection devices where the different color ink ejection devices are
interleaved. In conventional printers the
ink ejection devices are arranged in parallel rows and so all the different
inks may be supplied to each row from
either or both ends of the row. In a radial arrangement this is not possible.

The rear surface of the bottom layer 1302 is provided with four ink inlets
1182. These inlets are oval shaped on the
rear surface for approximately half the thickness of the layer 1302 and then
continue as a circular aperture 1340
through to the upper surface. The rear surface of the layer 1302 also has four
grooves 1342, 1344, 1346 and 1348
located in the central region. There are a number of holes that extend from
the grooves through the layer 1302 (see
figures 175 and 176). The lower surface of the lower layer 1302 seals against
the end cap 1126 so these grooves
define sealed passageways.

Ink holes 1356, 1358, 1360, 1364 and 1366 supply ink to ink distribution
grooves 1350, 1352, 1362, and 1368,
which in turn distribute the inks to their respective rows 1370-1380 of ink
ejection devices.

Figure 184 shows a further alternative arrangement of ink ejection devices
1370-1381 to that shown in Figure 183.
It consists of the same arrangement as that shown in Figure 183, but with a
0.5mm radius compared with the 0.8mm
radius of the arrangement of Figure 183. It represents a more economical
design when wider strokes are not
required. Note, however, that if the direction of motion is known, then the
arrangement of Figure 183 can produce a
more pleasing stroke than the arrangement of Figure 184 even for stroke widths
less than 0.5mm, since ink ejection
devices which are nominally further from the printhead axis than the stroke
radius but which are still within the
stroke boundary can be used to contribute to the stroke.

At the other end of the body portion 1002, a flexible data, power and ink
conduit 1012 enters the stylus 1000. As
best shown in Figure 167, the conduit 1012 is based on a piece of flex film
1014 which includes copper traces 1016
on one side and formed film 1018 on the other. The copper traces 1016 include
data and power supply traces. The
formed film 1018 forms three ink channels 1020. The conduit 1012 is folded
back on itself in serpentine fashion to
enable extension and retraction of the body portion 1002 as described below.

The end of the conduit 1012 remote from the body portion is connected to the
cartridge 148 such that ink, data and
power are supplied to the printhead in the stylus.

The stylus 1000 is mounted for telescopic sliding movement within a holder
1022. The holder 1022 is an extension
of the cradle 124, and includes an elongate hole 1024 through which the nub
1008 extends and a recess 1026 within
which the stop 1010 is positioned. Both the hole 1024 and the recess 1026
extend along the holder 1022 so that the
nub and stop respectively can slide within them as the stylus 1000 is extended
and retracted.

A stylus retaining mechanism 1028 is attached to a snap-fit retainer 1030
formed on a side of the holder 1022. A
complementary snap-in portion 1032 is generally circular in cross-section and
snaps into the retainer 1030 during
assembly. The retainer 1030 and snap-in portion 1032 are configured such that
the stylus retaining mechanism 1028
is rotatable between an open position and a closed position, which are
described in more detail below. A first end of


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the stylus retaining mechanism 1028 includes a stop-engaging portion 1034,
whilst the other end includes a stylus
release button 1036 and moulded bias spring 1038 that biases the stylus
retaining mechanism, into the closed
position.

As best shown in Figure 161, tension in the coil spring 1006 holds the stylus
1000 in a retracted position within the
device. In this position, the tip of the stylus is protected from snags and
bumps it might otherwise encounter when
not in use. The stop 1010 is within a recess in the stop-engaging portion
1034, which enables that end of the
retaining mechanism 1028 to sit relatively flush with the exterior of the
device.

When the stylus is to be extended, a user places a finger or thumb onto the
nub 1008 and telescopically slides the
stylus 1000 against the tension of the coil spring 1006 towards the extended
position shown in Figures 163. As the
stylus 1000 moves towards the extended position, the stop 1010 engages a
ramped surface (not shown) within the
stop-engaging portion 1034, which urges the stop-engaging portion 1034 to
pivot away from the body portion 1002
against the bias of the bias spring 1038, as shown in Figure 162.
Eventually, the edge of the stop-engaging portion 1034 clears the stop 1010,
thereby allowing the stop-engaging
portion 1034 to snap back against the body portion 1002. The user can then
release the nub 1008, allowing the
stylus 1000 to move in the retraction direction under the tension of the coil
spring 1006 until the stop 1010 engages
the stop-engaging portion 1034. The stylus is then retained in the extended
position, as shown in Figure 163 while
the user uses the stylus to write or draw.

To retract the stylus 100, the user depresses the stylus release button 1036,
which causes the retaining mechanism
1028 to pivot about the snap-in portion 1032. This cases the stop-engaging
portion 1034 to lift clear of the stop
1010. The stylus 1000 is then free to retract under the coil spring's 1006
tension until it is back in the original
position shown in Figure 161.
The conduit 1012 provides a compact way of supplying ink, data and power to
the stylus, whilst still enabling a
functioning retraction mechanism.

In a second embodiment shown in Figures 179 to 181, in which like reference
numerals indicate features
corresponding with those from the previous embodiment, the stylus 1000 is
mounted onto the cartridge 148. Unlike
the previous embodiment, the stylus in Figures 179 to 181 does not feature a
retraction mechanism. Instead, the
stylus is mounted directly to the cartridge 148, which supplies it with ink
and data.

As best shown in Figure 181, the cartridge includes three side ducts 1040,
1041, 1042 that are in fluid
communication with the ink reservoirs of the cartridge via channels 1043,
1044, 1045. Each side duct includes a
bore 1046 which is filled by a plug 1048 of wicking compound that helps draw
ink from the cartridge as required. A
duct cover 1050 covers the side ducts to provide sealed pathways through which
ink can flow from the cartridge
towards the printhead chip.


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The ink is distributed to the printhead chip in a similar manner to that
described in relation to the previous
embodiment, notwithstanding the fact that it is provided directly from the
cartridge rather than along a conduit.
Power and data are provided to the printhead chip from the MoPEC integrated
circuit via flexible PCB 1052.

In either embodiment, an optional modular Netpage device incorporating an
infrared LED 1054, associated optics
1056 and CCD (not shown) can be included, as shown in Figure 182. This Netpage
device functions similarly to
those described elsewhere in this specification, but has the advantage of
being integrated with the cradle. This
means that the entire assembly (cradle, stylus, Netpage device) can be
provided to a manufacturer for insertion into a
mobile device without the need for multiple additional assembly steps.
M-PRINT APPLICATIONS
Printing cards from a mobile device using the M-Print system has a vast array
of applications in many different
fields. In the interests of brevity, this specification does not describe any
of the applications in detail. However, to
provide some overall context for the M-Print system, several of its areas of
application are listed below. Of course,
this is not an exhaustive list but merely illustrative of its diversity.

The target application may be remote to the phone. For example, an e-commerce
application, as claimed in WO
00/72242 (NPA002), Method and System for Online Purchasing, can allow the user
to add items to a shopping cart
by designating entries in a printed catalogue or advertising using the
preferred embodiment of the mobile phone. It
can also print a receipt via the printer in the phone and allow the user to
authorise the transaction by signing the
receipt with a Netpage pen in the phone (or with a separate pen that can
communicate with the mobile phone via, for
example, BluetoothTM wireless transmitters and receivers.

When the phone is aware of its own location, either via an in-built GPS
receiver or via a mobile network
mechanism, it can report its location to selected applications to allow those
applications to provide a location-
specific service. For example, when the user designates a printed advertising
promotion, such as a movie discount
offer printed on a product label, the phone can print a voucher which is valid
at a nearby movie theatre. The word
"voucher" is used very broadly, and can include any kind of commercial
document. "Voucher" therefore includes
printed media bearing advertising without any specific form of inducement, a
discount coupon, a special offer
coupon and so on.

For example, a user visiting a town they are not familiar with may decide that
he wishes to visit an Italian restaurant.
He consults his mobile device and brings up a web-page that enables him to
search for restaurants by proximity to
his location, price, cuisine and reviews. The web-page can be hosted remotely
and browsed using a local browser
application, or a local application can be run that searches a remote database
of relevant information and presents it
to the user. A local Italian restaurant running a promotion is selected, and a
voucher for 10% off the meal bill is
printed with the mobile device's inbuilt printer. Alternatively (or in
addition) a map can be printed showing the
address of the restaurant and directions from the user's present location.

The target application may also be local to the phone. For example, a dialing
application, as claimed in WO


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
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01/41413 (NPA060), Method and System for Telephone Control, can allow the user
to dial numbers by designating
entries in a printed address book or phone book. The Netpage clicker or sensor
is used by a user to select a phone
number or email address on a printed document (which can itself be a printed
card produced by the phone or another
user's phone). In the case of a phone number being selected, the mobile phone
can either bring the number up on
the display ready for confirmation that it is to be called, or can simply skip
the confirmation step and ring the
number directly. Alternatively, the user can be offered a choice of which type
of communication to perform based
on the number. For example, a choice may be given to send the user a short
text message via SMS, to call the user,
or to send a voicemail. Similarly, if an email address is designated using the
mobile phone, then an email to that
address can be opened, ready for the user to input text or add attachments. If
the Netpage pen has been used to write
text on a suitable surface (a Netpage notepad or sticky-note, for example),
the last written text can be inserted
automatically in the email to be sent to the selected email address.

A business card application, as claimed in WO 01/22358 (NPA024), Business Card
as Electronic Mail Token and
WO 01/22357 (NPA025), Business Card as Electronic Mail Authorization Token,
can allow the user to print
Netpage business cards for presentation to others and to scan Netpage business
cards presented to others, with
automatic insertion of contact details into the user's local or network-based
address book. The business card
application can be local or remote. If purely local, then a presented business
card may be used simply as a single-use
authorisation token for retrieving contact details directly from the
presenter's phone, e.g. via a direct BluetoothTM (or
infrared) connection.
In related applications, schedule information stored in the phone or PDA
memory, or on a remote server, can be
printed onto a card. The user can choose from options such as, for example, a
"Things To Do Today" list, a
summary of all work related appointments in the next week, or a list of
overdue tasks. All forms of tasks,
reminders, calendar and related functions can be printed to a card. Moreover,
the phone or PDA can be configured
to print an input template for a day, week or month to enable schedule
information to be input to the device using
the built-in Netpage pointer in the device (or using a separate Netpage pen in
communication with the device via,
for example, BluetoothTM).

In all cases, data that is being printed by the printer in the device can
either be stored locally on the device itself, or
downloaded from a remote server. Moreover, where a Netpage pointer or pen is
incorporated into the device (or is
separately able to communicate via the device), cards printed by the device
can be interacted with the Netpage pen
or pointer.
Connection History
The mobile device with printer can be used to print out connection history
associated with the device. Connection
history includes any voice- or data-related information associated with the
sending or receipt of voice, data, text,
images or audio, and with the establishment of a connection associated with
the communication of data any of these
types.
For example, a user can cause the mobile device to print out a list of the 10
most voice calls initiated by the device.
Alternatively, the user can print the last calls received by the device, or
all missed calls in the last 24 hours.
Where Netpage clicker or pen capability is provided in the mobile device
(whether through a built-in clicker/pen or


CA 02602695 2010-10-08
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an external Netpage enabled device communicating with the device via a wired
or wireless link), the printed
connection history information can be interacted with in a useful way. For
example, electing a listed missed call
causes the phone number associated with the contact to be dialed, or at least
brought up on the mobile device's
display to enable the user to save the number or dial it. Alternatively,
selecting a message from a printed "Sent
messages" list causes the selected message to be displayed on the device's
display, or even printed by the device for
further review.

NETPAGE TAG PATTERN PRINTING
The preferred embodiments shown in the accompanying figures operate on the
basis that the cards may be pre-
printed with a Netpage tag pattern. Pre-printing the tag pattern means that
the printhead does not need nozzles or a
reservoir for the IR ink. This simplifies the design and reduces the overall
form factor. However, the M-Print
system encompasses mobile telecommunication devices that print the Netpage tag
pattern simultaneously with the
visible images. This requires the printhead IC to have additional rows of
nozzles for ejecting the IR ink. A great
many of the Assignee's patents and co-pending applications have a detailed
disclosure of full color printheads with
IR ink nozzles (see for example 11/014,769 (Docket No. RRCOOIUS) , filed on
December 20, 2004).

To generate the bit-map image that forms the Netpage tag pattern for a card,
there are many options for the mobile
device to access the required tag data. In one option, the coding for
individually identifying each of the tags in the
pattern is downloaded from a remote server on-demand with each print job. As a
variation of this, the remote
Netpage server can provide the mobile telecommunication device with the
minimum amount of data it needs to
generate the codes for a tag pattern prior to each print job. This variant
reduces the data transmitted between the
mobile device and the server, thereby reducing delay before a print job.

In yet another alternative, each print cartridge includes a memory that
contains enough page identifiers for its card
printing capacity. This avoids any communication with the server prior to
printing although the mobile will need to
inform the server of any page identifiers that have been used. This can be
done before, during or after printing. The
device can inform the Netpage server of the graphic and/or interactive content
that has been printed onto the media,
thereby enabling subsequent reproduction of, and/or interaction with, the
contents of the media.

There are other options such as periodic downloads of page identifiers, and
the M-print system can be easily
modified to print the Netpage tags with the visual bitmap image. However, pre-
coding the cards is a convenient
method of authenticating the media and avoids the need for an IR ink
reservoir, enabling a more compact design.
CONCLUSION
The present invention has been described with reference to a number of
specific embodiments. It will be understood
that where the invention is claimed as a method, the invention can also be
defined by way of apparatus or system
claims, and vice versa. The assignee reserves the right to file further
applications claiming these additional aspects
of the invention.
Furthermore, various combinations of features not yet claimed are also aspects
of the invention that the assignee
reserves the right to make the subject of future divisional and continuation
applications as appropriate.

A single figure which represents the drawing illustrating the invention.

For a clearer understanding of the status of the application/patent presented on this page, the site Disclaimer , as well as the definitions for Patent , Administrative Status , Maintenance Fee  and Payment History  should be consulted.

Admin Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date 2011-08-16
(86) PCT Filing Date 2005-05-09
(87) PCT Publication Date 2006-11-16
(85) National Entry 2007-09-25
Examination Requested 2007-09-25
(45) Issued 2011-08-16
Lapsed 2013-05-09

Abandonment History

There is no abandonment history.

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Request for Examination $800.00 2007-09-25
Filing $400.00 2007-09-25
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 2 2007-05-09 $100.00 2007-09-25
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 3 2008-05-09 $100.00 2007-09-25
Registration of Documents $100.00 2008-04-01
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 4 2009-05-11 $100.00 2009-04-16
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 5 2010-05-10 $200.00 2010-03-22
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 6 2011-05-09 $200.00 2011-04-26
Final Fee $1,770.00 2011-05-31
Current owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Current Owners on Record
SILVERBROOK RESEARCH PTY LTD
Past owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Past Owners on Record
ATKINSON, DAVID JOHN
HENDERSON, PETER CHARLES BOYD
HOLLINS, MICHAEL J.
KING, TOBIN ALLEN
LAPSTUN, JACQUELINE ANNE
LAPSTUN, PAUL
PLUNKETT, RICHARD THOMAS
SILVERBROOK, KIA
TOW, GREGORY MICHAEL
WALMSLEY, SIMON ROBERT
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.

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Abstract 2007-09-25 2 77
Description 2007-09-25 204 12,223
Drawings 2007-09-25 137 3,776
Claims 2007-09-25 113 6,195
Representative Drawing 2007-12-13 1 5
Cover Page 2007-12-14 2 50
Description 2010-10-08 206 10,924
Claims 2010-10-08 2 87
Cover Page 2011-07-14 2 52
PCT 2007-09-25 16 630
Assignment 2008-04-01 3 112
Prosecution-Amendment 2009-09-21 9 1,160
Assignment 2007-09-25 2 123
Correspondence 2007-12-12 1 27
Prosecution-Amendment 2009-10-09 4 158
Prosecution-Amendment 2009-10-16 1 39
Prosecution-Amendment 2009-10-19 1 73
Correspondence 2010-02-25 1 15
Prosecution-Amendment 2010-04-23 4 157
Prosecution-Amendment 2010-04-22 3 148
Prosecution-Amendment 2010-10-08 212 11,196
Prosecution-Amendment 2010-12-15 1 41
Prosecution-Amendment 2011-01-31 1 49
Correspondence 2011-05-31 1 42