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Sommaire du brevet 2403738 

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(12) Brevet: (11) CA 2403738
(54) Titre français: SYSTEME ET METHODE ELECTROMAGNETIQUES DE PRODUCTION D'HYDROGENE
(54) Titre anglais: ELECTROMAGNETIC HYDROGEN GENERATION METHOD AND SYSTEM
Statut: Réputé périmé
Données bibliographiques
Abrégés

Abrégé anglais




.cndot. A hydrogen generation method comprises the steps of storing
anhydrous ammonia fuel in liquid phase under pressure,
vapourising the liquid ammonia into gaseous ammonia,
generating electromagnetic radiation, and dissociating
gaseous ammonia (NH3) into a mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2)
and gaseous hydrogen (H2) by means of the electromagnetic
radiation according to formula: 2 NH3 .fwdarw. N2 + 3 H2 .cndot. A
hydrogen generator comprises an ammonia tank, an ammonia
vapouriser, an electromagnetic wave source, and an
electromagnetic dissociator. Preferably, the electromagnetic
wave source generates electromagnetic radiation in the vacuum
ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum, at wavelengths
shorter than 254 nm. The electromagnetic wave source may be a
dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) lamp or an excimer lamp.
This invention relates to hydrogen generators, and the
principal use of the invention is for fuel-cell vehicles.

Revendications

Note : Les revendications sont présentées dans la langue officielle dans laquelle elles ont été soumises.




Claims

.cndot.The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive
property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:

1. A hydrogen generation method for feeding fuel cells,
comprising the steps of:

~ storing anhydrous ammonia fuel in liquid phase under
pressure;

~ vapourising the liquid ammonia into gaseous ammonia;
~ generating electromagnetic radiation in vacuum
ultraviolet (VUV) region of electromagnetic spectrum,
the electromagnetic radiation having wavelength between
200 nm and 10 nm;

~ dissociating gaseous ammonia (NH3) into a mixture of
gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2) by means
of the electromagnetic radiation according to formula: 2
NH3 .fwdarw .N2 + 3 H2;

~ removing residual ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of
gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2); and
~ removing nitrogen (N2) from the mixture of gaseous
nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2).

2. A hydrogen generation system for feeding fuel cells,
comprising:

~ an ammonia tank for storing anhydrous ammonia fuel in
liquid phase under pressure;

~ an ammonia vapouriser for vapourising the liquid ammonia
into gaseous ammonia;

~ an electromagnetic wave source for generating
electromagnetic radiation in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)
region of electromagnetic spectrum, the electromagnetic
radiation having wavelength between 200 nm and 10 nm;

~ an electromagnetic dissociator for dissociating gaseous
ammonia (NH3) into a mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and
gaseous hydrogen (H2) by means of the electromagnetic
radiation according to formula: 2 NH3 .fwdarw. N2 + 3 H2;

~ an ammonia remover for removing residual ammonia (NH3)
from the mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous



hydrogen (H2); and

~ a nitrogen remover for removing nitrogen (N2) from the
mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen
(H2).

3. A hydrogen generation system as defined in claim 2, in which
endothermic reaction of the ammonia vapouriser provides
cooling for the electromagnetic wave source.

4. A hydrogen generation system as defined in claim 2, in which
the electromagnetic wave source is a dielectric barrier
discharge (DBD) lamp.

5. A hydrogen generation system as defined in claim 2, in which
the electromagnetic wave source is an excimer lamp.

6. A hydrogen generation system as defined in claim 2, in which
the electromagnetic wave source comprises an electronic
control gear (ECG).

7. A hydrogen generation system as defined in claim 2, in which
the electromagnetic wave source is a ultraviolet light-
emitting diode (LED).

8. A hydrogen generation system as defined in claim 2, in which
the electromagnetic wave source is a ultraviolet
semiconductor laser diode (LD).

6

Description

Note : Les descriptions sont présentées dans la langue officielle dans laquelle elles ont été soumises.



CA 02403738 2007-11-01
Description

Title
= Electromagnetic Hydrogen Generation Method and System
Technical Field

= This invention relates to hydrogen generators, more
particularly to a hydrogen generator which uses
electromagnetic waves.

Background Art

= There are many instances where it would be desirable to be
able to provide a hydrogen generator which uses ammonia fuel
as a high-density hydrogen carrier.

= Compared to other candidate fuels for fuel-cell vehicles,
such as pure hydrogen (H2) and methanol (CH30H), ammonia
(NH3) has advantages in energy density (high) and fire safety
(non-flammable), among others. In addition, an ammonia fuel-
cell system has superior environmental performance to a
methanol fuel cell system because the exhaust contains not
CO2 (greenhouse gas) or CO (toxic gas) but N2 (inert gas).
Moreover, ammonia is naturally found (e.g., urine), and is a
household cleaning product (e.g., Windex (Trade Mark)).
Furthermore, ammonia is a liquid at modest pressures, not
unlike propane. Therefore, high hydrogen content is possible
in a relatively small volume. As for toxicity, the smell of
ammonia will prevent people from drinking it.

= Because ammonia (NH3) can be decomposed easily to yield
hydrogen (H2), it is a convenient portable source of atomic
hydrogen for welding. If an atom or molecule absorbs energy
from a beam of light (E = hv), it gains far more energy than
it ever could by other methods (e.g., from ordinary heating).

= A number of patents disclose hydrogen generators.

= U.S. Patent 6 245 309 discloses "Method and devices for
producing hydrogen by plasma reformer".

= U.S. Patent 6 274 093 discloses "Self-regulating hydrogen
generator".

= These prior art arrangements do not provide a hydrogen
generator which uses electromagnetic waves to generate
hydrogen (H2) from ammonia (NH3).

1


CA 02403738 2007-11-01
Description of the Invention

= It is a primary object of the invention to provide a hydrogen
generator which uses liquid anhydrous ammonia (NH3) as a
fuel.

= It is another object of the invention to provide a hydrogen
generator which dissociates ammonia (NH3) to generate
hydrogen (H2).

= It is another object of the invention to provide a hydrogen
generator which uses electromagnetic waves to crack ammonia
(NH3)=

= A hydrogen generation method comprises the steps of storing
anhydrous ammonia fuel in liquid phase under pressure,
vapourising the liquid ammonia into gaseous ammonia,
generating electromagnetic radiation, and dissociating
gaseous ammonia (NH3) into a mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2)
and gaseous hydrogen (H2) by means of the electromagnetic
radiation according to formula: 2 NH3 -> N2 + 3 H2. A
hydrogen generator comprises an ammonia tank, an ammonia
vapouriser, an electromagnetic wave source, and an
electromagnetic dissociator. Preferably, the electromagnetic
wave source generates electromagnetic radiation in the vacuum
ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum, at wavelengths
shorter than 254 nm. The electromagnetic wave source may be a
dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) lamp or an excimer lamp.

Brief Description of the Figures in the Drawings

= In drawings which illustrate embodiments of the invention:
o Figure 1 is a flow chart of one embodiment of an
electromagnetic hydrogen generation method according to
the invention;

o Figure 2 is a block diagram of one embodiment of an
electromagnetic hydrogen generation system according to
the invention; and

o Figure 3 is a sectional view of one embodiment of an
electromagnetic dissociator according to the invention.
Modes for Carrying Out the Invention

= According to the present invention shown in the flow chart of
Figure 1, a hydrogen generation method for feeding fuel cells
comprises the steps of storing anhydrous ammonia fuel 1-1 in
liquid phase under pressure, vapourising the liquid ammonia
2


CA 02403738 2007-11-01

1-2 into gaseous ammonia, generating electromagnetic
radiation 1-3, and dissociating gaseous ammonia (NH3) 1-4
into a mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen
(H2) by means of the electromagnetic radiation according to
formula: 2 NH3 -> N2 + 3 H2.

= The hydrogen generation method may further comprise the step
of removing residual ammonia (NH3) 1-5 from the mixture of
gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2).

= The hydrogen generation method may further comprise the step
of removing nitrogen (N2) 1-6 from the mixture of gaseous
nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2).

= Preferably, the electromagnetic radiation in the hydrogen
generation method is in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region
of the spectrum, at wavelengths shorter than 254 nm.

= According to the present invention shown in the block diagram
of Figure 2, a hydrogen generation system for feeding fuel
cells comprises an ammonia tank 2-1 for storing anhydrous
ammonia fuel in liquid phase under pressure, an ammonia
vapouriser 2-2 for vapourising the liquid ammonia into
gaseous ammonia, an electromagnetic wave source 2-3 for
generating electromagnetic radiation, and an electromagnetic
dissociator 2-4 for dissociating gaseous ammonia (NH3) into a
mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2) by
means of the electromagnetic radiation according to formula:
2 NH3 -> N2 + 3 H2.

= The hydrogen generation system may further comprise an
ammonia remover 2-5 for removing residual ammonia (NH3) from
the mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen
(H2)=

= The hydrogen generation system may further comprise a
nitrogen remover 2-6 for removing nitrogen (N2) from the
mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2).

= The endothermic reaction of the ammonia vapouriser 2-2 may
provide cooling for the electromagnetic wave source of the
hydrogen generation system.

= Preferably, the electromagnetic wave source 2-3 generates
electromagnetic radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)
region of the spectrum, at wavelengths shorter than 254 nm.

= The electromagnetic wave source 2-3 of the hydrogen
generation system may be a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)
lamp with a noble gas such as xenon (Xe), krypton (Kr) or
3


CA 02403738 2007-11-01

argon (Ar). The electromagnetic wave source 2-3 of the
hydrogen generation system may be an excimer lamp with a
noble gas such as xenon (Xe), krypton (Kr) or argon (Ar).
= The electromagnetic wave source 2-3 of the hydrogen
generation system may comprise an electronic control gear
(ECG) for pulsed operation. The electromagnetic wave source
2-3 of the hydrogen generation system may comprise a radio-
frequency (RF) exciter for radio-frequency excitation.

= The electromagnetic wave source 2-3 of the hydrogen
generation system may be a high-efficiency ultraviolet light-
emitting diode (LED) made of semiconductors with wide band-
gap energy, such as gallium nitride (GaN) or aluminum nitride
(A1N). The electromagnetic wave source 2-3 of the hydrogen
generation system may be a high-efficiency ultraviolet
semiconductor laser diode (LD) made of semiconductors with
wide band-gap energy, such as gallium nitride (GaN) or
aluminum nitride (A1N).

= Figure 3 shows a sectional view of one embodiment of an
electromagnetic dissociator. The electromagnetic dissociator
comprises a flow-through fluid channel 3-1, an ultraviolet-
transparent window 3-4, and an electromagnetic wave source 3-
5.

= The flow-through fluid channel 3-1 has a middle portion, an
inner surface, an inlet port 3-2 for inflow of gaseous
ammonia (NH3), and an outlet port 3-3 for outflow of a
mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous hydrogen (H2).

= The ultraviolet-transparent window 3-4 is securely attached
to the middle portion of the flow-through fluid channel 3-1.
= The electromagnetic wave source 3-5 generates electromagnetic
radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum.

= The electromagnetic radiation from the electromagnetic wave
source 3-5 is capable of irradiating inside the flow-through
fluid channel 3-1 in order to dissociate gaseous ammonia
(NH3) into a mixture of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and gaseous
hydrogen (H2) according to formula: 2 NH3 -> N2 + 3 H2.

4

Dessin représentatif
Une figure unique qui représente un dessin illustrant l'invention.
États administratifs

Pour une meilleure compréhension de l'état de la demande ou brevet qui figure sur cette page, la rubrique Mise en garde , et les descriptions de Brevet , États administratifs , Taxes périodiques et Historique des paiements devraient être consultées.

États administratifs

Titre Date
Date de délivrance prévu 2008-11-18
(22) Dépôt 2002-09-27
(41) Mise à la disponibilité du public 2004-03-27
Requête d'examen 2007-05-30
(45) Délivré 2008-11-18
Réputé périmé 2010-09-27

Historique d'abandonnement

Il n'y a pas d'historique d'abandonnement

Historique des paiements

Type de taxes Anniversaire Échéance Montant payé Date payée
Le dépôt d'une demande de brevet 150,00 $ 2002-09-27
Taxe de maintien en état - Demande - nouvelle loi 2 2004-09-27 50,00 $ 2003-12-23
Taxe de maintien en état - Demande - nouvelle loi 3 2005-09-27 50,00 $ 2003-12-23
Taxe de maintien en état - Demande - nouvelle loi 4 2006-09-27 50,00 $ 2005-12-19
Taxe de maintien en état - Demande - nouvelle loi 5 2007-09-27 100,00 $ 2007-01-10
Requête d'examen 400,00 $ 2007-05-30
Taxe de maintien en état - Demande - nouvelle loi 6 2008-09-29 100,00 $ 2008-01-11
Taxe finale 150,00 $ 2008-08-28
Titulaires au dossier

Les titulaires actuels et antérieures au dossier sont affichés en ordre alphabétique.

Titulaires actuels au dossier
SUNATORI, GO SIMON
Titulaires antérieures au dossier
S.O.
Les propriétaires antérieurs qui ne figurent pas dans la liste des « Propriétaires au dossier » apparaîtront dans d'autres documents au dossier.
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Description du
Document 
Date
(yyyy-mm-dd) 
Nombre de pages   Taille de l'image (Ko) 
Abrégé 2002-09-27 1 24
Description 2002-09-27 4 197
Dessins représentatifs 2002-12-05 1 7
Dessins représentatifs 2008-03-27 1 17
Revendications 2002-09-27 2 81
Dessins 2002-09-27 3 33
Page couverture 2004-03-02 2 42
Abrégé 2007-11-01 1 23
Description 2007-11-01 4 190
Revendications 2007-11-01 2 64
Dessins 2007-11-01 3 43
Page couverture 2008-10-29 2 51
Correspondance 2002-10-29 1 58
Cession 2002-09-27 2 61
Poursuite-Amendment 2007-05-29 1 23
Poursuite-Amendment 2007-05-30 1 23
Poursuite-Amendment 2007-07-03 1 85
Poursuite-Amendment 2007-10-05 5 228
Poursuite-Amendment 2007-11-01 14 534
Poursuite-Amendment 2008-01-09 1 54
Correspondance 2008-05-05 1 89
Poursuite-Amendment 2008-07-14 3 60
Correspondance 2008-08-28 1 25
Correspondance 2010-03-30 1 41
Correspondance 2009-06-30 1 53
Correspondance 2009-11-09 1 93
Correspondance 2010-06-29 2 97