Canadian Patents Database / Patent 2772644 Summary

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(12) Patent: (11) CA 2772644
(54) English Title: PROTECTIVE HELMET AND INSERT WITH CONCUSSION REDUCTION FEATURES
(54) French Title: CASQUE PROTECTEUR ET INSERT CONCU POUR REDUIRE LES COMMOTIONS
(51) International Patent Classification (IPC):
  • A42B 3/12 (2006.01)
  • A41D 13/05 (2006.01)
  • A42B 3/04 (2006.01)
  • A63B 71/10 (2006.01)
  • F41H 1/04 (2006.01)
(72) Inventors :
  • MCINNIS, DANIEL MALCOLM (Canada)
  • MCINNIS, RODNEY MARK (Canada)
(73) Owners :
  • MCINNIS, DANIEL MALCOLM (Canada)
  • MCINNIS, RODNEY MARK (Canada)
(71) Applicants :
  • MCINNIS, DANIEL MALCOLM (Canada)
  • MCINNIS, RODNEY MARK (Canada)
(74) Agent: MOFFAT & CO.
(74) Associate agent:
(45) Issued: 2013-01-08
(22) Filed Date: 2012-03-30
(41) Open to Public Inspection: 2012-06-08
Examination requested: 2012-03-30
(30) Availability of licence: N/A
(30) Language of filing: English

English Abstract

A protective helmet and insert for reducing the possibility or severity of a concussion are provided. The insert comprises a shock absorbing portion and a flexible liner portion, the shock absorbing portion to be disposed between a helmet shell and the liner portion. The shock absorbing portion can possess a substantially constant resistive deformation force characteristic for reducing the peak G-force applied to the head during an impact. The insert can comprise a plurality of flexible liner connectors for movably interconnecting the liner portion to a helmet shell to allow for the flexible movement of the liner portion relative the shell. The liner connectors can be in the form of vent shaft walls that each defines a vent shaft for providing fluid communication between a headspace of the liner and an outer side of the shock absorbing portion to ventilate the headspace. A helmet comprising the liner is also provided.


French Abstract

Un casque de protection et une coque pour réduire la possibilité ou la gravité d'une commotion cérébrale sont fournis. La coque comprend une partie d'absorption des chocs et une partie de doublure souple, la partie d'absorption des chocs devant être disposée entre une coque de casque et la partie de doublure. La partie d'absorption de chocs peut posséder une caractéristique de force de déformation à résistance sensiblement constante pour réduire la force G de pic appliquée à la tête lors d'un choc. La coque peut comporter une pluralité de connecteurs de doublure flexibles pour relier de manière mobile la partie de doublure à une coque de casque afin de permettre le mouvement flexible de la partie de doublure par rapport à la coque. Les connecteurs de doublure peuvent être sous la forme de parois d'axes de ventilation qui définissent chacun un axe de ventilation pour fournir une communication de fluide entre un espace de tête de la doublure et un côté extérieur de la partie d'absorption des chocs afin de ventiler l'espace de tête. Un casque comprenant la doublure est également prévu.


Note: Claims are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.



26

WHAT IS CLAIMED:


1. A helmet insert disposable at an inner side of a shell of a helmet, the
insert comprising:
a first shock absorbing portion having a structure that is flexible,
deformable, compressible, and capable of substantially recovering from a
deformation, and further having a structure possessing a substantially
constant
resistive deformation force characteristic; and
a flexible liner portion, the liner portion being disposed at or proximate the

first shock absorbing portion, the liner portion having a thickness that is
less than
a thickness of the first shock absorbing portion,
wherein when the insert is disposed in the helmet, the first shock
absorbing portion faces an inner surface of the shell, and the liner portion
faces a
region of the helmet adapted to receive the head of a wearer.

2. The helmet insert of claim 1 wherein the first shock absorbing portion is
in
the form of visco-elastic polyurethane foam.

3. The helmet insert of claim 1 wherein the liner portion is in the form of
closed-cell foam.

4. The helmet insert of claim 1 wherein the first shock absorbing portion has
a thickness of at least 1.5 inches.

5. The helmet insert of claim 1 wherein the liner portion is a waterproof
barrier.

6. The helmet insert of claim 1 wherein when the helmet insert is positioned
on the head of a wearer, the first shock absorbing portion extends to



27

substantially surround the forehead, left side, right side, and rear regions
of the
head.

7. The helmet insert of claim 1
wherein the first shock absorbing portion has an outer side and an inner
side, the inner side facing the liner portion,
wherein the liner portion has an outer side and an inner side, the outer
side facing the first shock absorbing portion, and
wherein the helmet insert defines at least one aperture therethrough
extending between the inner side of the liner portion and the outer side of
the
first shock absorbing portion for providing fluid communication between the
inner
side of the liner portion and the outer side of the first shock absorbing
portion.

8. The helmet insert of claim 7 further comprising fluid sealing for
preventing
the ingress into the first shock absorbing portion of any fluid disposed in or

flowing through the at least one aperture.

9. The helmet insert of claim 8 wherein the fluid sealing is in the form of
one
or more vent shaft walls, each vent shaft wall defining a vent shaft
therethrough,
and being disposed in a one of at least one aperture in the first shock
absorbing
portion and extending between the inner side and the outer side of the first
shock
absorbing portion.

10. The helmet insert of claim 9 wherein a proximal end of the one or more
vent shaft walls is connected to or is integrally formed with the liner
portion.

11. The helmet insert of claim 10 wherein the one or more vent shaft walls are

flexible and resilient.



28

12. The helmet insert of claim 10 wherein the one or more vent shaft walls are

flexible, and wherein a distal end of the one or more vent shaft walls extends

from the liner portion towards the outer side of the first shock absorbing
portion,
the distal end being connectable to the shell such that when the helmet insert
is
disposed within the shell, the one or more vent shaft walls moveably
interconnect
the liner portion with the shell, thereby allowing for limited and flexible
movement
of the liner portion relative to the shell.

13. The helmet insert of claim 12 wherein the distal end of the one or more
vent shaft walls comprises a flange, the flange being connectable to the
shell.
14. The helmet insert of claim 12 wherein when the helmet insert is disposed
within the shell, the one or more vent shaft walls are aligned with one or
more
apertures in the shell to provide fluid communication between the inner side
of
the liner portion and the outer side of the shell for ventilating a headspace
of the
helmet.

15. A helmet insert disposable at an inner side of a shell of a helmet, the
insert comprising:
a first shock absorbing portion having a structure that is flexible and
deformable, the first shock absorbing portion having an outer side and an
inner
side;
a flexible liner portion, the liner portion being disposed at or proximate the

inner side of the first shock absorbing portion;
a plurality of spaced apart flexible liner connectors, each liner connector
comprising a proximal end connected to or integrally formed with the liner
portion, each liner connector further comprising a distal end extending
towards
the outer side of the first shock absorbing portion, the distal end of each
liner
connector being connectable to the shell such that when the helmet insert is
disposed within the shell, the liner connectors moveably interconnect the
liner



29

portion with the shell, thereby allowing for limited and flexible movement of
the
liner portion relative to the shell.

16. The helmet insert of claim 15 wherein the liner connectors are resilient.
17. The helmet insert of claim 15 wherein the structure of the first shock
absorbing portion further possesses a substantially constant resistive
deformation force characteristic.

18. The helmet insert of claim 17 wherein the first shock absorbing portion
has a thickness of at least 1.5 inches.

19. The helmet insert of claim 15 wherein the liner portion is in the form of
closed-cell foam.

20. A protective helmet having an outer portion, and an inner portion for
receiving the head of a wearer, the helmet comprising:
an outer shell for circumscribing the head of the wearer;
a first shock absorbing portion disposed within the outer shell and having
a structure that is flexible and deformable, the first shock absorbing portion

having an outer side and an inner side, the outer side facing the outer shell;
a flexible liner portion, the liner portion being disposed at or proximate the

inner side of the first shock absorbing portion;
a plurality of spaced apart flexible liner connectors, each liner connector
comprising a proximal end connected to or integrally formed with the liner
portion, each liner connector further comprising a distal end extending
towards
the outer side of the first shock absorbing portion, the distal end of each
liner
connector being connected to the shell to moveably interconnect the liner
portion
with the shell, thereby allowing for limited and flexible movement of the
liner
portion relative to the shell.



30

21. The protective helmet of claim 20 wherein the structure of the first shock

absorbing portion further possesses a substantially constant resistive
deformation force characteristic.

22. The protective helmet of claim 20 wherein the outer shell defines a
plurality of vent apertures therethrough, and wherein the plurality of liner
connectors are in the form of vent shaft walls, each vent shaft wall defining
a
vent shaft therethrough to provide fluid communication between the inner side
of
the liner portion and the outer side of the outer shell for ventilating a
headspace
of the helmet.

23. The protective helmet of claim 20 further comprising a jaw guard, the jaw
guard extending from the outer shell and extending around a jaw region of the
wearer so as to transfer at least part of a force imparted on the jaw guard to
the
rest of the helmet.

Note: Descriptions are shown in the official language in which they were submitted.


CA 02772644 2012-03-30
1

PROTECTIVE HELMET AND INSERT WITH CONCUSSION REDUCTION
FEATURES
FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0001] The present disclosure relates generally to protective equipment, and
more particularly to helmets and helmet components.

BACKGROUND
[0002] Protective helmets are known in the art. Many different types of
protective helmets exist for various applications, including for playing
sports,
riding on or in vehicles, for use in dangerous environments such as
construction
sites, to name but a few. In certain types of activities, there is a
significant risk of
a person receiving a blow to the head or otherwise hitting their head. These
activities include but are not limited to ice hockey, downhill skiing,
snowboarding,
and skateboarding.

[0003] Many existing helmets generally do a good job in reducing or
preventing cuts and fractures to the head and skull as a result of an impact
to the
head.

[0004] Many existing helmet designs utilize various foams for structure and
for absorbing energy during an impact. Some helmets use small patches of
foam, including memory foam, for comfort and fit. For example, memory foam is
sometimes positioned within the helmet so that it contacts or is in close
proximity
to the head of a wearer. The memory foam can provide for a comfortable and
snug fit of the helmet. The body heat from the head warms the memory foam,
thereby softening it, which makes for a more comfortable and snug fit.

[0005] In addition, many existing helmets, including hockey helmets, are
fairly
rigid in their construction and are also designed to be snuggly fitted and
rigidly
coupled to the head. The result is that a high proportion of an impact force,
particularly a rotational impact force, is transmitted by the helmet to the
head of


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

2
the wearer. In other words, the helmet absorbs little or none of a rotational
impact force.

[0006] Furthermore, many existing helmets are ventilated to keep the head
cool and the wearer comfortable.

[0007] However, most helmets are not very effective in preventing
concussions, in reducing the severity of concussions, or in preventing or
reducing other injuries such as spinal injuries. In normal impacts as might be
expected in a sport, existing helmets, while reducing G-force experienced by
the
head, still permit G-forces to be at unacceptable and dangerously high levels.
SUMMARY

[0008] The present disclosure provides a helmet, a helmet insert, and
techniques that provide for increased protection against concussions, spinal
injuries and other types of injuries.

[0009] For example, the present disclosure provides a helmet and helmet
insert that utilizes as its primary shock absorber a shock absorbing portion
having a substantially constant resistive deformation force characteristic. A
constant force characteristic refers to the relatively constant resistive
deformation
force exhibited by the material during an impact. What is remarkable is this
constant force characteristic is approximately maintained throughout the
changing speed of the impact incident. This creates a near-ideal scenario to
reduce peak G-force over the compression distance. Thus the resistive
deformation force does not significantly increase as the amount of deformation
(e.g. compression) increases. This is unlike many other types shock absorbing
materials, including many foams, which exhibit a more spring-like resistive
deformation force. In these materials, the resistive force increases
proportionally
to the amount of deformation in the material. This characteristic can result
in a
very high peak forces to the head and brain during an impact. In contrast,
shock
absorbing materials that have a relatively constant resistive deformation
force


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

3
characteristic tend to result in lower peak forces being transmitted to the
head
and brain during an impact. Helmets that comprise a shock absorbing portion
having a constant resistive deformation force characteristic can result in
lower
amounts of linear and/or rotational forces being transferred to the head
during an
impact.

[0010] The present disclosure also provides a helmet having an inner liner
that is spaced apart from and is moveably interconnected to its outer shell,
thereby allowing the outer shell to move and/or rotate relative the liner,
and/or
the head of a wearer. Therefore during an impact, some of the linear and/or
rotational forces applied to the helmet can be absorbed by the helmet as the
outer shell moves and/or rotates relative to the liner or head of the wearer.
[0011] The present disclosure further provides a helmet and helmet insert
comprising a shock absorbing portion that provides a thicker compression
distance relative to existing helmets. For example, in at least one
embodiment,
the shock absorbing portion is at least 1.5 inches (38 mm) in thickness. In at
least one other embodiment, the shock absorbing portion is at least 2 inches
(51
mm) in thickness.

[0012] The present disclosure also provides a helmet and helmet insert
comprising a shock absorbing portion wherein the shock absorbing portion is
thermally insulated from the head of the wearer.

[0013] The present disclosure further provides a helmet and helmet insert
comprising a shock absorbing portion wherein the shock absorbing portion is
fluidly insulated from the head of the wearer.

[0014] In one aspect, the present disclosure provides a helmet insert
disposable at an inner side of a shell of a helmet, the insert comprising: a
first
shock absorbing portion having a structure that is flexible, deformable,
compressible, and capable of substantially recovering from a deformation, and


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

4
further having a structure possessing a substantially constant resistive
deformation force characteristic; and a flexible liner portion, the liner
portion
being disposed at or proximate the first shock absorbing portion, the liner
portion
having a thickness that is less than a thickness of the first shock absorbing
portion, wherein when the insert is disposed in the helmet, the first shock
absorbing portion faces an inner surface of the shell, and the liner portion
faces a
region of the helmet adapted to receive the head of a wearer.

[0015] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a helmet insert
disposable at an inner side of a shell of a helmet, the insert comprising: a
first
shock absorbing portion having a structure that is flexible and deformable,
the
first shock absorbing portion having an outer side and an inner side; a
flexible
liner portion, the liner portion being disposed at or proximate the inner side
of the
first shock absorbing portion; a plurality of spaced apart flexible liner
connectors,
each liner connector comprising a proximal end connected to or integrally
formed
with the liner portion, each liner connector further comprising a distal end
extending towards the outer side of the first shock absorbing portion, the
distal
end of each liner connector being connectable to the shell such that when the
helmet insert is disposed within the shell, the liner connectors moveably
interconnect the liner portion with the shell, thereby allowing for limited
and
flexible movement of the liner portion relative to the shell.

[0016] In yet another aspect, the present disclosure provides a protective
helmet having an outer portion, and an inner portion for receiving the head of
a
wearer, the helmet comprising: an outer shell for circumscribing the head of
the
wearer; a first shock absorbing portion disposed within the outer shell and
having
a structure that is flexible and deformable, the first shock absorbing portion
having an outer side and an inner side, the outer side facing the outer shell;
a
flexible liner portion, the liner portion being disposed at or proximate the
inner
side of the first shock absorbing portion; a plurality of spaced apart
flexible liner
connectors, each liner connector comprising a proximal end connected to or


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

integrally formed with the liner portion, each liner connector further
comprising a
distal end extending towards the outer side of the first shock absorbing
portion,
the distal end of each liner connector being connected to the shell to
moveably
interconnect the liner portion with the shell, thereby allowing for limited
and
flexible movement of the liner portion relative to the shell.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0017] The present disclosure will be better understood having regard to the
drawings in which:

[0018] Figure 1 is a perspective view of a first embodiment of the helmet;
[0019] Figure 2 is a perspective view of the outer shell of the embodiment
shown in Figure 1;

[0020] Figure 3 is a top view of the outer shell of the embodiment shown in
Figure 1;

[0021] Figure 4 is a perspective view of the first shock absorbing portion of
the embodiment shown in Figure 1;

[0022] Figure 5 is a cross sectional view of the first shock absorbing portion
taken along line 5-5 of Figure 4;

[0023] Figure 6 is a perspective view of the liner portion of the embodiment
shown in Figure 1;

[0024] Figure 7 is a cross sectional view of the liner portion taken along
line
7-7 of Figure 6;

[0025] Figure 8 is a cross sectional view of the helmet taken along line 8-8
of
Figure 1;


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

6
[0026] Figure 9 is a cross sectional view of the helmet taken along line 9-9
of
Figure 1;

[0027] Figure 10 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the helmet
including a jaw guard and a chin strap;

[0028] Figure 11 is a graph showing G-force and compression
measurements of an existing standard production helmet during a drop test; and
[0029] Figure 12 is a graph showing G-force and compression
measurements of a prototype testing helmet during a drop test.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0030] The various features and components of the present helmet and
helmet insert are now described with reference to the Figures.

[0031] Reference is made to Figure 1, which shows a perspective view of
one embodiment of the helmet according to the present disclosure. Helmet 10
generally defines a headspace and comprises outer shell 20, liner portion 200,
and first shock absorbing portion 100 disposed between the outer shell and the
liner portion. As shown in Figure 2, outer shell 20 comprises an outer surface
21
and an inner surface 22, and is generally adapted for receiving a head of a
wearer. First shock absorbing portion 100 is disposed at or proximate inner
surface 22 of outer shell 20. In addition, as shown in Figures 4 and 5, first
shock
absorbing portion 100 comprises an outer side 101 and an inner side 102, the
inner side facing the head of the wearer. In at least one embodiment, first
shock
absorbing portion 100 extends to substantially surround the forehead, left
side,
right side, and rear regions of a head of a wearer. Liner portion 200 of the
helmet
is disposed at inner side 102 of first shock absorbing portion 100.
Furthermore,
liner portion 200 also has an outer side 201 and an inner side 202, as shown
in
Figure 6. Thus the general structure and relative positioning of outer shell
20,


CA 02772644 2012-03-30
7

first shock absorbing portion 100, and liner portion 200 in one embodiment of
the
present helmet is shown in Figure 1.

[0032] Although the present disclosure is described with reference to helmet
10, the present disclosure also contemplates a helmet insert for use in
combination with a helmet shell, the helmet insert comprising first shock
absorbing portion 100 and liner portion 200.

[0033] First shock absorbing portion 100 can be made of any suitable
material having suitable shock absorbing properties. For example, in at least
one
embodiment, first shock absorbing portion 100 will be made of or comprise a
type of foam, including but not limited to an open-cell sponge foam.
Furthermore,
first shock absorbing portion 100 can be one or more of flexible, deformable,
compressible, and capable of substantially recovering from a deformation. In
addition, in at least one embodiment, first shock absorbing portion 100 will
be
made of or comprise a material or materials that have a substantially constant
resistive deformation force characteristic. As described above, a constant
force
characteristic refers to the relatively constant resistive deformation force
exhibited by the material during compression. Therefore the resistive
deformation force does not significantly increase as the amount of deformation
(e.g. compression) increases. Furthermore, in at least one embodiment, first
shock absorbing portion 100 will be made of or comprise visco-elastic
polyurethane foam, also known as "memory" foam. Some memory foams
possess properties that make them useful in protective helmets. In particular,
in
certain instances memory foams are more effective than other types of foams or
materials used in existing helmets to prevent or reduce the severity of
concussions and spinal injuries resulting from a blow or other impact to the
head.
For example, some memory foams reduce the peak G-force on the head during
an impact. One type of memory foam with desirable properties for use in a
protective helmet is "Visco Elastic Foam 5010", made by Domfoam International
of Quebec, Canada. This particular foam has a density of 4.5 to 5.0 pounds per


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

8
cubic foot. However, other suitable types and makes of memory foam can also
be used.

[0034] Certain types of memory foam, such as the 5010 foam mentioned
above, have a non-linear compression response. In particular, such foam
exhibits a somewhat constant force characteristic during a large portion of
the
work done as the foam compresses. This is a significant difference from other
types of material, including some foams, that crush or compress where a more
spring-like linear force is observed (F = -k*x) resulting in an undesirably
high
peak force. These other types of material generally result in a considerably
higher peak force during an impact than the peak force of a material, such as
certain kinds of memory foam, that exhibits a constant resistive deformation
force to do the same work during compression.

[0035] Therefore in at least one embodiment of the present helmet or insert, a
significant portion of the shock absorbing material in the helmet will be a
shock
absorbing portion having a relatively constant resistive deformation force
characteristic. In addition, in at least one embodiment, a majority of the
shock
absorbing material in the helmet will be a shock absorbing portion having a
relatively constant resistive deformation force characteristic. The shock
absorbing portion having a relatively constant resistive deformation force
characteristic can be in the form of memory foam. However, other materials
having a relatively constant resistive deformation force characteristic can
also be
used.

[0036] In addition, the 5010 memory foam provides near identical
performance during subsequent impacts. This is unlike other existing helmets
that employ a shock absorbing material that does not substantially recover
from
a deformation, such as a crushable foam. An example of a crushable type foam
is expanded poly-styrene (EPS). Such shock absorbing materials that do not
substantially recover from a deformation, including crushable foams, are
damaged during an impact and are therefore for a one major-impact use only.


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

9
After an impact, the foam or other material must be replaced. However, the
multiple impact property of the 5010 foam can avoid the need to service or
discard the helmet after a first major impact. In addition, the use of multi-
impact
shock absorbing materials in a helmet avoids the situation where a person
unknowingly uses a one major-impact use only helmet that has previously
suffered a significant impact. Depending on the particular helmet, it can be
difficult or almost impossible to visually recognize that a one major-impact
use
only helmet has suffered an impact and therefore should not be used. However,
these problems do not arise with helmets having multiple impact shock
absorbing materials, such as memory foam.

[0037] The 5010 memory foam and some other memory foams have
desirable performance characteristics at room temperature (approximately 20
degrees C), and even more desirable performance characteristics at
temperatures below room temperature. These performance characteristics can
be beneficial when the 5010 memory foam or some other memory foams are
employed in a helmet or helmet insert that is used in cooler temperatures
(e.g.
below 20 C, and even temperatures below 0 degrees C), for example for use in
many winter sports.

[0038] In metallurgy, it is known that some metals have a positive thermal
expansion coefficient and others have a negative thermal expansion
coefficient.
Alloys have been created to blend metals to create materials that are
significantly invariant to expansion over widened temperature ranges. A common
example known as "Invar" metal is a precise blend of nickel and iron. The 5010
memory foam has very good performance at room temperature and improved
performance at lower temperatures. Similarly, it is expected that the physical
properties of 5010 memory foam can be customized with blending into a
specialized foam different from standard 5010 foam, that is optimized for the
average temperature experienced by the foam in typical usage conditions for
the
type of helmet. Furthermore, like Invar metal, a temperature invariance may be


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

possible, where those desirable physical properties that give these types of
memory foam the flat line "constant force" characteristic may be kept
relatively
similar over a broader range of temperatures than the 5010 memory foam.
[0039] Figures 11 and 12 show the results of two drop tests, one performed
with an existing production hockey helmet, and the other performed with a
prototype helmet according to the present disclosure.

[0040] Figure 11 shows the results of a drop test performed with a model
head of weight of approximately 10 lbs. onto a hard surface from a height of
1.02
meters using an existing production hockey helmet. The existing production
helmet used in this test employed a different shock absorbing structure than
the
2.0 inches of memory foam employed in the prototype helmet discussed in the
following paragraph. The drop test was performed on the back of the helmet. A
G-force sensor outputted 3.3 mV/G onto the vertical axis of the upper trace of
a
storage scope as a function of time in milliseconds on the horizontal axis.
Even
though the plot does not show above 500 mV, the peak measurement was made
from the digital data on the storage scope. The lower trace was created by an
alternating black and white pattern of period 3.25 mm passing by an optical
sensor. By counting pulses from the moment G-force was detected to the end
when helmet came to rest, an approximate measurement of compression was
achieved. The velocity of 4.5 meters per second at impact point is a result of
a
drop from 1.02 meters. For the example production hockey helmet, a peak G-
force of 153G was measured from the upper trace and a compression distance
of approximately 23 mm was measured from the lower trace in the head going
from 4.5 m/s to stopped. The G-force measurements are indicated by line 1100,
whereas the compression measurements are indicated by line 1102.
Measurement accuracy for the G-force equipment was +/- 4% and compression
distance was +/- 3.25 mm.

[0041] Figure 12 shows the results of a drop test performed with a carbon
fiber prototype helmet having a near-spherical shape. The outer shell of the


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11
prototype helmet is defined through a radius that varies from 5.5 inches on
the
sides to 6 inches on the back and top. The drop test conditions were the same
as those in the drop test described above in relation to Figure 11. In
particular,
both tests were performed using the same equipment and at the same ambient
temperature. The foam stack-up at the back of the helmet was 0.4 inches of
closed-cell foam, which includes spacing ribs, and 2.0 inches of 5010 memory
foam. The memory foam was sandwiched between the outer shell and the
closed-cell foam. It should be noted however that this prototype helmet did
not
comprise any vent shaft walls or other liner connectors interconnecting the
liner
(closed-cell foam) to the outer shell, or any vents. On the graph, the G-force
measurements are indicated by line 1200, while the compression measurements
are indicated by line 1202. During the drop test, a peak G-force of 30 G was
measured from the upper trace and a compression distance of approximately 39
mm was measured from the lower trace in the head going from 4.5 m/s to
stopped. Measurement accuracy for the G-force equipment was +/- 4% and
compression distance was +/- 3.25 mm.

[0042] The test data shown in the graphs of Figures 11 and 12 show that the
5010 memory foam results in a much lower peak G-force to the head during an
impact than the shock absorption materials used in the existing production
hockey helmet. Again, the 5010 memory foam exhibits a significantly constant
resistive deformation force characteristic. The test data also shows how using
a
foam of a greater thickness than the foams and other materials used in many
existing helmets, including hockey helmets, can also reduce impact forces on
the
head.

[0043] Now turning back to the description of the helmet, first shock
absorbing portion 100 can be of any suitable thicknesses at various regions in
the helmet. The desired thickness can depend on the type or types of materials
from which first shock absorbing portion 100 is made. For example, in
embodiments employing the 5010 memory foam, it has been found that


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12
increasing the thickness of the foam generally results in lower peak G-forces
to
the head during an impact. However, it is usually necessary to strike a
balance
between the size and weight of a helmet, and the amount of protection that it
provides. It has been determined that 5010 memory foam having a thickness of
between 1.5 and 2 inches (38 mm to 51 mm) generally provides good (i.e. lower)
peak G-forces to the head during an impact relative to many existing helmets.
However, this thickness is not meant to be limiting. Other thickness may also
be
used. In at least one embodiment, first shock absorbing portion 100 will be of
a
thickness that is greater than the thickness of liner portion 200.

[0044] Furthermore, first shock absorbing portion 100 can have different
thicknesses at different regions in the helmet. For example, in at least one
embodiment, first shock absorbing portion 100 can be thicker in the rear
region
of the helmet, meaning the region that is in alignment with the back of a
wearer's
head. This increased thickness in the rear region can result in a lower peak G-

force to the head when a wearer receives an impact at the back of the head,
for
example when the wearer falls backward and lands on the back of his or her
head. In other embodiments, first shock absorbing portion 100 can have
different
thicknesses at other regions in the helmet.

[0045] Although first shock absorbing portion 100 is shown in the Figures as
being a single piece, portion 100 may be comprised of multiple shock absorbing
segments.

[0046] In addition, in at least one embodiment, as shown in the Figures, the
helmet will comprise one or more vents for allowing fluid communication
between
the inner portion and the outer portion of the helmet. The one or more vents
can
allow hot air and perspiration from the wearer's head to escape, and also
allow
for cooler air to enter the helmet. In the embodiment shown in the Figures
having
outer shell 20, first shock absorbing portion 100, and liner portion 200, each
of
the three layers of the helmet has one or more aligned vents to allow for air
flow
between the inner and outer portions of the helmet.


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

13
[0047] For example, in at least one embodiment as shown in Figures 1 to 3,
outer shell 20 can comprise one or more air vent holes 40. Furthermore, as
shown in Figures 4 and 5, first shock absorbing portion 100 can define one or
more spaced apart apertures or vents 110 therethrough. Apertures 110 extend
from inner side 102 to outer side 101 of first shock absorbing portion 100.
Although apertures 110 are shown in the Figures in the form of holes through a
single shock absorbing portion 100, apertures 110 can be in the form of any
void
in shock absorbing portion region of the helmet. For example, apertures 110
can
be in the form of other openings, or even gaps between adjacent shock
absorbing segments where first shock absorbing portion comprises multiple
segments. In addition, liner portion 200 can also comprise one or more vent
holes or apertures 215, as shown in Figures 6 and 7. The one or more vent
holes of the outer shell, the vents of the first shock absorbing portion, and
the
vents of the liner portion can be in substantial alignment to allow for fluid
communication between the inner and outer portions of the helmet. The
substantial alignment of the vents in the three layers of the helmet is shown
in
one embodiment in Figures 8 and 9.

[0048] The number, location, size, and shape of the various apertures and
vents in each of the outer shell 20, first shock absorbing portion 100, and
liner
portion 200 shown in the Figures is not meant to be limiting. Rather, one or
more
of the number, location, size, and shape of the various apertures and vents
can
be suitably modified.

[0049] As described above, liner portion 200 can be disposed at inner side
102 of first shock absorbing portion 100. As shown in Figure 1, in at least
one
embodiment, liner portion 200 can extend to cover substantially the entire
inner
side 102 of first shock absorbing portion 100. Liner portion 200 can be the
part of
the helmet that contacts or is otherwise in close proximity to the head of the
wearer. In at least one embodiment, liner portion 200 can be made of a
suitable
material so that it acts as a thermal barrier between the wearer's head and
the


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

14
first shock absorbing portion 100. A thermal barrier may be appropriate where
it
is desirable to minimize or reduce the transfer of heat from the wearer's head
to
the first shock absorbing portion 100. For example, this can be desirable
where
the first shock absorbing portion 100 comprises memory foam, and the physical
performance of the foam varies depending on the temperature of the foam. For
example, the impact or compression performance of the foam may decrease as
the temperature of the foam increases.

[0050] Furthermore, in at least one embodiment, liner portion 200 can be
made of a material or materials that are fluid proof so that the liner portion
acts
as a fluid barrier between the wearer's head and first shock absorbing portion
100. This may be desirable depending on the material from which first shock
absorbing portion 100 is made. For example, certain types of materials,
including
some types of foam, will suffer performance degradation when fluid or moisture
penetrates the material. For example, if first shock absorbing portion 100 is
made of memory foam, it will generally be desirable to provide a fluid proof
barrier between the wearer's head and first shock absorbing portion 100 of the
helmet so that any perspiration or other liquid does not penetrate the foam,
thereby decreasing its performance during an impact.

[0051] In at least one embodiment, liner portion 200 can be made of or
comprise closed-cell foam. In addition to being soft and thus providing a
comfortable fit, closed-cell foam can provide a fluid proof barrier, and can
also
act as a thermal barrier, for example between the head and first shock
absorbing
portion 100. However, it is to be appreciated that liner portion 200 can be
made
of any other suitable material or materials including but not limited to
foams,
rubbers, silicon, and neoprene. For example, it has been found that low,
medium, and high density marine grade seat cushion foams and floatation foams
that exhibit suitable elastic qualities and that are not permeable to water
are
suitable. Foams may also be desirable as they can be relatively lightweight.
Foam may also be a desirable material since it can also act as one or both of
a


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

thermal barrier and fluid barrier between the head of a wearer and first shock
absorbing portion 100.

[0052] Liner portion 200 is shown in the Figures as a single piece. However,
liner portion 200 can comprise multiple segments that together form the liner.
[0053] As shown in Figures 1, 6 and 7, liner portion 200 can comprise one or
more spacing elements at its inner side 202. Spacer elements can be in the
form
of one or more support ribs 240 and support pads 245, and can be made of any
suitable material, including the same material as the material from which
liner
portion 200 is made. The spacing elements can also be made of a soft material
in order to provide a comfortable fit for the wearer. The spacer elements
space
liner portion 200 away from the wearer's head. This space or gap allows for
the
flow of warm air and moisture from the wearer's head out of the helmet via the
one or more vents in the helmet. The spacing can also improve the
effectiveness
of the thermal barrier between the wearer's head and first shock absorbing
portion 100. The one or more spacer elements can also contribute to an
improved fit of the helmet to the head of a wearer.

[0054] Depending on the type or types of materials used for first shock
absorbing portion 100, it may be desirable or even necessary to provide fluid
sealing at first shock absorbing portion 100 to prevent the ingress of liquid
or
other fluid (e.g. sweat, water, etc.) into the shock absorbing portion. For
example, certain types of foam will suffer performance degradation when fluid
or
moisture penetrates the foam. For example, this is the case with many open-
celled foams as well as types of memory foams. Thus in the present helmet,
when these types of foams are used in first shock absorbing portion 100, it
can
be desirable to provide fluid sealing at surfaces of first shock absorbing
portion
100 that may be exposed to fluid.

[0055] In the embodiment shown in the Figures, one or more exposed
surfaces of first shock absorbing portion 100 can be provided with fluid
sealing to


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

16
block the ingress of fluid into the foam of first shock absorbing portion 100.
For
example, the surface 112 of first shock absorbing portion 100 that defines
each
of the one or more vents 110 can be provided with fluid sealing. Surfaces 112
are indicated in Figures 4 and 5.

[0056] In addition, other exposed surfaces of first shock absorbing portion
100 can also comprise fluid sealing. As shown in Figures 1, 4 and 5, these
other
exposed surfaces include surface 103 in the face and neck regions of the
helmet, and surfaces 106 in ear openings 105.

[0057] The fluid sealing can be in any suitable form, including but not
limited
to one or more layers of fluid-proof material. The fluid-proof material can be
in
the form of sheet material that is adhered to first shock absorbing portion
100. In
such an embodiment, the sheet material can be flexible so that it can bend and
deform as first shock absorbing portion 100 deforms. Another possibility is
that
the fluid-proof material can be sprayed onto the portion to create a fluid
proof
seal. Depending on the type or types of materials used for first shock
absorbing
portion 100, fluid sealing can also be achieved by melting or burning an
exposed
surface of first shock absorbing portion 100. Other ways of providing fluid
sealing
at exposed surfaces of first shock absorbing portion 100 are possible.

[0058] In at least one embodiment, as shown in Figures 6 to 9, fluid sealing
at the surface 112 of each of the one or more vents 110 can be provided in the
form of a vent shaft wall 225, which defines a vent shaft 220. Vent shaft wall
225
can be made of a fluid proof material and can serve as a liner for a vent or
aperture 110 in first shock absorbing portion 100. Once helmet 10 or the
helmet
insert has been assembled, vent shaft wall 225 can be disposed within an
aperture 110, and can extend from inner side 102 to outer side 101 of first
shock
absorbing portion 100. In this way, vent shaft wall 225 provides fluid sealing
between vent shaft 220 and exposed surfaces 102 of first shock absorbing
portion 100. Thus any moisture, rain, or other fluid disposed within or
flowing


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

17
through vent shaft 220 does not contact or penetrate an exposed surface of
first
shock absorbing portion 100.

[0059] In addition, as shown in Figures 8 and 9, vent shaft wall 225 can
extend between inner surface 22 of outer shell 20 and liner portion 200.
Furthermore, distal end 226 of vent shaft wall 225 can be secured to inner
surface 22, and proximal end 227 can be secured to liner portion 200. Distal
and/or proximal ends 226 and 227 can be secured in any suitable way. For
example, distal end 226 can be secured to the outer shell by way of adhesive,
or
by way of one or more hook and loop fasteners. Proximal end 227 can be
secured to liner portion 200 using adhesive or any other suitable securing
means. In at least one embodiment, one or more vent shaft walls 225 can be
integrally formed with one or more other components of helmet 10, such as
liner
portion 200 and/or first shock absorbing portion 100. Regardless of whether
vent
shaft wall 225 is joined to or integrally formed with liner portion 200, vent
shaft
220 defined by vent shaft wall 225 will be in fluid communication with a
respective vent or aperture 215 in liner portion 200.

[0060] In addition, in at least one embodiment as shown in Figures 6 and 7,
vent shaft wall 225 can comprise a flange 230 at its distal end 226. Flange
230
can facilitate and even strengthen the securing or attachment of distal end
226 to
outer shell 20. For example, flange 230 can provide a larger surface area for
receiving an adhesive, hook and loop fasteners, or other securing means.
Flange
230 can be made of any suitable material, including the same material as the
vent shaft wall 225.

[0061] The material from which vent shaft wall 225 is made can be flexible. In
addition, this material can be resilient. In one or more embodiments where one
or more vent shaft walls 225 are secured to both the outer shell 20 and to
liner
portion 200, the flexible vent shaft walls 225 can serve to moveably
interconnect
liner portion 200 to outer shell 20. This allows for limited movement of liner
portion 200 relative to outer shell 20, which can be useful for absorbing
energy


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

18
during an impact to helmet 10. In this sense, vent shaft walls 225 serve as
flexible liner connectors interconnecting outer shell 20 to liner portion 200.
Furthermore, in at least one embodiment, one or more vent shaft walls 225 can
be capable of collapsing or buckling after a certain amount of deformation or
compression. If vent shaft wall 225 comprises a resilient material, then vent
shaft
wall 225 can return substantially to its pre-deformation shape following an
impact. Thus in addition to the cushioning provided by first shock absorbing
portion 100, vent shaft walls 225 can also absorb some of the energy of an
impact as liner portion 200 is stretched, compressed, and/or rotated within
outer
shell 20 during an impact.

[0062] In at least one embodiment where first shock absorbing portion 100
and liner portion 200 are both flexible, an assembly operation will allow for
insertion of all vent shaft walls 225 into apertures or vents 110 in first
shock
absorbing portion 100.

[0063] In at least one other embodiment, which is not shown in the Figures,
the helmet can comprise one or more liner connectors for moveably
interconnecting liner portion 200 with outer shell 20, thereby allowing for
flexible
and/or limited movement between the liner portion and the outer shell, for
example during an impact. Although the embodiments described above include
embodiments in which vent shaft walls 225 serve as liner connectors for
moveably interconnecting liner portion 200 to outer shell 20, the present
disclosure also contemplates that the liner connectors can take different
forms
from vent shaft walls 225. Thus much of the above description relating to vent
shaft walls 225 also applies to the liner connectors.

[0064] These liner connectors can take any suitable form and can be made of
any suitable material. For example, these materials include but are not
limited to
foams, plastics, and rubbers. Similar to some of vent shaft walls 225
described
above, the liner connectors can be flexible and/or resilient. Thus in at least
one
embodiment, the liner connectors can absorb some of the energy of an impact


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

19
as liner portion 200 is stretched, compressed, and/or rotated within outer
shell 20
during a blow or other impact.

[0065] In addition, similar to vent shaft walls 225, the one or more liner
connectors can extend through first shock absorbing portion 100 to
interconnect
liner portion 200 with outer shell 20. In at least one embodiment, the one or
more
liner connectors can extend through one or more apertures defined in first
shock
absorbing portion 100.

[0066] In at least one embodiment where a plurality of vent shaft walls 225 or
liner connectors interconnect outer shell 20 to liner portion 200, first shock
absorbing portion 100 and liner portion 200 can be retained within outer shell
20
by the plurality of vent shaft walls 225 or other liner connectors. In other
words,
the helmet does not necessarily require any addition connecting or fastening
means for retaining first shock absorbing portion 100 and liner portion 200 in
relative position within outer shell 20. However, in one or more other
embodiments, helmet 10 and the helmet insert can comprise addition connecting
or fastening means. For example, first shock absorbing portion 100 can be
connected or fastened to outer shell 20 at one or more points using any
suitable
method, including but not limited to by way of hook and loop fasteners or
adhesive. In addition, liner portion 200 can also be connected or fastened to
first
shock absorbing portion 100 at one or more points.

[0067] Turning now to outer shell 20, this component of the helmet can be
made of any suitable material. Suitable materials include but are not limited
to
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polycarbonate, and carbon fiber. In at
least
one embodiment, outer shell will be substantially hard and rigid so that it
suffers
little or no deformation during an impact. Although not shown in the Figures,
outer shell 20 can comprise one or more rigidifying elements disposed within
the
material of the shell or at the inner surface of the shell. These elements can
reinforce the structure of outer shell 20 to reduce the amount of deformation
of
the shell during an impact, including the amount of deformation in the region
of


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

impact. The rigidifying elements can also reduce the likelihood of the shell
fracturing or otherwise breaking during an impact.

[0068] In addition, outer surface 21 of outer shell 20 can be low friction so
that
an object impacting the shell will have greater tendency to slide and deflect
off of
the shell (or alternatively, the helmet will have a greater tendency to slide
and
deflect off of the object during an impact). This can result in a lower amount
of
force being transferred between the object and the helmet, and can also reduce
the amount of rotational force applied to the helmet. The lowering of the
amount
of force being transferred to the helmet will possibly result in less severe
injuries
to the wearer of the helmet.

[0069] Furthermore, as shown in Figures 1 to 3 and 9, outer shell can
comprise one or more holes or apertures 45, which can allow for evaporation of
any liquid or moisture that ends up in first shock absorbing portion 100, or
is
otherwise disposed between first shock absorbing portion 100 and inner surface
22 of outer shell 20. However, holes or apertures 45 may not be suitable for
certain uses of the helmet. For example, apertures 45 may be undesirable if
the
helmet is to be used in wet environments, such as outdoors when it rains, as
apertures 45 will allow for the ingress of water into the helmet.

[0070] In addition, outer shell 20 can also comprise a pair of ear openings
25.
First shock absorbing portion 100 and liner portion 200 can also comprise ear
openings 105 and 210, respectively, which are substantially aligned with
openings 25 in the outer shell. Outer shell 20 can also comprise one or more
holes 30 for receiving or otherwise connecting a chin strap to the helmet. Any
type of suitable chin strap can be used with the present helmet. One
embodiment of helmet 10 having a chin strap 400 is shown in Figure 10, the
chin strap being connected to outer shell 20 by way of holes 30 in the shell.
[0071] In at least one embodiment having flexible and resilient liner
connectors, which can be in the form of vent shaft walls, the resilient nature
of


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

21
the liner connectors can allow for connector stretching, compressing, and
possibly folding or buckling, to keep the helmet structure intact during
compression. In addition, liner portion 200 similarly can be capable of
stretching,
compressing, or otherwise deforming.

[0072] In addition, in at least one embodiment, the majority of the shock and
impact absorption work can be done by first shock absorbing portion 100 as
portion 100 compresses and deforms. Vent shaft walls 225 or other liner
connectors, along with liner portion 200, can also distort or deform during an
impact due to their flexible nature. For example, during an impact, the head
of a
wearer will move closer towards outer shell 20 at the point of impact. In
effect,
first shock absorbing portion 100 will be compressed and sandwiched between
liner portion 200 and outer shell 20. In addition to shock absorbing portion
100,
one or both of liner portion 200 and vent shaft walls 225 or other liner
connectors
can also absorb energy of an impact. However, in at least one embodiment, the
majority of the shock and impact absorption work done by the helmet or helmet
insert can be done by first shock absorbing portion 100. In other words, first
shock absorbing portion 100 will absorb the majority of the energy that is
absorbed by the helmet during an impact. On the other hand, outer shell 20 can
contribute very little to absorbing the energy of an impact. In at least one
embodiment, outer shell 20 will undergo little or no deformation during
impact.
[0073] Furthermore, outer shell 20 can have a continuously curved outer
surface 21. In at least one embodiment, as shown in the Figures, outer surface
21 of outer shell 20 can have a substantially spherical or spherical-like
shape.
This provides advantages over many existing helmets, some of which have
somewhat irregular shapes, and others that comprise ridges, protrusions,
seams,
and other non-continuous or non-smooth surfaces on their outer surface. For
example, an object impacting a shell having a substantially spherical or
spherical-like shape will have greater tendency to slide and deflect off of
the shell
(or alternatively, the helmet will have a greater tendency to slide and
deflect off


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

22
of the object during an impact) compared to shells having other shapes. This
can
result in a lower amount of force being transferred between the object and the
helmet, and can also reduce the amount of rotational force applied to the
helmet.
The lowering of the amount of force being transferred to the helmet will
possibly
result in less severe injuries to the wearer of the helmet.

[0074] In one or more embodiments of the present helmet, outer shell 20 of
the helmet is not rigidly coupled to the head of a wearer, but rather is
retained in
stable alignment with the head through at least first shock absorbing portion
100,
liner portion 200, and possibly a chin strap, until such time as a linear or
rotational force is applied to outer shell 20 (e.g. during an impact). When a
linear
or rotational force is applied to outer shell 20, one or more of the internal
components of the helmet can allow for the movement, including rotation, of
outer shell 20 relative to the head. Thus in this sense, outer shell 20 is
moveably
interconnected to the head rather than being rigidly coupled to the head.
Therefore during an impact, some of the linear and/or rotational forces
applied to
outer shell 20 can be absorbed by the helmet as the outer shell moves and/or
rotates relative to the liner or head of the wearer. The ability of the shell
to rotate
relative the liner or head during an impact can be provided by the flexibility
or
give of one or more of first shock absorbing portion 100, liner portion 200,
and
vent shaft walls 225 or other liner connectors.

[0075] One or more options for fitting the present helmet to the head of a
wearer are now described. One fitting option is to loosely fit the helmet to
the
head of a wearer so that the helmet does not firmly grip the head. The helmet
can be retained in position on the head by way of a chin strap and/or one or
more spacing elements, such as support ribs 240 and support pads 245,
disposed at inner side 202 of liner portion 200. A loose fit of the helmet on
the
head of a wearer can possibly result in reduced injuries to the wearer as a
result
of forces applied to the helmet that cause the helmet to rotate during impact.
Because the helmet fits loosely on the head, the entire helmet can rotate to


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

23
some degree about the wearer's head during an impact. Accordingly, at least
some of the rotation of the helmet caused during an impact is not transferred
to
the wearer's head. However, the term "loose" does not suggest that the helmet
is
so loose that it can flop about on the head of a wearer. Rather, "loose"
refers to
outer shell 20 not being rigidly coupled to the head during substantial
impacts
that apply significant linear or rotational forces on outer shell 20. In at
least one
embodiment, rigid coupling of the outer shell to the head is avoided by means
of
the flexible nature of first shock absorbing portion 100 and liner portion
200. By
nature of the design with the liner, vent shaft walls or liner connectors, and
the
chin strap, in normal use prior to a significant impact event, outer shell 20
will
stay properly aligned on the head.

[0076] The various components of the helmet can provide for a secure and
stable fitting of the helmet onto the head of a wearer. For example, liner
portion
200, as well as any spacing elements such as support ribs 240 and/or support
pads 245, can contact the head to position and retain the helmet in the
desired
position and orientation on the head. The use of a suitable chin strap can
also
assist in retaining the helmet on the head of a wearer. It will often be
desirable
for the helmet to be retained and properly orientated on the head during
normal
use. However, it can be acceptable if not desirable in some circumstances for
the helmet to move relative the head (e.g. rotate) during an impact. This
movement of the helmet is distinct from any rotation of outer shell 20
relative to
liner portion 200 described above. As previously mentioned, a portion of the
energy of an impact can be dissipated as the helmet rotates or otherwise moves
relative to the head of the wearer. This can be more desirable than having the
full force and energy of an impact transmitted to the head of the wearer.
Following an impact, a wearer can simply reposition the helmet on their head
if
the wearer wishes to continue his or her activity.

[0077] Furthermore, in at least one embodiment as shown in Figure 10, the
helmet can comprise a jaw guard 300. Jaw guard 300 can be shaped to extend


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

24
generally from helmet and around the jaw region of a wearer of the helmet. The
jaw guard can thus transfer and spread at least part of a force directed to
the jaw
region of the head to the structure of the helmet instead of to the jaw. Jaw
guard
300 therefore transmits at least part of a force imparted on the guard to the
rest
of the helmet. The guard can be connected or fastened to helmet 10 in any
suitable way, including by way of mounting holes 35 in outer shell 20. In
addition,
jaw guard 300 can have a curvature that is generally consistent with the
curvature of the helmet. For example, where outer shell 20 of the helmet has a
spherical or spherical-like shape, jaw guard 300 can also have a similar
curvature. A jaw guard having such a shape can provide similar advantages as
those described above in relation to the spherical or spherical-like shaped
outer
shell 20. For example, jaw guard 300 having a spherical or spherical-like
shape
can result in an increase in glancing blows rather than direct impact blows.
In
addition, jaw guard 300 having a spherical or spherical-like shape can result
in a
force vector that is directed towards the center of the head space of the
helmet
rather than transforming a blow into a rotational force on outer shell 20. In
addition to spherical or spherical-like shapes, jaw guard 300 can also have
other
continuous curvatures that will provide for results that are similar to those
discussed above.

[0078] The embodiments described herein are examples of structures,
systems or methods having elements corresponding to elements of the
techniques of this application. This written description may enable those
skilled
in the art to make and use embodiments having alternative elements that
likewise correspond to the elements of the techniques of this application. The
intended scope of the techniques of this application thus includes other
structures, systems or methods that do not differ from the techniques of this
application as described herein, and further includes other structures,
systems or
methods with insubstantial differences from the techniques of this application
as
described herein.


CA 02772644 2012-03-30

[0079] Moreover, the previous detailed description is provided to enable any
person skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. Various
modifications to those embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled
in
the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other
embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention
described herein. Thus, the present invention is not intended to be limited to
the
embodiments shown herein, but is to be accorded the full scope consistent with
the claims, wherein reference to an element in the singular, such as by use of
the article "a" or "an" is not intended to mean "one and only one" unless
specifically so stated, but rather "one or more". All structural and
functional
equivalents to the elements of the various embodiments described throughout
the disclosure that are known or later come to be known to those of ordinary
skill
in the art are intended to be encompassed by the elements of the claims.
Moreover, nothing disclosed herein is intended to be dedicated to the public
regardless of whether such disclosure is explicitly recited in the claims.

A single figure which represents the drawing illustrating the invention.

For a clearer understanding of the status of the application/patent presented on this page, the site Disclaimer , as well as the definitions for Patent , Administrative Status , Maintenance Fee  and Payment History  should be consulted.

Admin Status

Title Date
Forecasted Issue Date 2013-01-08
(22) Filed 2012-03-30
Examination Requested 2012-03-30
(41) Open to Public Inspection 2012-06-08
(45) Issued 2013-01-08

Abandonment History

There is no abandonment history.

Maintenance Fee

Last Payment of $100.00 was received on 2021-03-16


 Upcoming maintenance fee amounts

Description Date Amount
Next Payment if small entity fee 2022-03-30 $125.00
Next Payment if standard fee 2022-03-30 $255.00 if received in 2021
$254.49 if received in 2022

Note : If the full payment has not been received on or before the date indicated, a further fee may be required which may be one of the following

  • the reinstatement fee;
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Patent fees are adjusted on the 1st of January every year. The amounts above are the current amounts if received by December 31 of the current year. Please refer to the CIPO Patent Fees web page to see all current fee amounts.

Payment History

Fee Type Anniversary Year Due Date Amount Paid Paid Date
Advance an application for a patent out of its routine order $500.00 2012-03-30
Request for Examination $400.00 2012-03-30
Application Fee $200.00 2012-03-30
Final Fee $150.00 2012-10-12
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 2 2014-03-31 $50.00 2014-01-07
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 3 2015-03-30 $50.00 2015-03-17
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 4 2016-03-30 $50.00 2016-03-10
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 5 2017-03-30 $100.00 2016-12-12
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 6 2018-04-03 $100.00 2018-01-16
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 7 2019-04-01 $100.00 2018-12-13
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 8 2020-03-30 $100.00 2020-03-02
Maintenance Fee - Patent - New Act 9 2021-03-30 $100.00 2021-03-16
Current owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Current Owners on Record
MCINNIS, DANIEL MALCOLM
MCINNIS, RODNEY MARK
Past owners on record shown in alphabetical order.
Past Owners on Record
None
Past Owners that do not appear in the "Owners on Record" listing will appear in other documentation within the application.

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(yyyy-mm-dd)
Number of pages Size of Image (KB)
Cover Page 2012-12-27 2 52
Abstract 2012-03-30 1 23
Description 2012-03-30 25 1,198
Claims 2012-03-30 5 169
Representative Drawing 2012-05-11 1 13
Cover Page 2012-06-04 2 52
Drawings 2012-03-30 12 207
Assignment 2012-03-30 3 97
Prosecution-Amendment 2012-06-08 1 15
Correspondence 2012-10-12 1 40
Fees 2014-01-07 1 48
Fees 2016-03-10 1 60
Fees 2015-03-17 1 62
Fees 2016-12-12 1 61
Fees 2018-01-16 1 60
Fees 2018-12-13 1 59
Fees 2020-03-02 1 50
Fees 2021-03-16 1 33