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Patent 2627902 Summary

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(12) Patent Application: (11) CA 2627902
(54) English Title: SECURITY ELEMENT AND METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF
(54) French Title: ELEMENT DE SECURITE ET PROCEDE DE FABRICATION DUDIT ELEMENT
Status: Dead
Bibliographic Data
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • B42D 25/405 (2014.01)
  • B42D 25/328 (2014.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • DEPTA, GEORG (Germany)
(73) Owners :
  • GIESECKE & DEVRIENT GMBH (Germany)
(71) Applicants :
  • GIESECKE & DEVRIENT GMBH (Germany)
(74) Agent: R. WILLIAM WRAY & ASSOCIATES
(74) Associate agent:
(45) Issued:
(86) PCT Filing Date: 2006-10-19
(87) Open to Public Inspection: 2007-05-10
Availability of licence: N/A
(25) Language of filing: English

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT): Yes
(86) PCT Filing Number: PCT/EP2006/010088
(87) International Publication Number: WO2007/051530
(85) National Entry: 2008-04-30

(30) Application Priority Data:
Application No. Country/Territory Date
10 2005 052 562.8 Germany 2005-11-02

Abstracts

English Abstract




The invention relates to a method for producing a security element (12) with
an optically variable structure, which contains an individualization feature,
with the following method steps: a) providing a substrate with a marking
structure with a number of flat markings (24, 26), and; b) providing the
substrate with a relief structure having a number of raised relief elements
(22). The marking structure and the relief structure are combined to enable
different information to be viewed from different viewing directions, and the
individualization feature is generated in at least one of the working steps a)
or b) with a contactless method or with a printing method without a fixed
printing form.


French Abstract

L'invention concerne un procédé de fabrication d'un élément de sécurité présentant une structure optiquement variable pourvue d'une marque d'individualisation, lequel procédé consiste a) à doter un substrat d'une structure de marquage présentant une pluralité de marques plates et b) à doter ce substrat d'une structure en relief présentant une pluralité d'éléments en relief. La structure de marquage et la structure en relief sont combinées, de sorte que différentes informations sont visibles sous différents angles de vue, et la marque d'individualisation est produite lors d'au moins une des étapes de travail a) ou b) par un procédé sans contact ou par un procédé d'impression sans forme imprimante fixe.

Claims

Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.




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CLAIMS


The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or
privilege is claimed are defined as follows:


1. A method for manufacturing a security element having an optically
variable pattern that includes an individualizing mark, having the method
steps:

a) providing a substrate with a marking pattern having a plurality of flat
markings;

b) providing the substrate with a relief pattern having a plurality of
raised relief elements,

the flat markings being at least partially disposed on sides of the relief
elements and the marking pattern and the relief pattern being
combined in such a way that different pieces of information are visible
from different viewing directions, and

the individualizing mark being produced in at least one of the work
steps a) or b) with a non-impact method or a printing method without
a fixed printing plate.


2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the marking
pattern and the relief pattern are produced with the same method in one
work step.




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3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the marking
pattern and the relief pattern are produced in separate work steps, wherein
the marking pattern can be produced before or after the relief pattern.


4. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in
that the relief pattern is embossed in the substrate.


5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the relief
pattern is produced with an embossing die.


6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the relief
pattern is produced in intaglio printing.


7. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in
that the substrate is provided with the relief pattern by the action of a
laser
beam.


8. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in
that the relief pattern is developed in the form of a grid, preferably a grid
having a constant spatial frequency.


9. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in
that the substrate is provided with the marking pattern by the action of a
laser beam.


10. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in
that the marking pattern is imprinted on the substrate.




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11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the marking
pattern is applied to the substrate in the ink-jet method or with a digital
printing method that works with low pressure.


12. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the marking
pattern is produced in planographic printing, such as in the offset method, in

relief printing, such as in letterpress printing or in the flexographic
printing
method, in screen printing or in a thermographic method, such as in the
thermotransfer method.


13. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 12, characterized
in that the marking pattern is developed in the form of a grid, preferably a
grid having a constant spatial frequency.


14. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 13, characterized
in that the individualizing mark comprises letters, numerals or a symbol
code, such as a barcode or matrix code.


15. The method according to at least one of claims 1 to 14, characterized
in that the substrate and/or the surface of the security element includes
further security substances that are activated, exposed, covered, partially
destroyed or removed in at least one of the work steps a) or b).


16. A security element having an optically variable pattern that includes a
marking pattern having a plurality of flat markings and a relief pattern
having a plurality of raised relief elements, the marking pattern and the
relief
pattern being combined in such a way that different pieces of information are
visible from different viewing directions, characterized in that




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- the flat markings are disposed at least in part on sides of the relief
elements, a relief element and a flat marking disposed on at least one
of its sides together forming a pattern element, and in that

- the marking pattern and/or the relief pattern is provided with an
individualizing mark that is produced with a non-impact method or a
printing method without a fixed printing plate.


17. The security element according to claim 16, characterized in that the
relief elements of the relief pattern are disposed in the form of a grid,
preferably a grid having a constant spatial frequency.


18. The security element according to claim 16 or 17, characterized in that
the flat markings of the marking pattern are disposed in the form of a grid,
preferably a grid having a constant spatial frequency.


19. The security element according to claim 17 and 18, characterized in
that the grids of the relief pattern and of the marking pattern exhibit the
same spatial frequency.


20. The security element according to claim 17 and 18, characterized in
that the relief pattern and the marking pattern exhibit slightly different
spatial frequencies to produce beat or Moiré effects.


21. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 20,
characterized in that the flat markings exhibit at least one colored area.




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22. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 21,
characterized in that the flat markings exhibit multiple colored areas that
are
disposed at least in part on different sides of the relief elements.


23. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 22,
characterized in that the optically variable pattern includes a plurality of
pattern elements that depict a multicolored image motif whose visual
impression varies when the viewing angle is changed.


24. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 23,
characterized in that the individualizing mark comprises letters, numerals or
a symbol code, such as a barcode or matrix code.


25. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 24,
characterized in that the relief pattern and the marking pattern are disposed
on a single- or multi-layered substrate.


26. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 25,
characterized in that the relief pattern and the marking pattern are disposed
on a substrate that is single- or multi-layer coated, printed, pasted, clad or

laminated.


27. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 26,
characterized in that the substrate and/or the surface of the security element

exhibits further, especially machine-readable security features.


28. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 27,
characterized in that the marking pattern and the relief pattern are combined




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with one or more further layers that depict a pattern or image that is
visually
perceptible when viewed vertically.


29. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 28,
characterized in that the relief elements are developed to be tactilely
perceptible.


30. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 29,
characterized in that the relief pattern includes a plurality of non-line-
shaped relief elements.


31. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 30,
characterized in that at least a portion of the non-line-shaped relief
elements
exhibits substantially the shape of a tetrahedron, a spherical segment, a
pyramidal frustum, a conical frustum, a cylindrical segment, a torus
segment, an oval, a teardrop or a pyramid.


32. The security element according to at least one of claims 16 to 31,
characterized in that the relief pattern is broken down into sub-regions in
which different partial relief patterns are disposed.


33. The security element according to claim 32, characterized in that the
partial relief patterns each form a grid of the same line screen and, in at
least
two adjoining sub-regions, the grids of the partial relief patterns are
disposed
offset by a fraction of the line screen, especially by about one-third of the
line
screen.




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34. A data carrier, especially a value document, such as a banknote,
identification card or the like, having a security element according to one of

claims 1 to 33.


35. A use of a security element according to at least one of claims 1 to 33 or
a
data carrier according to claim 34 for securing goods of any kind against
counterfeiting.


Description

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.



CA 02627902 2008-04-30

Security Element and Method for Manufacturing the Same
The present invention relates to a security element having an optically

variable pattern that includes an individualizing mark, as well as a method
for manufacturing such a security element. The present invention further
relates to a data carrier equipped with such a security element.

To protect against reproduction, especially with color copiers or comparable
reproduction methods, data carriers, such as banknotes, bonds, certificates,
vouchers, checks, valuable admission tickets and other papers that are at risk
of counterfeiting, such as credit cards, passports and other identification
documents, as well as product protection elements, such as labels, seals and
packaging are furnished with opticallv variable security elements. Here, the

counterfeit protection is based primarily on the fact that the optically
variable
effects are visually easily and clearly perceptible for human viewers, but
cannot be reproduced with currently known reproduction devices, since
these always render the optically variable elements from only one viewing
direction.

At the same time, such data carriers are often intended to include an
individualization or personalization, such as numbering in banknotes or
personal data or a photograph in identification documents. These individual
components of the data carrier compete with other security elements for the
space on the data carrier.

As optically variable security elements for data carriers are known, for
example from publication EP 0 801 604 B1, relief patterns having a tilt
effect.
These security elements consist substantially of an embossed grid of a certain

spatial frequency that is combined with a flat coating grid of the same
spatial
frequency in such a way that at least portions of the coating grid are visible


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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when viewed vertically, but are covered when viewed at an angle from a
predetermined viewing direction. In this way, when viewed alternatingly
vertically and at an angle, a tilt effect is created.

However, the standard printing and embossing method used for this do not
permit individual pieces of information for each individual up in the tilt
image. If, on the other hand, the standard method for individualizing
banknotes or security prints that use numbering in letterpress or relief
print,
then a previouslv introduced embossing would be partially destroyed.

However, the printing sequence can be reversed only with difficulty, since
the individualization is generally scheduled as the last print cycle.
Further, since the grid patterns are fine line or dot matrices, effect ink
that,
due to its pigment size, can be applied only in the relatively coarse screen

printing cannot normally be used as a flat print.

A further disadvantage lies in the fact that the flat print and the
corresponding relief pattern must be produced in two different operations,
and register variations thus result that can cause the tilt effect to appear
only

weakly or not at all. Therefore, the tilt effect securitv elements are
normally
disposed on a data carrier multiply and slightly staggered to ensure that the
tilt effect shows up well in at least one of the elements.

From publication DE 199 47 425 Al is known a method for coating existing
relief patterns in which the relief-shaped material is coated with the aid of
ink droplets or pigments, in each case from an oblique angle, so that the
sides
are each colored with a certain color. However, this method requires an
oblique orientation of the ink droplet or pigment flow relative to the relief
pattern, preferably in an evacuated or positive-pressure zone, which makes


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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quick mass production with conventional printing machines difficult. The
method does also facilitate later marking of the data carriers, but no
individual marking.

Based on that, the object of the present invention is to specify a generic
security element that avoids the disadvantages of the background art. In
particular, the security element is intended to combine individualization and
the optically variable effect in an advantageous manner and also permit their
manufacture at the high processing speeds required in security printing.

This object is solved by the manufacturing method and the security element
having the features of the independent claims. Developments of the present
invention are the subject of the dependent claims.

According to the present invention, a method for manufacturing a security
element having an optically variable pattern that includes an individualizing
mark comprises the method steps:

a) providing a substrate with a marking pattern having a plurality of flat
markings; and

b) providing the substrate with a relief pattern having a plurality of
raised relief elements.

Here, the marking pattern and the relief pattern are combined in such a way
that different pieces of information are visible from different viewing
directions, and the individualizing mark is produced in at least one of the
work steps a) or b) with a non-impact method or a printing method without
a fixed printing plate.


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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Printing methods without a fixed printing plate are also referred to as non-
impact-printing methods or NIP methods. The name "non-impact" here is
based on a differentiation from previously common "impact printers," in

which a slug or needles put the information on the paper by impact. Such
systems were frequently replaced by electrophotographic methods, in which
the information is transferred contactlessly via a laser to an intermediate
carrier, the latent charge image colored with a toner, and then transferred to
the paper. Thus, also in the NIP methods, there is contact between the

information color carriers and the paper when printing, but the information
is not transferred by impact (see Handbuch der Printmedien (Handbook of
Print Media), Ed.: Helmut Kipphan, Springer, 2000, p. 709). Printing methods
without a fixed printing plate include especially electrophotography,
ionography, magnetography, ink-jet methods and thermography (op. cit., p.
711).

In a first advantageous embodiment, the marking pattern and the relief
pattern are produced with the same method in one work step. According to
another, likewise advantageous embodiment, the marking pattern and the

relief pattern are produced in separate work steps, wherein the marking
pattern can be produced before or after the relief pattern.

All embodiments achieve, as advantages, a space-saving combination of the
security element and the individualization of a data carrier, as well as
additional security through the possibility of correspondence of the security
element and other individualizations, such as the combination of a tilt
element with numbering on a banknote.


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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If the flat markings are produced, for example, by laser ablation of ink from
preprinted surfaces, for these, too, effect inks can be used that, due to
their
pigment size, can be applied only in screen printing with a relatively high
screen aperture and thus, in printing, do not permit fine resolution in the
necessary spatial frequency. In this way, for example color and information
tilt effects can be combined.

Especially when the flat markings and the relief elements of the relief
pattern
are laid out in grids of the same spatial frequency, it is not necessary to

maintain an oblique angle between the two production steps.

Through the production of the relief substantially in the substrate of the
data
carrier, also the problem of the abrasion of ink layers upon use is prevented,
as can occur, for example, in the method known from publication

DE 692 09 185 T2. Since the relief is located substantially in the substrate,
it
exhibits improved durability against other mechanical or chemical stresses,
as well.

Furthermore, if the marking pattern and the relief pattern are produced with
the same device in one operation, there is no registration problem bet'ATeen
the relief information and the marking information. In this way, multiple
depiction of the created tilt information can be omitted.

The substrate of the data carrier is especially a coated or uncoated cotton
paper or a coated or uncoated plastic foil, especially based on PVC,
polycarbonate or PET.

According to a preferred embodiment of the method, the relief pattern is
embossed in the substrate. The embossing can occur, for example, with an


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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embossing die or also in intaglio printing. According to another, likewise
preferred embodiment, the substrate is provided with the relief pattern by
the action of a laser beam. Here, the laser parameters for producing the
relief
pattern are tuned in a per se known manner to the composition and
properties of the substrate, as described in publications DE 102 47 591 Al and
DE 3213 315 Al, whose disclosure in this respect is incorporated in the
present application.

The relief pattern is advantageously developed in the form of a grid,

preferably a grid having a constant spatial frequency. Here, the raised grid
elements form the "grid points" of the grid. It is understood that the term
"grid point" is understood in the standard printing technology sense and
does not mean a dimensionless point in the mathematical sense. Possible grid
arrangements comprise grids having a constant period (constant point size,

constant point spacing), amplitude-modulated grids (variable point size,
constant point spacing), frequency-modulated grids (constant point size,
variable point spacing) and higher-order non-periodical grids, as described
in the above-mentioned Handbuch der Printmedien on pages 44 ff. In
addition to two-dimensional grids, also one-dimensional grids (line grids)

may be used. In this case, the "grid points" are formed by line-shaped grid
elements.

In an advantageous variant of the present invention, the substrate is
provided with the marking pattern by the action of a laser beam. Here, the
marking pattern can be introduced into a substrate body, such as a cotton

paper or a plastic foil, or into a layer applied on the substrate body.
According to another, likewise advantageous variant of the present
invention, the marking pattern is imprinted on the substrate. For example,
the marking pattern can be applied in the ink-jet method or with a digital


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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printing method that works with low pressure. In other embodiments, the
marking pattern is advantageously produced in planographic printing, such
as in the offset method, in relief printing, such as in letterpress printing
or in
the flexographic printing method, in screen printing or in a thermographic

method, such as in the thermotransfer method.

Like the relief pattern, also the marking pattern is advantageously developed
in the form of a grid, preferably in the form of a grid having a constant
spatial frequency, the flat markings forming the "grid points" of the grid.

Here, the possible grid arrangements are the same as described above in
connection with the relief grids.

The grid of the relief pattern and the marking pattern preferably exhibit the
same spatial frequency. However, it is also possible to form the relief
pattern
and the marking pattem having slightly different spatial frequencies to

produce beat or Moire effects.

The individualizing mark preferably comprises letters, numerals or a symbol
code, such as a barcode or matrix code.

The substrate and/or the surface of the security element can include further
security substances that are activated, exposed, covered, partially destroyed
or removed in at least one of the work steps a) or b).

The present invention also comprises a security element having an optically
variable pattern that includes a marking pattern having a plurality of flat
markings and a relief pattern having a plurality of raised relief elements,
the
marking pattern and the relief pattern being combined in such a way that
different pieces of information are visible from different viewing directions.


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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Here, the marking pattern and/or the relief pattern is provided with an
individualizing mark that is produced with a non-impact method or a
printing method without a fixed printing plate.

The relief elements of the relief pattern and/or the flat markings of the
marking pattern are advantageously disposed in the form of a grid,
preferably in the form of a grid having a constant spatial frequency. As
mentioned above, the grids of the relief pattern and the marking pattern can
exhibit the same spatial frequency or, to produce beat or Moire effects,

slightly different spatial frequencies.

The flat markings are expediently disposed at least in part on sides of the
relief elements, a relief element and a flat marking disposed on at least one
of
its sides together forming a pattern element. The flat markings
advantageously exhibit at least one colored area. It will often be useful to
form the flat markings having multiple colored areas that are disposed at
least in part on different sides of the relief elements such that the viewer
gains different color impressions from different viewing directions.

In an advantageous development of the present invention, the optically
variable pattern includes a plurality of pattern elements (in other words,
relief elements having flat markings disposed on at least one of their sides)
that depict a multicolored image motif whose visual impression varies when
the viewing angle is changed.

Here, the individualizing mark can comprise letters, numerals or a symbol
code, such as a barcode or matrix code. It can also exhibit multiple
components that are perceptible only from different viewing angles. For
example, the individualizing mark can depict a numeral that, depending on


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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the viewing angles, appears in another color, or it can include two or more
different symbols that are each perceptible from a different direction.

The relief pattern and the marking pattern can be disposed on a single- or
multi-layered substrate, or on a substrate that is single- or multi-layer
coated,
printed, pasted, clad or laminated.

The substrate and/or the surface of the security element can also exhibit
further, especially machine-readable security features to further increase the
counterfeit security.

In a further development of the present invention, the marking pattern and
the relief pattern are combined with one or more further layers that depict a
pattern or image that is visually perceptible when viewed vertically.

The raised relief elements of the relief pattern can advantageously also be
formed to be tactilely perceptible. The height of said tangible marking above
the surface can be varied within a broad scope through the choice of laser
parameters, the substrate material and the relative speed of the laser beam

and the substrate at laser inscription. Typically, a height between 30 m and
about 100 m is chosen.

The relief pattern can especially include a plurality of non-line-shaped
relief
elements, at least a portion of the non-line-shaped relief elements
advantageously exhibiting substantially the shape of a tetrahedron, a
spherical segment, a pyramidal frustum, a conical frustum, a cylindrical
segment, a torus segment, an oval, a teardrop or a pyramid.


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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To compensate for register variations, the relief pattern can be subdivided
into sub-regions in which different partial relief patterns are disposed. In
particular, the partial relief patterns can each form a grid of the same line
screen and, in at least two adjoining sub-regions, the grids of the partial
relief

patterns can be disposed offset by a fraction of the line screen, especially
by
about one-third of the line screen.

The present invention also includes a data carrier, especially a value
document, such as a banknote, identification card or the like, having a
securitv element of the kind described above.

Further exemplary embodiments and advantages of the present invention are
described below with reference to the drawings. To improve clarity, a
depiction to scale and proportion was dispensed with in the drawings.


Shown are:

Fig. 1 a schematic diagram of a banknote having a security element
according to an exemplary embodiment of the present

invention,

Fig. 2 a section along the line II-II in fig. 1,

Fig. 3 a section of only the relief pattern of the security element in fig.
1, in plan view,

Fig. 4 a section of only the marking pattern of the security element in
fig. 1, in plan view,


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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Fig. 5 the combination of the relief pattern in fig. 3 and the marking
pattern in fig. 4,

Fig. 6 a top view of a security element according to an exemplary
embodiment of the present invention, diagrammed
schematically,

Fig. 7 a diagram as in fig. 5 for a security element according to a
further exemplary embodiment of the present invention,
Fig. 8 a section of only the marking pattern of a security element
according to a further exemplary embodiment of the present
invention, in plan view,

Fig. 9 a section of only the relief pattern of the security element in fig.
8,

Fig. 10 the combination of the marking pattern in fig. 8 and the relief
pattern in fig. 9,

Fig. 11 in (a) and (b) schematic top views of the basic grid of security
elements according to further exemplary embodiments of the
present invention,

Fig. 12 a schematic top view of the basic grid of a further security
element according to the present invention,

Fig. 13 a security element according to yet a further exemplary
embodiment of the present invention, wherein (a) shows the


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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image impression when viewed vertically (b), and (c) depicts
the image impression when viewed from an oblique angle (d),
and

Fig. 14 a further development of the security element in fig. 12.

The invention wiIl now be explained using a banknote as an example. For
this, fig. 1 shows a banknote 10 having an inventive security element 12 that
is disposed in the image region 14 of the banknote. The security element 12

includes an optically variable pattern that, from different viewing
directions,
presents different pieces of information to the viewer and thus displays a
tilt
effect. Such securitv elements are often used in banknotes and other value
documents with cash value, since the tilt effect can easily be visually
perceived and checked by the viewer, and yet, particularh, due to the

direction dependency of the visual impression, it cannot be reproduced with
today's copying devices, which render the optically variable pattern only
from one viewing direction.

Furthermore, the optically variable pattern of the security element 12
exhibits
an individualizing mark that is characteristic for the individual data
carrier.
For banknotes, this can be, for example, the entire serial number or a part of
it, and for identification documents, the individualization can include

personal data or a portrait. To be able to integrate this individualizing mark
into the optically variable pattern, it is produced, as explained in detail

below, with a non-impact method or a printing method without a fixed
printing plate in at least one of the work steps for producing the optically
variable pattern.


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First, the fundamental structure of the optically variable pattern of the
security element 12 is explained in greater detail with reference to figures 2
to 5, with fig. 2 showing a schematic sectional view along line II-II in fig.
1.
Fig. 3 shows a section of only the relief pattern of the security element 12,
in

plan view, fig. 4 a section of only the marking pattern of the security
element
12, in plan view, and fig. 5 shows the combination of the relief pattern in
fig.
3 with the marking pattern in fig. 4.

As can best be seen in the diagram in fig. 2, the optically variable pattern
20
exhibits a plurality of raised relief elements 22 that can be produced, for
example, by embossing the banknote 10. If the banknote is mechanically
deformed with an embossing die, then the bottom of the banknote displays
corresponding negative deformations that, however, are not significant in the
context of the present invention and are thus not depicted in the figures. If

the relief elements are produced in another manner, for example by the
action of a laser beam on the substrate material, then normallv no
corresponding deformations are created on the reverse of the banknote.

The optically variable pattern 20 further includes a marking pattern having a
plurality of flat markings 24, 26 that are disposed on different sides of the
relief elements 22 and thus lend the securitST element a different appearance
depending on the viewing direction.

For illustration, figures 3 and 4 show a section of the relief pattern and of
the
marking pattern, in plan view, wherein the square grid drawn in with dotted
lines serves merely to improve the diagram clarity. Both the relief elements
22 and the flat markings 24, 26 are disposed in a grid having a constant
spatial frequency and whose horizontal and vertical line screen are given by


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the values x and y. In the exemplary embodiment, a square grid is depicted
with x = y.

As can be seen in fig. 4, the spatial frequency of the marking pattern is
based
on an imaginary reference point 28 in the center of each grid square. The flat
markings 24, 26 themselves can take on different positions within the grid
squares to come to lie on different sides of the relief elements. If, for
example,
the marking pattern in fig. 4 is combined with the relief pattern in fig. 3,
then
the flat markings 24 and 26 come to lie on opposing sides of the relief

elements 22, as shown in figures 2 and 5. In each case, one relief element 22
forms, together with the flat marking 24 or 26 disposed on one of its sides, a
pattern element 32, wherein the pattern elements 32, as the smallest units,
form the pixels of the screened information collectively depicted by the
optically variable pattern.


When viewed from a first viewing direction 30 (fig. 2), primarily the
markings 24 determine the image impression, while the markings 26 are
hardly visible or not at all. In contrast, when the pattern is viewed from an
opposing viewing direction, primarily the markings 26 determine the image

impression, while the markings 24 contribute hardly or not at all. In this
way,
through suitable arrangement of the markings 24 and 26, an individualizing
mark having a tilt effect can be integrated into the optically variable
pattern
20 of the security element 12.

Some specific exemplary embodiments are described below, where, with
reference to figures 2 to 10, embodiments in which the relief pattern and the
marking pattern are produced in separate work steps are described first.


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In a first exemplary embodiment that will now be explained in greater detail,
especially with reference to the depiction in figures 2 and 6, the individual
piece of information is introduced, by color change or ink removal, into
relief
patterns that were embossed, with or without areal ink layers, in substrates.
For this, on a substrate 40 is first imprinted a laser-absorbing, for example
black, ink layer 42 that, in a later work step, can be locally ablated or
modified by the action of laser radiation such that a local color change is
created at the site of the laser impingement.

Then, relief patterns are embossed in the printed substrate, in the exemplary
embodiment in the form of a regular knob relief 22, as shown in figures 2 and
3. Then, to produce the flat markings, the printed and embossed substrate is
impinged on with laser radiation in accordance with a predefined dot matrix

template, the reference points of the dot matrix template exhibiting the same
line screens x and y as the knob relief 22.

In the simplest case, due to the laser impingement, the black ink layer 42 is
ablated locally such that the white background layer of the substrate stands
out at the labeled sites 22, 24, as shown in fig. 2. Under the laser-absorbing

ink layer 42 can also be disposed a different colored, non-absorbing ink layer
can that is locally exposed by the laser impingement. In further
embodiments, through the laser radiation, a local color change in the ink
layer 42 can be induced also without ablation. For example, the ink layer can
exhibit an ink mixture having a laser-radiation-absorbing mixture
component and a laser-radiation-transparent mixture component, and, by
the action of the laser radiation, the absorbing mixture component is
bleached, evaporated or altered in its reflection properties, or through a


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chemical reaction, transformed into a material having other optical
properties, such that visually perceptible flat markings are created.

It is understood that, to be able to depict a piece of information, the flat
markings of the dot matrix template are not all disposed at the reference
point. Rather, as shown in fig. 6, a first sub-group 46 of the flat markings
is
shifted (+x/4, +y/4) from the reference point, or to the top right, while a
second sub-group 48 of the flat markings is shifted (-x/4, -y/4) from the
reference point, or to the bottom left. The first and second sub-group of flat

markings thus come to lie on opposing sides of the relief elements 22. For the
sake of clearer illustration, in fig. 6, the relief elements 22 printed on
with the
black ink layer 42 are depicted as unfilled, while the flat markings 22, 24 in
which the ink coating is ablated and that thus appear light for the viewer are
depicted as filled in the schematic diagram in fig. 6.

The first and second sub-group of flat markings 46, 48 together form the
piece of information that is inscribed as an individual mark in the optically
variable pattern by lasering. In the exemplary embodiment in fig. 6, the two
sub-groups 46, 48 together form the numeral "5". When viewed from

direction 50, the viewer looks primarily at the light markings 26 of the first
sub-group 46, while the markings 24 of the second sub-group 48 lie on the
side of the relief elements 22 facing away from the viewer. Thus, from this
direction, the numeral "5" appears dark against a light background.

In contrast, when viewed from direction 52, the viewer looks at the light
markings 24 of the second sub-group 48, while the markings 26 of the first
sub-group 46 on the side of the relief elements 22 facing away from the
viewer lie such that, from direction 52, the numeral "5" appears light against
a dark background. This change in contrast appears conspicuously when the


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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security element is tilted. It is understood that, depending on the form of
the
relief elements 22 and the relative arrangement of the markings 24, 26 to the
reference point 28, also other excellent viewing directions can be chosen.

Since, in printing machine registration, it must be expected that the lasered
markings 24, 26 can also land on the center of the knobs 22 and in the valley
between the knobs 22 and thus no easily visible tilt effect is created,
multiple
homogeneous fields having relief patterns can be laid out in which the

lasered dot matrix is shifted in each case by, for example, 1/3 of the line
screens. In precisely this way, also the pre-embossed knob grid could exhibit
these shifts in different fields.

The application of the flat marking 24, 26 to the right site can be supported
in
that the substrate 40 is coated appropriately for the relief pattern 22 such

that, for example, certain sites take on color and others do not. If the
marking
is executed with the aid of laser markers, the coating can advantageously be
applied in such a way that certain sites absorb laser radiation given a
certain
set of parameters (for example, comprising energy and/or wavelength

and/or pulse length) and thus undergo a color change, but other sites only
given another set of parameters.

Potential registration problems can also be reduced in that the position of
the
predefined grid is established through suitable metrological measures. For
this, for example, together with the operation creating the relief,
registration
marks can be introduced that are subsequently read out by suitable sensors
prior to the application of the flat markings 24, 26, or industrial image
processing can be used to establish the position of the predefined relief 22.
Since non-impact and/or digital printing methods can work without a fixed
template, not onlv the content but also the position of the flat marking can
be


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

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defined shortly before the application and thus be adjusted to the actual
position of the relief.

In precisely this way, the piece of information to be applied can be based on
data that is read from the substrate 40 only during its transport, and then
applied corresponding to this piece of information. In this way, for example,
the serial number of a banknote can be scanned prior to lasering and then the
final number lasered into the knobs 22 as a piece of information. The same
applies, for example, to personalization data on identification documents

that are first scanned and then e.g. partially incorporated in a tilt image.

The piece of information can also be created in that the lasered points
exhibit
different sizes or shapes or are concentrated to form lines. For example, it
can
be created by removing the ink, lightening the color or changing the color
impression, all of these variants being subsumed under the term "color
change" in the present description.

Also the ink-jet method or another digital printing method that works with
such low pressure that the relief patterns are not destroyed can take the
place
of the lasering. This normally produces dark structures on a light substrate
having embossing.

The sequence of the work steps can also be reversed. However, the described
sequence is typically preferred, since then the individualization occurs as
the
last print cycle.

The relief elements 22 can also be provided with markings 24, 26 at two or
more different sites, as shown in the exemplary embodiment in fig. 7. In this
case, different images are created depending on the viewing angle. For


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example, a first symbol, such as a numeral, can be composed of marking
points 24 that appear at the bottom left on the relief elements 22. A second
symbol, such as a letter, is composed of marking points 26 that appear at the
top right on the relief elements 22. Depending on the viewing angle, the first
or second symbol is then perceived.

The procedure for a line relief, in other word, a relief pattern having line-
shaped relief elements, is similar: In the preprinted ink is embossed a line
pattern that exhibits parallel sides that point in opposite directions. The
flat

markings are then introduced in such a way that lines are created that land
on the sides. Different pieces of information can be depicted, for example, in
that the line grid is shifted by half the spacing of the pre-embossed relief
grid.

The preprinted ink can also be executed as a screen printing ink that includes
feature or effect pigments. For the present embodiment, all that matters is
that this ink permits processing with the aid of the laser. In this,,A,ay, the
resolution required for tilt elements can be achieved, also when molds with a
large screen aperture must be used for printing to accommodate the larger
pigment size.

Another possibility to introduce the individual piece of information into the
optically variable pattern consists in contactlessly introducing the relief
patterns into substrates already provided with flat markings, as now

described with reference to figures 8 to 10.

In these embodiments, a substrate is first provided, in regular intervals of a
certain spatial frequency, with flat markings, for example, in the form of


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-20-
different colored circles 60, as shown in fig. 8. All conventional printing
methods of suitable resolution can be used for this.

Then, a relief pattern having raised relief elements 62, 64 is produced in the
substrate by impingement with laser radiation, as depicted in fig. 9. In the
exemplary embodiment, the line screens x, y of the relief pattern are chosen
to be identical to the line screens x, y of the marking pattern. Here, the
laser
parameters for producing the relief pattern are coordinated with the

composition and the properties of the substrate, with reference being made
to publications DE 102 47 591 Al and DE 32 13 315 Al for details of the per se
known method. Furthermore, the laser parameters and the properties of the
printing inks used for the flat markings are coordinated with each other in
such a way that the printing inks used absorb the laser radiation only
slightly
or not at all such that they are altered or removed by the laser radiation
only
slightly or not at all.

To be able to depict the piece of information, in this exemplary embodiment,
the relief pattern includes a first and second sub-group of relief elements 62
and 64 that are staggered by half a line screen. Depending on which of the

colored circles 601and where on the relief elements 62, 64, different color
impressions result for the viewer from different viewing directions, as
illustrated with reference to fig. 10. Similar to the situation for the
exemplary
embodiment in figures 3 to 5, the two sub-groups of the relief elements 62, 64
can depict the shape of the desired individualizing marks, for example a

numeral, a letter or another symbol. The sections in figures 8 to 10 show, for
example, a portion of an optically color-variable depiction of a numeral "5".
It also applies to this embodiment that, for normal registration with the aid
of a printing machine, it must be expected that the printed dots 60 can also


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-21-
land on the center of the knobs 64, 66 and in the valley between the knobs
and thus no easily visible tilt effect is created. Therefore, multiple
identical or
similar fields can be laid out in which the lasered knob grid is shifted in
different directions in each case, for example by 1/3 of the line screens. In
precisely this way, also the preprinted dot matrix 60 could exhibit these
shifts
in different fields.

The inscribed individual piece of information can also be created in that the
lasered knobs exhibit, for example, different sizes or shapes or e.g. are
concentrated to form lines or "worms". The preprinted dots 60 can also be
provided with knobs at two or more different sites such that, depending on
the viewing angle, different images are created. In this way, e.g. a number
can be composed of knobs that appear at the bottom left under the dots, and
a further one of knobs that appear at the top right. Depending on the viewing

angle, one or the other number is then perceived.

The procedure for a line relief is again similar: Here, into the preprinted
lines
is tactilely introduced a line pattern that exhibits parallel sides that point
in
opposite directions. The flat markings then lie on the sides of this relief.

Different pieces of information are depicted in that the relief is shifted
e.g. by
half the spacing of the preprinted line grid.

In further embodiments of the present invention, the individual piece of
information can also be produced in the form of a color or relief change in
already existing tilt images.Here, a conventional tilt image is first
manufactured according to the background art, and the individualizing mark
is then produced by a non-impact and/or a digital method in the form of an
information-bearing marking pattern (as for instance in fig. 2 to 7) or in the
form of an information-bearing relief pattern (as for instance in fig. 8 to
10).


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-22-
In this way, an additional piece of information that produces its own tilt
effect is created within the predefined tilt image.

In principle, here, too, the inscribed, especially lasered-in piece of

information can be created by color change (ink removal, lightening or a
change in the color impression). The piece of information can also be created
in that other shapes than dots or lines are lasered, or different sizes or
line
widths are used.

A variant of the present invention is created when, prior to the information-
carrying print cycles, one or more further layers are preprinted. Then, this
laver can either be changed and, in doing so, layers lying on top influenced
as well, or it can be exposed, depending on which of the layers is absorbent.
If there are further layers underneath, they can be exposed. One of the layers

can also include a feature ink that can be seen or detected only with
technical
aids and is influenced or exposed bv the lasering.

In the further exemplary embodiments now described with reference to
figures 11 to 14, the relief pattern and the marking pattern are produced with
the aid of the same non-impact method, especially by means of laser

impingement, such that registration problems are inherently avoided. Here,
the individual piece of information can be depicted by the relief pattern or
the marking pattern.

In first exemplary embodiments of this variant of the present invention, a
relief pattern is produced in each substrate by impingement of coated
substrates. Here, the coating is chosen such that a color change (ink removal,
lightening, bleaching) can be produced by the laser radiation in the same
operation.


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-23-
The relief patterns can be introduced into the coated substrate first, and
then
the flat markings, or conversely, depending on what seems to be
advantageous in terms of method. It will most often be useful to introduce
the flat markings first. Here, the arrangement of the two components on the
tilt image being created can match the above-described figures and examples
such that the flat markings consist of dots that appear on the sides of relief-

forming knobs.

The information content can be either in the arrangement of the flat markings
or in the arrangement of the relief elements. It is possible also in this
variant
of the present invention to make different pieces of information visible from
different viewing angles in that, for each different piece of information, the
flat markings come to lie on different sites of the relief. Also effect inks
can be
used as the background.

Here, the basic grid can be oriented horizontally and vertically, as shown in
fig. 11(a), in which the reference number 70 indicates the relief elements,
and
the reference number 72, the flat markings. Here, the line screen can be, for

example, x = y = 0.5 mm. For the embodiments in fig. 11(a), the pattern must
be tilted diagonally in order to view the different states, as indicated by
the
arrows 74. Should the pattern be able to be tilted vertically from top to
bottom, as perhaps automatically executed by the viewer, it is advantageous
to dispose the basic grid rotated 45 , as depicted in fig. 11(b). The
arrangement of the piece of information diagonally has the advantage that
more space is available for the piece of information that is to be depicted.


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-24-
Of course other regular arrangements of the relief elements 70 or the flat
markings 72 are also possible, especially those in which the grid is stretched
or compressed in one of the two main directions.

It can also be advantageous to introduce into the preprinted background,
through fine patterns or slightly different colors, a graphic, an image or a
pattern that is visible in plan view and diverts the eye of the viewer from
the
information hidden in the tilt image. Only when tilted is the introduced
individualization information then conspicuous.

Since the production of the relief elements by means of laser entails a
removal of the ink, the relief element enlarges the lightened site in each
case.
Auxiliary substances that support relief formation can also be used in the
substrate; in this case, a lower energy will be able to be used for this that

leads to less extensive ink ablation such that the area used for the flat
marking receives a larger share of the total ink ablation and the information
included in the flat marking is more easilv visible.

The height, the expanse and the brightness of the relief elements 70 and the
expanse and the brightness of the flat markings 72 can also be varied in such
a way that a grid image is created in the manner of an autotypical grid (i.e.
identical spacing of grid points, with different point sizes). In this way,
the
viewer will perceive only the grid image in plan view, while a further piece
of information is displayed when tilted.

Also in a further exemplary embodiment, explained with reference to fig. 12,
it can be achieved that, in plan view, the inscribed individual piece of
information initially appears to be hardly or not at all visible. For this,
the
laser parameters are chosen such that the relief pattern 70 and the flat


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-25-
marking pattern in the coated substrate exhibit the same or at least a similar
gray value. Then, in certain regions 76, the arrangement of the relief
elements
70 and the flat markings 72 are interchanged. At an oblique viewing angle,
pieces of information can then be perceived that, depending on the viewing

and light incidence angle, appear light on a dark background or dark on a
light background.

The two last-mentioned approaches can also be combined with one another,
as now explained with reference to fig. 13. In the portrait 80 shown there,
the
relief elements and the flat markings are each disposed in a constant grid.

The different brightness impression is created merely through a variation of
the height, expanse and brightness of the relief elements and of the expanse
and brightness of the flat markings. In region 82, whose contour constitutes
an individual piece of information, in the exemplary embodiment the

numeral "5", the arrangement of the relief elements and the flat markings is
interchanged, as shown in fig. 12.

When the portrait 80 is viewed from the vertical viewing direction 84 (fig.
13(b)), this interchange is not perceptible since, from this viewing
direction,
the interchanged and non-interchanged arrangements produce the same

brightness impression. The image impression thus corresponds to the
diagram in fig. 13(a). If, in contrast, the portrait 80 is tilted and viewed
from
an oblique angle 86 (fig. 13(d)) then, depending on the viewing direction, the
region 82 stands out, light or dark, from its surroundings and the inscribed

individual information is perceptible, as schematically depicted in fig.
13(c).
The described embodiments can be extended in such a way that the optically
variable pattern includes additional pieces of information that are
perceptible, for example, in the horizontal tilt direction. Fig. 14 shows an


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-26-
extension of the exemplary embodiment in fig. 12, in other words a relief
pattern having relief elements 70 and a marking pattern having flat markings
72, the arrangement of the relief elements 70 and the flat markings 72 being
interchanged in certain regions 76. In the exemplary embodiment in fig. 14

are provided, perpendicular to the connecting line of the relief elements and
the flat markings, additional markings 78 that can include a further piece of
information.

This further piece of information lies outside the sides of the relief
elements
70 and is thus already easily perceptible when viewed vertically. The further
piece of information can thus be used to depict image contents, primarily in
plan view, that initially divert the eye of the viewer from the actual tilt

information.
In other exemplary embodiments, the additional markings 78 can also be
applied only at certain sites or be reinforced at certain sites. It is also
possible
to dispose the additional markings 78 and the tilt image 70, 72 in such a way
that they complement each other.

The additional markings 78 can also be used to lighten the overall
appearance of a security element or to further adapt the gray values of the
flat markings and the relief elements to each other. For this, the size and
the
ink ablation of these additional markings can be adjusted accordingly.

The contrast created upon tilting can be improved if the areal fraction of the
light markings (flat and relief) is adjusted to the brightness impression of
the
total area. For a technical description and comparison measurement, the
brightness is described in gray levels. Thus, the so-called simple contrast is


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-27-
formed from the ratio of the gray level of the light points (Gh) to the mean
gray level of the total area (Gm):

K = Gh/Gm=

As is immediately evident, this ratio becomes that much better the darker the
overall impression of the area and thus the smaller Gm is.

The same applies for the so-called Weber contrast, which is given by
Kw=(Gh-Gm)/Gm

and, with the gray values present here, also for the modulation
KM=(Gh-Gm)/ (Gh+Gm).

It is thus advantageous to distribute the individual marking sites in a lower
spatial frequency, since in this way, the brightness impression of the total
area is lowered. Nevertheless, when optimizing the contrast, care must be
taken that, when tilting, sufficient areal coverage is necessan> for the image
components that become light, and that the image context is not lost due to

pixels that are too far apart. To accommodate these requirements, preferred
line screens lie between about 0.4 mm and 1.2 mm, the range between 0.5
mm and 1 mm being particularly preferred.

In precisely this way, the overall brightness can be lowered in that the
darkest possible tone with the highest possible saturation is used for the
background color. Here, it is particularly advantageous to use the intaglio
printing method used in security printing, which facilitates a good saturation
due to the high layer thicknesses. Since, due to the process, it is
problematic
to print areas with conventionally manufactured intaglio printing plates, for


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-28-
this, methods are preferred that permit a small-scale patterning also of lower-

lying areas and, in this way, produce define color-capturing grids, as
described for instance in the publications DE 100 44 711 Al and DE 198 45
440 Al, whose disclosure in this respect is incorporated in the present

application.

Instead of coating the substrate with a laser-sensitive layer, substrates that
react to the laser impingement with blackening or coloring can also be used.
Also in this variant of the present invention, the sequence of the production

of the two components relief and flat marking is open. For example, the
arrangement of the twTo components can again correspond to the figures
shown above.

Additives that support relief production can be added to the substrate. At the
same time, dyes or pigments that, upon different power or energy density of
the laser, cause a different color change to appear can be used with great
advantage, or those that do this as a function of other laser parameters, such
as wavelength or pulse duration etc.

Substrates that, even without special additives, react to different laser
power
or energy densities with different color impressions are also advantageous.
For example, plastics can be used for this in which, at high power or energy
density, relief patterns are introduced in that beads form in the substrate
due
to the expansion of gases. Due to light scattering, these generally have a
whitish color impression. A flat marking executed with lower energy, in
contrast, yields a color change to darker tones. Here, primarily PVC,
polycarbonate or PET variants are suitable as substrates.


CA 02627902 2008-04-30

-29-
Also the combination of the two above-described method steps is possible.
For example, in a substrate coated with laser-radiation-absorbing pigments
and/or dyes, a flat marking in which the color is removed can initially be
lasered. The flat marking also includes the location of the relief pattern.
Then,

the relief pattern is lasered into the exposed substrate and again produces
there a blackening or a color change.

Representative Drawing
A single figure which represents the drawing illustrating the invention.
Administrative Status

For a clearer understanding of the status of the application/patent presented on this page, the site Disclaimer , as well as the definitions for Patent , Administrative Status , Maintenance Fee  and Payment History  should be consulted.

Administrative Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date Unavailable
(86) PCT Filing Date 2006-10-19
(87) PCT Publication Date 2007-05-10
(85) National Entry 2008-04-30
Dead Application 2011-10-19

Abandonment History

Abandonment Date Reason Reinstatement Date
2010-10-19 FAILURE TO PAY APPLICATION MAINTENANCE FEE

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Application Fee $400.00 2008-04-30
Registration of a document - section 124 $100.00 2008-06-04
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 2 2008-10-20 $100.00 2008-10-17
Maintenance Fee - Application - New Act 3 2009-10-19 $100.00 2009-10-19
Owners on Record

Note: Records showing the ownership history in alphabetical order.

Current Owners on Record
GIESECKE & DEVRIENT GMBH
Past Owners on Record
DEPTA, GEORG
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.
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Document
Description 
Date
(yyyy-mm-dd) 
Number of pages   Size of Image (KB) 
Abstract 2008-04-30 1 18
Claims 2008-04-30 7 186
Description 2008-04-30 29 1,099
Representative Drawing 2008-08-13 1 5
Cover Page 2008-08-13 1 37
Drawings 2008-04-30 6 165
PCT 2008-04-30 8 325
Assignment 2008-04-30 5 118
Assignment 2008-06-04 3 80
Correspondence 2008-09-16 1 2
Fees 2008-10-17 1 38